FoS - C Final Exam

studied byStudied by 4 People
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

formula for percent error

1/105

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

New cards
105
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
105 Terms
New cards

formula for percent error

|measured - accepted| / accepted x 100 = percent error

New cards
New cards

why would the graduated cylinder be a better tool to measure 43.8 mL of liquid

the graduations are closer together letting you have a more precise answer. The more graduations, means more significant figures

New cards
New cards

what does an Erlenmeyer flask look like. Function?

sloped sides. used for holding and mixing liquids

New cards
New cards

what are significant figures

all the certain digits and one uncertain digit

New cards
New cards

units and tool to measure mass

grams; electronic balance

New cards
New cards

units and tools to measure length

feet; ruler

New cards
New cards

units and tools to measure temperature

degrees C and a thermometer

New cards
New cards

precise vs accurate

precise is how specific you can make an answer vs accurate is how correct the answer is

New cards
New cards

Bohr contributions and experiments

emission spectra of various elements to conclude that the electrons go around the nucleus in circular orbits

New cards
New cards

Rutherford contributions and experiments

shot alpha particles at a gold sheet; concluded that there is a dense positively charged nucleus with empty place

New cards
New cards

Thomson contributions and experiments

cathode ray; concluded that there is a subatomic particle called the electron

New cards
New cards

who created the periodic table of elements and how was it organized

Dimitri Mendeleev organized it by atomic mass and common characteristics

New cards
New cards

group 1

alkali metals

New cards
New cards

group 2

alkaline earth metals

New cards
New cards

groups 3-12

transitions

New cards
New cards

group 17

halogens

New cards
New cards

group 18

noble gases

New cards
New cards

same groups have what in common

same # valence electrons and common characteristics

New cards
New cards

same periods have in common

valence electrons are on the same principle energy level

New cards
New cards

3 subatonic particles and their mass, charge, and location

proton- 1.0073 amu; +; nucleus

neutron- 1.0087 amu; 0; nucleus

electron- 5.5 x 10^-4 or 1/2000 of a proton

New cards
New cards

nuclear notation

mass # (protons and neutrons)/ atomic # (protons) then followed by element

New cards
New cards

difference between isotopes

they have a different number of neutrons. radioactive isotopes have the wrong number of neutrons that make the nucleus unstable

New cards
New cards

how does an element become stable ( low potenial energy level )

it fulfills the octet rule and fills its outer shell with a full set of valence electrons

New cards
New cards

covalent compound characteristics

low melting point, poor conductor of electricity

New cards
New cards

metallic bond characteristics

ductile, good conductor of electricity, malleable

New cards
New cards

ionic compound characteristics

high melting point, dissolves in water

New cards
New cards

relationship between the strength of an intermolecular force and it's melting point

high melting point = stronger bond

New cards
New cards

6 ways to identify a chemical change

gas; color; light; temperature; precipitate; odor

New cards
New cards

energy released or absorbed when bonds are broken?

absorbed

New cards
New cards

energy released or absorbed when bonds are formed

released

New cards
New cards

when the enthalpy of reaction is negative, what type of reaction would it be

exothermic because more energy was released when forming bond than energy absorbed to break the bond

New cards
New cards

how many electrons are shared in a double bond

4 electrons

New cards
New cards

molar mass

the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance

New cards
New cards

to find the mass of a certain amount of mol of a substance (equation)

amount of mole x molar mass (4.66 mol x 52.03g= 242.46 g/mol)

New cards
New cards

from mol to particle (equation)

1mole/molar mass x 6.022x10^23 (1 mol/52.03g x 6.022x10^23= g/mol)

New cards
New cards

Intermolecular vs Intramolecular

intermolecular- between molecules

intramolecular- within the molecules and between atoms

New cards
New cards

change in energy in photosynthesis

light (sun) >>> chemical potential energy

New cards
New cards

change in energy in cellular respiration

chemical potential energy >>> kinetic, heat, and potential energy

New cards
New cards

change in energy in combustion of fossil fueled to move a car

chemical potential (fossil fuels)>>> heat and kinetic energy

New cards
New cards

fossil fuels vs nuclear power in generating electricity

fossil fuels- combustion; chemical reaction occurs; chemical change; produces greenhouse gases

nuclear power- nuclear fission; radioactive waste; no greenhouse gases; no chemical reaction

New cards
New cards

what is energy

the ability to do work

New cards
New cards

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed

New cards
New cards

in photosynthesis what happens to the energy from the sun?

it is used to split the water molecule and stored as chemical potential energy

New cards
New cards

what are coefficients

numbers infront of the reactants and products used to balance equations. tell us the number of particles of the substance. can be interpreted as moles of particles or # of particles

New cards
New cards

difference between chemical and physical change

chemical- in the intramolecular bonds and forms a new product

physical- intermolecular and does not change chemical formula

New cards
New cards

what type of bond is the strongest (single, double, triple)

triple bonds

New cards
New cards

why do atoms form bonds

they form bonds to fill their outs shell and have a lower potential energy

New cards
New cards

which part of the atom participates in chemical bonding

valence electrons

New cards
New cards

chemical equation fro photosynthesis

6H2O+ 6CO2 >>>C6H12O6+ 6O2

New cards
New cards

is photosynthesis exothermic or endothermic

endothermic

New cards
New cards

difference between nonpolar and polar covalent bonds

nonpolar covalent is balanced and polar covalent is not. their difference in their electronegativity

New cards
New cards

metallic bond

sharing of delocalized electrons

New cards
New cards

three properties of metals

malleability, ductility, and conductivity

New cards
New cards

what is electronegativity

indicates relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond

New cards
New cards

what is the general structure of the atom

positive dense nucleus that contains neutrons and protons, empty space, orbitals that contain electrons

New cards
New cards

atomic number

number of protons identifies element

New cards
New cards

atomic mass

number of protons + neutrons

New cards
New cards

the average atomic is the

weighted average

New cards
New cards

metals and nonmetals form

ionic bonds

New cards
New cards

metals are likely to form (ion)

cation

New cards
New cards

nonmetals are likely to form (ion)

anion

New cards
New cards

difference between a nuclear and chemical change

chemical- happens with the valence electrons and form a new substance

nuclear- nucleus changes, element changes

New cards
New cards

what is half-life

the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive isotope to decay

New cards
New cards

what part of the nuclear power plant controls the rate of fission and absorbs extra neutrons

control rod

New cards
New cards

what part of the nuclear power plant contains fissionable uranium material

reactor core

New cards
New cards

what part of the nuclear power plant turns mechanical force into electricity

generator

New cards
New cards

what part of the nuclear power plant spins when pushed by steam

turbine

New cards
New cards

democritus conclusion

matter is made of an indestructible particle called an atom

New cards
New cards

john dalton contributions

atomic theory

New cards
New cards

atomic theory

-everything is made of an indestructible part called an atom

-elements have the same atom

-atoms don't get destroyed or created in a chemical reaction

-combine together to make compounds

New cards
New cards

what was Thomson's model of the atom called

plum pudding

New cards
New cards

quantum mechanical model

atom is a wave, electrons are in orbitals, different sizes ans shapes for the orbitals

New cards
New cards

in the quantum mechanical theory, as the principle energy level get bigger...

-oribtals gets larger

-electrons spends more time away from the nucleus

-electrons are less tightly bound to the nucleus

New cards
New cards

three types of nuclear reactions

radioactive decay; nuclear fission; nuclear fusion

New cards
New cards

radioactive decay

an unstable nucleus decays or emits a particle

New cards
New cards

nuclear fission

an unstable nucleus breaks up into smaller parts when hit with a nucleus

New cards
New cards

nuclear fusion

small nuclei combine to form a bigger nucleus

New cards
New cards

radiation

energy and particles that are emitted by radioactive atoms

New cards
New cards

types of radiation

  • -x rays - energy

  • gamma rays - energy

  • alpha particles - particles, have mass

  • beta particles - particles, have mass

New cards
New cards

nuclear energy

energy released from nuclear reactions

New cards
New cards

when do nuclear reactions occur

when the nuclei of atoms is changed through a reaction

New cards
New cards

where is nuclear energy stored

inside the atom, instead of in the bonds

New cards
New cards

isotopes

atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons

New cards
New cards

atoms

the basic unit of matter

New cards