FoS - C Final Exam

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formula for percent error

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Chemistry

9th

105 Terms

1

formula for percent error

|measured - accepted| / accepted x 100 = percent error

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2

why would the graduated cylinder be a better tool to measure 43.8 mL of liquid

the graduations are closer together letting you have a more precise answer. The more graduations, means more significant figures

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3

what does an Erlenmeyer flask look like. Function?

sloped sides. used for holding and mixing liquids

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4

what are significant figures

all the certain digits and one uncertain digit

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5

units and tool to measure mass

grams; electronic balance

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6

units and tools to measure length

feet; ruler

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7

units and tools to measure temperature

degrees C and a thermometer

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8

precise vs accurate

precise is how specific you can make an answer vs accurate is how correct the answer is

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9

Bohr contributions and experiments

emission spectra of various elements to conclude that the electrons go around the nucleus in circular orbits

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10

Rutherford contributions and experiments

shot alpha particles at a gold sheet; concluded that there is a dense positively charged nucleus with empty place

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11

Thomson contributions and experiments

cathode ray; concluded that there is a subatomic particle called the electron

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12

who created the periodic table of elements and how was it organized

Dimitri Mendeleev organized it by atomic mass and common characteristics

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13

group 1

alkali metals

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14

group 2

alkaline earth metals

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15

groups 3-12

transitions

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16

group 17

halogens

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17

group 18

noble gases

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18

same groups have what in common

same # valence electrons and common characteristics

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19

same periods have in common

valence electrons are on the same principle energy level

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20

3 subatonic particles and their mass, charge, and location

proton- 1.0073 amu; +; nucleus

neutron- 1.0087 amu; 0; nucleus

electron- 5.5 x 10^-4 or 1/2000 of a proton

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21

nuclear notation

mass # (protons and neutrons)/ atomic # (protons) then followed by element

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22

difference between isotopes

they have a different number of neutrons. radioactive isotopes have the wrong number of neutrons that make the nucleus unstable

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23

how does an element become stable ( low potenial energy level )

it fulfills the octet rule and fills its outer shell with a full set of valence electrons

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24

covalent compound characteristics

low melting point, poor conductor of electricity

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25

metallic bond characteristics

ductile, good conductor of electricity, malleable

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26

ionic compound characteristics

high melting point, dissolves in water

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27

relationship between the strength of an intermolecular force and it's melting point

high melting point = stronger bond

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28

6 ways to identify a chemical change

gas; color; light; temperature; precipitate; odor

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29

energy released or absorbed when bonds are broken?

absorbed

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30

energy released or absorbed when bonds are formed

released

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31

when the enthalpy of reaction is negative, what type of reaction would it be

exothermic because more energy was released when forming bond than energy absorbed to break the bond

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32

how many electrons are shared in a double bond

4 electrons

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33

molar mass

the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance

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34

to find the mass of a certain amount of mol of a substance (equation)

amount of mole x molar mass (4.66 mol x 52.03g= 242.46 g/mol)

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35

from mol to particle (equation)

1mole/molar mass x 6.022x10^23 (1 mol/52.03g x 6.022x10^23= g/mol)

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36

Intermolecular vs Intramolecular

intermolecular- between molecules

intramolecular- within the molecules and between atoms

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37

change in energy in photosynthesis

light (sun) >>> chemical potential energy

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38

change in energy in cellular respiration

chemical potential energy >>> kinetic, heat, and potential energy

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39

change in energy in combustion of fossil fueled to move a car

chemical potential (fossil fuels)>>> heat and kinetic energy

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40

fossil fuels vs nuclear power in generating electricity

fossil fuels- combustion; chemical reaction occurs; chemical change; produces greenhouse gases

nuclear power- nuclear fission; radioactive waste; no greenhouse gases; no chemical reaction

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41

what is energy

the ability to do work

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42

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed

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43

in photosynthesis what happens to the energy from the sun?

it is used to split the water molecule and stored as chemical potential energy

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44

what are coefficients

numbers infront of the reactants and products used to balance equations. tell us the number of particles of the substance. can be interpreted as moles of particles or # of particles

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45

difference between chemical and physical change

chemical- in the intramolecular bonds and forms a new product

physical- intermolecular and does not change chemical formula

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46

what type of bond is the strongest (single, double, triple)

triple bonds

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47

why do atoms form bonds

they form bonds to fill their outs shell and have a lower potential energy

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48

which part of the atom participates in chemical bonding

valence electrons

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49

chemical equation fro photosynthesis

6H2O+ 6CO2 >>>C6H12O6+ 6O2

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50

is photosynthesis exothermic or endothermic

endothermic

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51

difference between nonpolar and polar covalent bonds

nonpolar covalent is balanced and polar covalent is not. their difference in their electronegativity

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52

metallic bond

sharing of delocalized electrons

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53

three properties of metals

malleability, ductility, and conductivity

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54

what is electronegativity

indicates relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond

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55

what is the general structure of the atom

positive dense nucleus that contains neutrons and protons, empty space, orbitals that contain electrons

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56

atomic number

number of protons identifies element

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57

atomic mass

number of protons + neutrons

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58

the average atomic is the

weighted average

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59

metals and nonmetals form

ionic bonds

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60

metals are likely to form (ion)

cation

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61

nonmetals are likely to form (ion)

anion

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62

difference between a nuclear and chemical change

chemical- happens with the valence electrons and form a new substance

nuclear- nucleus changes, element changes

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63

what is half-life

the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive isotope to decay

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64

what part of the nuclear power plant controls the rate of fission and absorbs extra neutrons

control rod

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65

what part of the nuclear power plant contains fissionable uranium material

reactor core

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66

what part of the nuclear power plant turns mechanical force into electricity

generator

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67

what part of the nuclear power plant spins when pushed by steam

turbine

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68

democritus conclusion

matter is made of an indestructible particle called an atom

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69

john dalton contributions

atomic theory

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70

atomic theory

-everything is made of an indestructible part called an atom

-elements have the same atom

-atoms don't get destroyed or created in a chemical reaction

-combine together to make compounds

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71

what was Thomson's model of the atom called

plum pudding

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72

quantum mechanical model

atom is a wave, electrons are in orbitals, different sizes ans shapes for the orbitals

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73

in the quantum mechanical theory, as the principle energy level get bigger...

-oribtals gets larger

-electrons spends more time away from the nucleus

-electrons are less tightly bound to the nucleus

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74

three types of nuclear reactions

radioactive decay; nuclear fission; nuclear fusion

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75

radioactive decay

an unstable nucleus decays or emits a particle

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76

nuclear fission

an unstable nucleus breaks up into smaller parts when hit with a nucleus

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77

nuclear fusion

small nuclei combine to form a bigger nucleus

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78

radiation

energy and particles that are emitted by radioactive atoms

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79

types of radiation

  • -x rays - energy

  • gamma rays - energy

  • alpha particles - particles, have mass

  • beta particles - particles, have mass

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80

nuclear energy

energy released from nuclear reactions

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81

when do nuclear reactions occur

when the nuclei of atoms is changed through a reaction

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82

where is nuclear energy stored

inside the atom, instead of in the bonds

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83

isotopes

atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons

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84

atoms

the basic unit of matter

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85

why was Dimirti Mendeleev's periodic table unique

he was able to predict the properties of unkown elements

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86

how is the modern periodic table organized by

atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring properties

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87

electron configuration

arrangement of electrons in an atom

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88

what does the electron dot diagram show

show the element with its valence electrons

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89

octet rule

atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of valence electrons

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90

chemical formula

tells us the number of atoms each element that are bonded to make a compound

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91

ionic bond is made up of

cation and anion

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92

how is an ionic compound held together

electrostatic force (opposites attract)

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93

what does bonding do the the atom (energy)

lowers the potential energy of the atom

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94

cations are ( + or -) ions

  • postitive

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95

anions are ( + or -) ions

  • negative

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96

types of energy

chemical potential energy

light energy

sound energy

electrical energy

mechanical energy

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97

what is the sun powered by

fusion of hydrogen atoms

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98

what is a mole

a mole is a unit used to measure the amount of atoms, molecules, ions etc.

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99

avogadros number

6.022 x 10 ^23

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100

king henry died by drinking chocolate milk

king - kilo

henry - hecto

died - deka

by - base

drinking - deci

chocolate - centi

milk - milli

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