psych chapter 8

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human development

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144 Terms

1

human development

the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death.

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longitudinal design

research design in which one participant or group of precipitants is studied over a long period of time.

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cross sectional design

research design in which several different participants age-groups are studied at one particular point in time.

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cross sequential design

research design in which participants are first studied by means of cross-sectional design but are also followed and assessed longitudinally.

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cohort effect

the impact on developmental occurring when a group of people share a common time period or common life experiences.

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nature

the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth and social interactions.

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nurture

the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth and social interactions.

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genetics

the science of inherited traits

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9

DNA

special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism

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10

gene

section of the DNA having the same arrangement of chemical element

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chromosomes

tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA

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12

dominant

referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait.

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recessive

referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical trait.

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Genetic disorder

PKU, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay Sachs disease

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chromosomes disorder

down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, turner syndrome

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Down syndrome

3 chromosomes, extra one.

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Klinefelter syndrome

2 X and a Y. most males might not know they have it.

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Tuner syndrome

Missing or incomplete X

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19

ovum

the female sex cell or egg

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sperm

the male sex cell

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21

fertilization

the union of the ovum and sperm

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22

zygote

cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm

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monozygotic twins

identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, which each develops to an embryo.

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dizygotic twins

often called fraternal twins occurring when two individuals’ eggs get fertilized by separate sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.

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Bioethics

the study of ethical and moral issues brough about by new advances in biology and medicine

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Germinal period

first 2 weeks after fertilization, where the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining.

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embryo

name of the developing organism from 2 weeks to 8 weeks after fertilization

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embryonic period

the period from 2 weeks to 8 weeks after fertilization, where most organs and structures of the organism develop.

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critical periods

times during which certain environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant.

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teratogen

an y factor that can cause a birth defect.

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fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs)

a group of possible conditions caused by a mothers consuming alcohol during pregnancy in which a combination of physical, mental and behavioral may be present.

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fatal period

8 weeks to birth

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fetus

name of the developing organism from 8 weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby. organs continue to develop and become fully functional. miscarriage most likely to happen.

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physical development

immediately after birth, body system starts to function ( respiratory, circulatory, temperature regulation, digestive.)

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sensory development

touch, taste and smell are developing. hearing is functional yet not fully developed. visual least developed.

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motor development

related to many factors like nutrition and care and health. birth to 2 years period of rapid development.

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37

cognitive development

the development of thinking, problem solving and memory.

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38

schema

a mental concept or framework that guides organization and interpretation of information, which forms and evolves through experiences with objects and events.

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39

Pigest’s theory

suggests children from mental concepts or schemas as they experience new situation and events.

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40

sensorimotor stage

Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with the objects in the environment. Birth to 2 years

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41

object permanence

the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight.

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42

preoperational stage

Piaget’s second stage thought in which language becomes a tool of exploration of the world. 2-7 years.

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43

egocentrism

the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eye.

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44

centration

the tendency of a young child to focus only one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features.

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conservation

the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object’s nature.

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irreversibility

the inability of the young child to mental reverse an action according to piaget’s theory

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concrete operations stage

Piaget’s third stage of cognitive development, in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking. 7-12 years

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48

formal operations stage

Piaget’s last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking. 12 years and above.

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scaffolding

process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable.

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zone of proximal development (ZPD)

Vygotsky’s concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher.

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Austin spectrum development

Neurodevelopmental disorder that involves issues in thinking, feeling, language and social interactions

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psychological development

involved development of personality, relationships, and a sense of being male or female; process begins in infancy and continues into adulthood.

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Temperament

the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as “easy,” “difficult,” and “slow to warm up;” the enduring characteristics with which each person is born

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attachment

the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver

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55

Erickson’s theory

suggests development occurs in a series of eight stages.

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56

self-concept

the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important significant people in one’s life

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adolescence

the period of life from about age 13 to the early 20s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult.

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physical development of adolescent

increase in height and change in both primary and secondary sex characteristics.

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puberty

the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak.

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personal fable

type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm

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imaginary audience

type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent’s thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are.

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preconventional morality

very young children, molarity of an action based on the consequences, actions that get rewarded are right and those that earn punishment are wrong.

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conventional morality

older children and adolescents, An action is morally right if it conforms to the rules of the society and wrong if it does not.

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postconventional morality

about 1/5 of the adult population, morality is now determined by the experiences and judgment of the person, even if that judgment disagrees with society’s rules.

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identity vs role confusion

stage of personality development in which the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self.

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66

emerging adulthood

a time from late adolescence through the 20s referring to those who are childless, do not live in their own home and are not earning enough money to be independent, mainly found in developed countries.

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menopause

the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman’s reproductive capability

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andropause

gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of middle-aged males

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intimacy

an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self

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70

generativity

an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self

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71

authoritarian parenting

style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child.

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permissive parenting

style of parenting in which parents makes few, if nay demands on a child’s behavior.

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permissive neglectful

permissive parenting in which parent is uninvolved with child or child’s behavior.

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permissive indulgent

permissive parenting in which parent is so involved that children are allowed to behave without set limits.

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75

authoritative parenting

style of parenting in which parent combines warmth and affection with firm limits on a child’s behavior.

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ego integrity

sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life possessing the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego.

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77

cellular -clock theory

theory of aging, cells are limited in the number of times they can reproduce to repair damage.

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78

wear and tear theory

aging theory, the body’s organs and cell tissues simply wear out with repeated use and abuse.

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79

free-radical theory

latest version of the wear and tear theory.

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80

activity theory

theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby.

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81

stages of death

denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.

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