ch 21: pharmacology

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drugs

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Tags and Description

143 Terms

1

drugs

substances used to prevent or treat a condition or disease that are obtained from various sources such as plants, animals, or synthesized in a lab

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2

vitamins

come from plant or animal sources and are contained in foods

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3

pharmacist

individual who is responsible for preparing and dispensing drugs; responsible for consulting with and advising licensed practitioners about drugs; answer questions from the patient about their prescription; pharmacy degree takes 6-7 years

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4

pharmacy

where a pharmacist prepares and dispenses drugs

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5

prescription

a written order from a physician that is the only way a pharmacist can dispense a prescription medication

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6

pharmacy technician

can help licensed pharmacists by providing medications and other products to the patient

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7

pharmacology

the study of the discovery, properties, uses, and actions of drugs; can be an MD or a PhD

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8

chemotherapy

study of drugs that destroy microorganisms, parasites, or malignant cells within the body; treatment of choice for infectious diseases and cancer

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9

toxicology

study of harmful effects of drugs and chemicals on the body

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10

toxicologist

interested in finding antidotes that are appropriate for specific harmful effects of drugs

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11

antidote

neutralizes the effects of a drug

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12

three types of names a drug can have

chemical name, generic name, brand name

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13

chemical name

specifies the exact chemical formula of the drug; often very long and complicated

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14

generic name

shorter and less complicated; identifies the drug legally and scientifically; cannot become public property until after 17 years and after that other drug companies can use the general name; only one generic name for each drug; not normal to be capitalized

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15

brand name

trademark, private property of the individual drug manufacturer, no competitor may use it; has a superscript R with a circle around it to show it has been registered as a brand name; drugs can have several of these; normal to be capitalized

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16

when a specific brand name is ordered by a physician on a prescription

must be dispensed by the pharmacist and the pharmacist cannot substitute something else for that brand name

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17

food and drug administration

the entity in the US that has the legal responsibility for deciding whether a drug may be sold; have strict standards and look at all kinds of criteria in regards to the efficacy of drugs; involves extensive experimental testing in animals and people before it would be approved as a drug to be placed on the market to treat anything

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18

united states pharmacopeia

independent committee of physicians, pharmacologists, pharmacists, and manufacturers that reviews the available commercial drugs and continually reappraises their effectiveness

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19

three important standards for the united states pharmacopeia

drug must be safe; drug must be clinically useful (effective for patients); drugs must be available in pure form (made by good manufacturing methods)

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20

if a drug has USP after its name

means that it has met all of the standards of the pharmacopeia

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21

hospital formulary

the most complete and up-to-date listing which gives information about the characteristics of drugs and their clinical usage (application to patient care) as approved by that particular hospital

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22

physicians' desk reference

published by a private form; drug manufacturers pay to have their products listed; useful reference with several different indices to identify drugs, along with complete description of the drug properties and approved indications; gives precautions, warnings about side effects, and information about the recommended dosage and administration of each drug

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23

oral administration

most common, indicates that drugs are given by mouth and are slowly absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach or intestinal wall; takes a long time to be absorbed into the blood stream because it has to go through the mouth, stomach, and then intestinal wall; has to go through the entire digestive system process before it is absorbed

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24

sublingual administration

drugs are placed under the tongue and dissolve in the saliva; rapid absorption

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25

nitroglycerin is administered

sublingual for immediate relief for angina

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26

rectal administration

administering drugs through a suppository (cone shaped object containing drugs) or aqueous solution; given when oral administration presents, such as if patient is nauseated and vomiting

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27

parenteral administration

process of injection of a drug using a syringe through a hollow needle placed under the skin into a muscle, vein, or body cavity

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28

intracavitary instillation

injection made into a body cavity, such as the peritoneal or pleural cavity; where you would want the drug to effect change in that particular body cavity

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29

intradermal injection

shallow injection that is made into the upper layers of the skin; used chiefly in skin testing for allergic reactions

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30

subcutaneous (hypodermic) injection (subQ)

a small hypodermic needle is introduced into the subcutaneous tissue under the skin, usually on upper arm, thigh or abdomen; insulin is injected daily via this route

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31

intramuscular injection

the buttocks or upper arm is the usually site for injection into muscle; used when drugs are irritating to the skin or when a large volume of solution must be administered

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32

intrathecal instillation

when instillation occurs in the space under the meninges surrounding the spinal cord and brain; way to introduce treatment for leukemia

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33

intravenous injection

when the injection is given directly into a vein; used when an immediate effect from the drug is desired or when the drug cannot be safely introduced into other tissues; requires some technical skill to make sure drug gets into the vein and doesn't leak into the surrounding tissues

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34

pumps

battery powered; can be used for continuous administration of drugs by the subcutaneous or intravenous route; automated

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35

inhalation

when vapors or gases are taken into the nose or mouth and are absorbed into the bloodstream through thin walls or air sacs in the lungs

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36

aerosols

particles of drug suspended in the air and are administered by inhalation, many are anesthetics

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37

topical application

when drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body; antiseptics, antipruritics, transdermal patches

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38

antiseptic

topically applied drug used to fight infection

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39

antipruritic

fight against itching and are commonly used as ointments, creams, and lotions that are applied to the skin

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40

transdermal patches

used to deliver drugs continuously through the skin such as estrogen for hormone replacement therapy, pain medications, nicotine for smoking cessation programs

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41

receptor

when a drug enters the body, target substance with which the drug interacts to produce its effects; may be on cell's surface or intracellular

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42

dose

refers to the amount of a drug administered, usually measured in milligrams or grams

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43

schedule

exact timing and frequency of drug administration

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44

additive action

when we have two similar drugs that are combined to equal the sum of the effects of each

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45

antagonist

if two drugs give less than an additive effect

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46

synergistic

if two drugs give greater than additive effects

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47

synergism

combination of two drugs sometimes can cause an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug given alone

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48

response

desired and beneficial effect of a drug

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49

tolerance

the effects of a given dose for some drugs diminish as the treatment continues, increasing amounts are needed to produce the same effect

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50

addiction

physical and psychological dependence on and craving for a drug and the presence of clearly unpleasant effects when that drug or other agents is withdrawn

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51

controlled substances

drugs that produce dependence and have potential for abuse or addiction

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52

idiosyncrasy

unpredictable type of drug toxicity; any unexpected and uncommon side effect that develops after administration of a drug

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53

anaphylaxis

occurs as a result of exposure to previously encountered drug or foreign substance

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54

iatrogenic

produced by treatment, so these disorders can occur as a result of mistakes in drug use or because of individual sensitivity to a given treatment

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55

side effects

toxic effects that routinely result from the use of a drug; often occur with the usually therapeutic dosage of a drug and generally are tolerable and reversible when the drug is discontinued

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56

contraindications

factors in a patient's condition that make the use of a drug dangerous and ill advised

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57

resistance

lack of beneficial response; seen when drugs that used to be effective are unable to control the disease process in a particular patient

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58

analgesics

drugs that lessen pain; painkiller; can be mild to moderate

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59

anesthetics

reduce or eliminate sensation

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60

general anesthetics

affect the entire body and put the patient to sleep and are used for surgical procedures to block the perception of pain

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61

local anesthetics

may be limited to a particular region that inhibit the conduction of pain impulses in sensory nerves in the region which they are injected or applied

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62

antibiotic

chemical substance produced by a microorganism that inhibits or kills bacteria, fungi, or parasites

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63

anticoagulants

precent clotting of blood; prevent formation of clots or break up clots in blood vessels in conditions such as thrombosis and embolism; heparin

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64

anticonvulsants

drugs that prevent or reduce the frequency of convulsions in various types of seizure disorders or epilepsy

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65

antidepressants

treat symptoms of depression; can elevate mood, increase physical activity and mental alertness, improve appetite and sleep patterns

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66

anti-alzheimer drugs

treat symptoms of alzheimer disease; act by aiding brain neurotransmitters or shielding brain cells from glutamate

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67

antidiabetics

used to treat diabetes mellitus

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68

antihistamines

drugs that block the action of histamine, normally released in the body in allergic reactions

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69

anti osteoporosis drugs

help prevent osteoporosis; calcium, vitamin D, estrogen prescribed to increase calcium deposition in bone

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70

osteoporosis

disorder marked by abnormal loss of bone density

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71

cardiovascular drugs

act on the heart or the blood vessels to treat hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias; would be used to treat any condition that effects the heart or the circulatory system

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72

endocrine drugs

act in the same manner as the naturally occurring (endogenous) hormones

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73

gastrointestinal drugs

used to relieve uncomfortable and potentially dangerous symptoms, rather than as cures for specific diseases

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74

respiratory drugs

prescribed for treatment of asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and bronchospasm

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75

sedative-hypnotics

medications that depress the central nervous system and promote drowsiness and sleep

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76

stimulants

drugs that act on the brain to speed up vital processes in cases of shock and collapse

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77

tranquillizer

useful for controlling anxiety; can be minor or major

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78

aer/o

air

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79

alges/o

sensitivity to pain

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80

bronch/o

bronchial tube

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81

chem/o

drug

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82

cras/o

mixture

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83

cutane/o

skin

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84

derm/o

skin

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85

erg/o

work

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86

esthes/o

feeling, sensation

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87

hist/o

tissue

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88

hypn/o

sleep

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89

iatr/o

treatment

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90

lingu/o

tongue

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91

myc/o

mold, fungus

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92

narc/o

stupor

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93

or/o

mouth

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94

pharmac/o

drug

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95

prurit/o

itching

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96

pyret/o

fever

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97

thec/o

sheath

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98

tox/o

poison

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99

toxic/o

poison

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100

vax/o

vessel

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