AVS 201 Exam #1

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Companion Animal

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245 Terms

1

Companion Animal

Provides emotional support, companionship, human-animal bond

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Companion Animal Species

Dogs, Cats, Birds, Rodents, Cattle, Goats,

Almost any species can be considered

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What factors should be considered before getting a companion animal?

Husbandry (care), Financial responsibility, time required, lifespan, allergies

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What makes an animal domesticated?

Having to rely on humans for essential things: Food, Water, Shelter/Protection, Healthcare, Reproduction

Humans control evolution of the species

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5

What was the first domesticated species?

Dog - approx 15,000 years ago

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Where was the the first animal domesticated?

Israel

China

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Historically, most important domesticated animal

Horse - Has been used for transportation, working, warfare, companion animals, entertainment

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Why did we start domesticating animals?

Meat, Milk, Hides, Work

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What were dogs first domesticated for vs What they are used for now?

Hunters, guarding, retrieval

non-working companion animals, therapeutic animals, working animals (guide, service, medical service)

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When and Where were cats domesticated?

Domesticated around 6,000 years ago in Egypt

High status symbol

Incarnation of Gods, treated like humans even in death

1st used as pest control

Very Indpendent

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Feral

Returned back to wild

Non-socialized to humans

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Historically famous Dogs

Balto

Buddy

Igloo

Laika

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Balto

Transported medication in massive snowstorm in Alaska

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Buddy

The first-seeing eye dog

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Igloo

Flew in plane over north and south poles

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Laika

First russian dog to go into space

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Pet Ownership Trends

Pets are on the rise in US

Cats and Fish are very popular

Most households have dogs

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2 Major costs of Owning a pet

Food

Healthcare

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Additional Costs of Owning a Pet

Toys, treats, apparel, kennel, training, fencing

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2 Major Economic Impacts of the Pet Industry

Veterinarians

Pet Food Industry

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Corporate Leaders

Hartz Mountain Corporation

Petco Animal Supplies Inc.

Petsmart Inc

Hill’s Prescription Diets

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Hartz Mountain Corporation

Founded in 1926

Founder: Max Stern

Bird import and packing products

Dog and cat supplies in 19600s

1500 Products today

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Petco Animal Supplies Inc

Founded in 1965

Animal Supply Store (Food, Supplies, Serve)

PETCO Love foundation (educational, charity, assists animal welfare groups)

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Petsmart Inc

Founded in 1987

Pet Supplies

Training classes, grooming salons, Vet offices

Adoption of Homeless Pets Program

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Hill’s Prescription Diets

Founded: Dr. Mark L. Morris Senior

Produces prescription diets for animals with chronic health issues

Originally home cooked and canned

Low Protein and salt

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Merial

#1 Animal healthcare Company Worldwide

Pharmaceuticals - Medications and Vaccines

Heartgard, Frontline Plus, Nexgard

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Bayer Corporation

Flea/Tick Prevention - K9 Advantage / Advantix

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Fort Dodge Company

Vaccines

Pharmaceuticals

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Other large Healthcare Companies

3M Animal Care Products

Abbott Laboratories

Activon Products

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30

James Spratt

Electrician who Invented Dog Cakes in 1860

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Dog Cakes

Invented by James Spratt

Created in 1860

2×7 Inch cake (Meat, Veggies, Wheat, flower, salt)

Meant to be primary food source

Production plant in Newart, NJ (1895)

Sold to General Mills in 1959

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Charles Cruft

First employee of Spratt in England

Major factor in advertisement

Expanded Spratt’s business

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How did Spratt and Cruft market their product?

Went to dog shows were wealthy commonly were

Advertises good looks, good health, promotes bulk buying, testimonies/reviews,

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Where do we still see Spratts and Cruft’s names today?

Weistminster Dog Show - Ties to Spratt

Cruft Dog Show - Ties to Cruft

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Harry T Wissler

Help boost sales of milk bones to food stores

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Dr. Leon Whitney

Geneticist and Nutritionist

Experimented with dogs that were fed with milk bones and without

Found that milk bones help with dental care, growth, lactation and lowers risks of disease ,

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37

Moisture content in Wet Food

70-80%

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Moisture content in Dry Food

10-12%

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Original meat source in canned foods

Horse

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What lead the industry away from canned food production?

World War 2 - Meat rations + metal needed to be used for war

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extruded food

Invented in 1954 by Dr,James E Corbin

Makes up 97% of dry pet food

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Extrusion Process

  1. Gather ingredients and cook them. Make food safe

  2. Shape into molds (Shape, smooth)

  3. Dehydrate - Remove bulk of moisture through drying

  4. Sprayed with some kind of fat- Increases palatability

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Organizations are involved in standards and quality assurance of Pet Food

National Academy of Sciences (NAS)

National Research Council (NRC)

Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN)

Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO)

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National Academy of Sciences (NAS)

Created in 1863

Help inform government in fields involving science and technology

Summarizing data

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National Research Council (NRC)

Created in 1916

Nutritional information via technological and scientific information/studies

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Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN)

Created in 1928

Input on nutrition of domestics species

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Association of American Fed Control Officials (AAFCO)

Takes input from NRC and creates policy

Most states adopt regulations / guidelines

Determines appropriate nutrition profiles

Ingredient definitions, min/max of essential nutrients, labeling requirements

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Information required on Food labels

Ingredient list

Nutrient profiles (how much fat, vitamins, minerals)

Feeding Instructions

Who the food is for

Company information

Expiration dates

Net Weight

Special treatment to ingredients

Storage instructions

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49

Natural Food

Everything in it needs to be natural (no preservatives, artificial coloring, flavors)

Added vitamins and minerals

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3 main requirements for acceptable food

Does it have all the required nutrients? Vitamins, minerals, fats, proteins

Palatability? Does it taste good?

Acceptability? Willing to eat, and willing to eat enough of it to get nutritionally fulfilled

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Common errors in feeding

Overfeeding or Underfeeding

Not feeding appropriate diet (lifestage, medically)

Quickly adjusting diet

Feeding wrong species food

Feeding homemade diets

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52

What are some ways companies market their pet food?

“All-natural”

“Limited ingredients”

“Grain-free”

“Tastiest, meatiest”

“Complete and balanced nutrition”

Bright colors

Happy dogs, smiling dogs

Picture of human food equivalent

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53

Importance of good nutrition

Key to a long, healthy life

Aids in different system functions (Immune function, vision, growth)

Toxicity or deficiency can lead to adverse health effects

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54

Reasons to adjust protein

Changes in life stage

Health conditions developing

Activity levels changing

Pregnant or lactating

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What component do pet diets often revolve around?

Meat-based ingredients

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How do you calculate the min/max of a nutrient?

Test different amounts and monitor until effects present themselves or go away from increasing or decreasing

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When do you feed a maintenance diet vs growth and repro?

Maintenance diet to maintain normal physiological function and normal nutrients (Healthy adults)

Growth and Repro diets - A young animal typically have higher nutrients content due to growing and developing. Pregnancy and lactating is very taxing on the body and requires more nutrients

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What happens if you feed a maintenance diet or growth and repro diet at the wrong time?

Underweight or overweight, nutrient deficiencies

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Maintenance Diet Nutrient requirements?

Crude protein - 18%

Crude fat - 5%'

Amino Acids: Arginine - 0.51% and Methionine - 0.33%

Minerals: Calcium - 0.6-2.5% and Iron 80mg/kg

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Growth/Repro diet requirements?

Crude Protein: 22%

Crude fat: 8.5%

Amino Acids: Arginine - 0.62% and Methionine 0.35%

Minerals: Calcium - 1.0-2.5% and Iron - 80mg/kg

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Mechanical breakdown

The breaking down complex to simple, usable components

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Where does mechanical breakdown take place?

Mouth

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How many teeth do cats have?

30 teeth

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How many teeth do dogs have?

42 teeth

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Cat Dental formula

I 3/3, C 1/1, P 2/3, M 1/1

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Dog dental formula

I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3

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Mucus-secreting cells

Goblet cells

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Chemical break down

Breakdown of food via gastric juices

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Where does chemical digestion occur?

Stomach

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Function of the stomach

To store and move food

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4 Gastric Juices

Hydrochloric acid

Pepsinogen

Mucus

Intrinsic factor

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What is food called when it exits the stomach?

Chyme

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Pancreatic secretions/enzymes

Bicarbonate

Amylase

Proteases

Lipases

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Small intestine

Much longer than large intestine, smaller diameter

Microvilli line walls

Most nutrient absorption

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Large intestine

Water absorption

Salt absorption

Undigested food takes 12 hours to pass

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Measure Palatability

Simultaneously offering different flavors

Gravitating towards certain food usually means tastes better

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Measure Acceptability

Give amount necessary to hit nutrients required and pet must be willing to eat entire volume

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What besides taste determines food preference?

Particle size

texture

odor

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3 Main feeding methods

Measured meals - Easier to detect health issues

Free Feeding -Could lead to obesity

Time Free Choice - Could lead to underweight/overweight

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6 Nutrient Classes

Water

Carbohydrates

Proteins

Lipids

Vitamins

minerals

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3 Ways to get water in the system

Drinking it

Through food

Absorption

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Functions of water?

Transport nutrients

Thermoregulation

Eliminate waste

Joint fluid

Biochemical reactions

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Function of Carbohydrates

Main source of energy

Aids in metabolism of other nutrients

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Different forms of Carbs

Monosaccharides - Simplest form

Disaccharides

Oligosaccharides

Polysaccharides - Most complex

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Monosaccharide

Glucose

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Disaccharides

Lactase and Sucrose

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Oligosaccharides

Raffinose

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Polysaccharides

Starch and Fiber

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Why do young animals have lots of lactase?

Usually drinking mother’s milk and need to break down lactose

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Where do most carbs in pet foods come from?

Plant polysaccharides

Starch

Fiber

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Function of fats (lipids)

Concentrated energy

Enhances taste and palatability in food products

Essential fatty acids

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Classification of Fat

Based on size and number of bonds

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No double bonds

Saturated fats

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Double Bonds

Unsaturated Fats (mony vs poly)

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Oils

Liquid at Room temperature

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Fats

Solid at room temperature

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What fatty acids can dogs/cats NOT make?

Omega 3

6 Fatty acids - Need to be supplemented through fish oil

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Structural and Functional roles of Proteins

Growth

Tissue and cellular repair

Enzymes

Hormones

Antibodies

Carrier Proteins

Energy

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99

10 essential amino acids

Phenylalanine

Valine

Theronine

Methionine

Arginine

Tryptophan

Histidine

Isoleucine

Leucine

Lysine

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100

Essential Amino Acid

Cannot be synthesize on its own and needs to be supplemented in diet

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