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Provides emotional support, companionship, human-animal bond
Companion Animal Species
Dogs, Cats, Birds, Rodents, Cattle, Goats,
Almost any species can be considered
What factors should be considered before getting a companion animal?
Husbandry (care), Financial responsibility, time required, lifespan, allergies
What makes an animal domesticated?
Having to rely on humans for essential things: Food, Water, Shelter/Protection, Healthcare, Reproduction
Humans control evolution of the species
What was the first domesticated species?
Dog - approx 15,000 years ago
Where was the the first animal domesticated?
Historically, most important domesticated animal
Horse - Has been used for transportation, working, warfare, companion animals, entertainment
Why did we start domesticating animals?
Meat, Milk, Hides, Work
What were dogs first domesticated for vs What they are used for now?
Hunters, guarding, retrieval
non-working companion animals, therapeutic animals, working animals (guide, service, medical service)
When and Where were cats domesticated?
Domesticated around 6,000 years ago in Egypt
High status symbol
Incarnation of Gods, treated like humans even in death
1st used as pest control
Returned back to wild
Non-socialized to humans
Historically famous Dogs
Transported medication in massive snowstorm in Alaska
The first-seeing eye dog
Flew in plane over north and south poles
First russian dog to go into space
Pet Ownership Trends
Pets are on the rise in US
Cats and Fish are very popular
Most households have dogs
2 Major costs of Owning a pet
Additional Costs of Owning a Pet
Toys, treats, apparel, kennel, training, fencing
2 Major Economic Impacts of the Pet Industry
Pet Food Industry
Hartz Mountain Corporation
Petco Animal Supplies Inc.
Hill’s Prescription Diets
Founded in 1926
Founder: Max Stern
Bird import and packing products
Dog and cat supplies in 19600s
1500 Products today
Petco Animal Supplies Inc
Founded in 1965
Animal Supply Store (Food, Supplies, Serve)
PETCO Love foundation (educational, charity, assists animal welfare groups)
Founded in 1987
Training classes, grooming salons, Vet offices
Adoption of Homeless Pets Program
Hill’s Prescription Diets
Founded: Dr. Mark L. Morris Senior
Produces prescription diets for animals with chronic health issues
Originally home cooked and canned
Low Protein and salt
#1 Animal healthcare Company Worldwide
Pharmaceuticals - Medications and Vaccines
Heartgard, Frontline Plus, Nexgard
Flea/Tick Prevention - K9 Advantage / Advantix
Fort Dodge Company
Other large Healthcare Companies
3M Animal Care Products
Electrician who Invented Dog Cakes in 1860
Invented by James Spratt
Created in 1860
2×7 Inch cake (Meat, Veggies, Wheat, flower, salt)
Meant to be primary food source
Production plant in Newart, NJ (1895)
Sold to General Mills in 1959
First employee of Spratt in England
Major factor in advertisement
Expanded Spratt’s business
How did Spratt and Cruft market their product?
Went to dog shows were wealthy commonly were
Advertises good looks, good health, promotes bulk buying, testimonies/reviews,
Where do we still see Spratts and Cruft’s names today?
Weistminster Dog Show - Ties to Spratt
Cruft Dog Show - Ties to Cruft
Harry T Wissler
Help boost sales of milk bones to food stores
Dr. Leon Whitney
Geneticist and Nutritionist
Experimented with dogs that were fed with milk bones and without
Found that milk bones help with dental care, growth, lactation and lowers risks of disease ,
Moisture content in Wet Food
Moisture content in Dry Food
Original meat source in canned foods
What lead the industry away from canned food production?
World War 2 - Meat rations + metal needed to be used for war
Invented in 1954 by Dr,James E Corbin
Makes up 97% of dry pet food
Gather ingredients and cook them. Make food safe
Shape into molds (Shape, smooth)
Dehydrate - Remove bulk of moisture through drying
Sprayed with some kind of fat- Increases palatability
Organizations are involved in standards and quality assurance of Pet Food
National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
National Research Council (NRC)
Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN)
Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO)
Created in 1863
Help inform government in fields involving science and technology
Created in 1916
Nutritional information via technological and scientific information/studies
Created in 1928
Input on nutrition of domestics species
Association of American Fed Control Officials (AAFCO)
Takes input from NRC and creates policy
Most states adopt regulations / guidelines
Determines appropriate nutrition profiles
Ingredient definitions, min/max of essential nutrients, labeling requirements
Information required on Food labels
Nutrient profiles (how much fat, vitamins, minerals)
Who the food is for
Special treatment to ingredients
Everything in it needs to be natural (no preservatives, artificial coloring, flavors)
Added vitamins and minerals
3 main requirements for acceptable food
Does it have all the required nutrients? Vitamins, minerals, fats, proteins
Palatability? Does it taste good?
Acceptability? Willing to eat, and willing to eat enough of it to get nutritionally fulfilled
Common errors in feeding
Overfeeding or Underfeeding
Not feeding appropriate diet (lifestage, medically)
Quickly adjusting diet
Feeding wrong species food
Feeding homemade diets
What are some ways companies market their pet food?
“Complete and balanced nutrition”
Happy dogs, smiling dogs
Picture of human food equivalent
Importance of good nutrition
Key to a long, healthy life
Aids in different system functions (Immune function, vision, growth)
Toxicity or deficiency can lead to adverse health effects
Reasons to adjust protein
Changes in life stage
Health conditions developing
Activity levels changing
Pregnant or lactating
What component do pet diets often revolve around?
How do you calculate the min/max of a nutrient?
Test different amounts and monitor until effects present themselves or go away from increasing or decreasing
When do you feed a maintenance diet vs growth and repro?
Maintenance diet to maintain normal physiological function and normal nutrients (Healthy adults)
Growth and Repro diets - A young animal typically have higher nutrients content due to growing and developing. Pregnancy and lactating is very taxing on the body and requires more nutrients
What happens if you feed a maintenance diet or growth and repro diet at the wrong time?
Underweight or overweight, nutrient deficiencies
Maintenance Diet Nutrient requirements?
Crude protein - 18%
Crude fat - 5%'
Amino Acids: Arginine - 0.51% and Methionine - 0.33%
Minerals: Calcium - 0.6-2.5% and Iron 80mg/kg
Growth/Repro diet requirements?
Crude Protein: 22%
Crude fat: 8.5%
Amino Acids: Arginine - 0.62% and Methionine 0.35%
Minerals: Calcium - 1.0-2.5% and Iron - 80mg/kg
The breaking down complex to simple, usable components
Where does mechanical breakdown take place?
How many teeth do cats have?
How many teeth do dogs have?
Cat Dental formula
I 3/3, C 1/1, P 2/3, M 1/1
Dog dental formula
I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3
Chemical break down
Breakdown of food via gastric juices
Where does chemical digestion occur?
Function of the stomach
To store and move food
4 Gastric Juices
What is food called when it exits the stomach?
Much longer than large intestine, smaller diameter
Microvilli line walls
Most nutrient absorption
Undigested food takes 12 hours to pass
Simultaneously offering different flavors
Gravitating towards certain food usually means tastes better
Give amount necessary to hit nutrients required and pet must be willing to eat entire volume
What besides taste determines food preference?
3 Main feeding methods
Measured meals - Easier to detect health issues
Free Feeding -Could lead to obesity
Time Free Choice - Could lead to underweight/overweight
6 Nutrient Classes
3 Ways to get water in the system
Functions of water?
Function of Carbohydrates
Main source of energy
Aids in metabolism of other nutrients
Different forms of Carbs
Monosaccharides - Simplest form
Polysaccharides - Most complex