APES Review

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Anthropogenic

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341 Terms

1

Anthropogenic

derived from human activities

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2

Erosion

The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another

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3

Runoff

Part of the water cycle where an excess of water runs down and does not sink into the soil and eventually makes it to the rivers, lakes, and oceans.

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4

Denitrification

process in which fixed nitrogen compounds are converted back into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere

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5

Nitrification

ammonia (NH3) is converted to nitrate ions (NO3)-

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6

Amonification

the part of the decomposition process where nitrogen in inorganic molecules reaction acids and nucleotides is converted to ammonium

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7

Nitrogen Fixation

Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia

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8

Abiotic

Non-living things

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9

Biotic

Describes living factors in the environment.

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10

keystone species

a species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if it were removed the ecosystem would change drastically.

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11

primary consumer

An organism that eats producers

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12

secondary consumer

A carnivore that eats primary consumers

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13

tertiary consumer

A carnivore that eats secondary consumers

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14

Biodiversity

The amount of biological or living diversity per unit area. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity.

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15

Divergent plates

Two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other

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16

convergent plates

tectonic plates that collide with each other

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17

Transform Plates

Plates that are moving past each other (rubbing next to each other) in opposite directions

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18

primary succession

succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists

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19

secondary succession

Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil

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20

logistic growth

Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth

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21

logistic growth model

describes a population whose growth is initially exponential, but slows as the population approaches the carrying capacity of the environment

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22

exponential growth

Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.

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23

exponential growth model

tells us that, under ideal conditions, the future size of the population depends on the current size of the population, the intrinsic rate of the population, and the amount of time over which the population grows

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24

intrinsic growth rate

the maximum potential for growth of a population under ideal conditions with unlimited resources

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25

K-selected species

Species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring but invest a great deal of time and energy to ensure that most of those offspring reach reproductive age.

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26

r-selected species

Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period.

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27

Generalists species

Species that can live in varying conditions

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28

Specialists species

Species with a narrow ecological niche. They may be able to live in only one type of habitat, tolerate only a narrow range of climatic and other environmental conditions, or use only one type or a few types of food.

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29

Fault

A break or crack in the earth's crust

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30

Microevolution

Change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.

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31

Macroevolution

Evolutionary change above the species level.

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32

Algal Bloom

an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient

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33

Limiting Nutrients

single essential nutrient that limits productivity in an ecosystem; Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium

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34

Hypoxic

low oxygen

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35

Amenia

deficiency of iron

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36

Externality

the impact of one person's actions on the well-being of a bystander

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37

Affluence

abundance; wealth

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38

Leaching

the transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater

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39

Resilience

the rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance

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40

Resistance

a measure of how much a disturbance can affect flows of energy and matter in an ecosystem

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41

Watershed

An ecosystem where all water runoff drains into a single body of water

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42

Generalists

a species with a broad niche that can tolerate a wide range of conditions and can use a variety of resources

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43

Specialists

species that have narrow niches

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44

R-selected

Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period.

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45

K-selected

Species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring but invest a great deal of time and energy to ensure that most of those offspring reach reproductive age.

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46

Tragedy of the Commons

the tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain

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47

Stakeholders

All the people who stand to gain or lose by the policies and activities of a business and whose concerns the business needs to address.

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48

Eutrophication

A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria.

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49

Mutualism

A relationship between two species in which both species benefit

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50

Commensalism

A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected

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51

Parasitism

A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed

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52

Predation

An interaction in which one organism kills another for food.

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53

Herbivory

interaction in which one animal (the herbivore) feeds on producers (such as plants)

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54

Carnivores

Consumers that eat only animals

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55

Omnivores

Consumers that eat both plants and animals.

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56

Detrivore

a scavenger, such as an earthworm, that feeds on dead plant and animal matter

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57

Herbivores

Consumers that eat only plants

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58

Decomposers

organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment

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59

trophic level

each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, comprising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy.

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60

How much energy is available/consumed at each trophic level

10%

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61

genetic drift

A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection.

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62

Founder Effect

genetic drift that occurs after a small number of individuals colonize a new area

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63

Bottleneck Effect

Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.

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64

Natural Selection

A natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment.

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65

Sexual Selection

Natural selection for mating success.

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66

intersexual selection

Selection whereby individuals of one sex (usually females) are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex; also called mate choice.

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67

intrasexual selection

competition among individuals of one sex (often males) for mates of the opposite sex

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68

sexual dimorphism

Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species.

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69

Soil Horizons

distinct layers of soil

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70

O horizon

the uppermost horizon of soil. It is primarily made up of organic material, including waste from organisms, the bodies of decomposing organisms, and live organisms.

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71

A horizon

topsoil

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72

E horizon

Zone of leaching: dissolved and suspended materials move downward. In-between A and B horizon.

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73

B horizon

A soil horizon composed primarily of mineral material with very little organic matter

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74

C horizon

The least-weathered soil horizon, which always occurs beneath the B horizon and is similar to the parent material.

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75

R horizon

The bedrock, which lies below all of the other layers of soil, is referred to as the R horizon.

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76

Atmosphere

the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.

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77

Troposphere

0-17 km above Earth's surface, site of weather, organisms, contains most atmospheric water vapor. (temperature decreases with increasing altitude, pressure decreases)

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78

Stratosphere

2nd layer of atmosphere; extends from 10 to 30 miles up; location of ozone layer; absorbs 95% of Ultraviolet radiation; temperature increases with altitude increase.

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79

Mesosphere

3rd layer of the atmosphere, above the stratosphere; most meteors, or space rocks and metal, burn up before they can crash to the ground

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80

Thermosphere

The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains the ionosphere

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81

fossil fuels

a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.

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82

nuclear fuel

substance used in nuclear reactors that releases energy due to nuclear fission

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83

subsistence energy sources

those gathered by individuals for their own use such as wood, charcoal, and animal waste

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84

Commercial energy sources

Those that are bought and sold, (coal, oil, wood, etc)

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85

Cogeneration

The use of a single fuel to generate electricity and to produce heat

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86

coal

A fossil fuel that forms underground from partially decomposed plant material

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87

petroleum

A fossil fuel that occurs in underground deposits, composed of a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, water, and sulfur

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88

crude oil

Liquid petroleum removed from the ground

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89

Natural gas

A gas with high methane content, found along with various fossil fuels and is used as a fuel.

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90

oil sands

Slow-flowing, viscous deposits of bitumen mixed with sand, water, and clay

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91

Bitumen

A degraded petroleum that forms when petroleum migrates to the surface of Earth and is modified by bacteria.

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92

CTL (coal to liquid)

The process of converting solid coal into liquid fuel

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93

Energy intensity

The energy use per unit of gross domestic product

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94

Hubbert curve

A bell-shaped curve representing oil use and projecting both when world oil production will reach a maximum and when we will run out of oil

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95

Peak Oil

The point at which half the total known oil supply is used up

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96

Fission

A nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy

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97

Radioactive waste

Nuclear fuel that can no longer produce enough heat to be useful in a power plant but continues to emit radioactivity

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98

Becquerel (Bq)

Unit that measures the rate at which a sample of radioactive material decays; 1 Bq = decay of 1 atom or nucleus per second.

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99

Curie

A unit of measure for radiation; 1 curie = 37 billion decays per second.

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100

Nuclear Fusion

A reaction that occurs when lighter nuclei are forced together to produce heavier nuclei

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