persuasion

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What is persuasion

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What is persuasion

the process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions.

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Benefits of studying persuasion

-the instrumental function

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(develop communication competence)

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-knowledge and awareness

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(overcome habitual persuasion)

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-the defensive function

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(third person effect)

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-the debunking function

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-well being and self worth

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third person effect

the assumption by most people that others are more prone to being influenced by persuasive messages (such as those in media campaigns) than they themselves are

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Persuasion vs. Propaganda

Persuasion-

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Propaganda- the dissertation of biased ideas and opinions often using lies and deception. has a specific agenda, institutional in nature.

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Pure persuasion means

all the ingredients for what most people would consider to be persuasion are present.

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borderline persuasion

Less clear-cut cases of influence. Example moving because someone smells bad

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dual process model of persuasion

a model that accounts for the two basic ways that attitude change occurs - with and without much thought

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Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

a model of persuasion maintaining that there are two different routes to persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route

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central route persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

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peripheral route persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness

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Heuristic Model of Persuasion

assumption that individuals rely on two different modes of information processing.

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systematic processing

Processing of information in a persuasive message that involves careful consideration of message content and ideas.

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heuristic persuasion

the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion. relies on mental shortcuts

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Unimodel of Persuasion

A single route to persuasion. simply more or less thought in messages

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examples of peripheral cues

-reciprocation: the reciever agrees with the message because of the internal drive to return the favor

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-consistency: using thoughts from the past

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-social proof: peer pressure

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-liking

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-authority

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-scarcity

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information processing theory

theory argues that to be persuaded, you must attend to and comprehend a persuasive message. then compare own position to the source

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Order of information processing

attention

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comprehension

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agreement

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retention

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decision making

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action

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Standardized self report scales

-Likert scales

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-Semantic differential scale

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(1) strongly agree, (2) agree, (3) neutral, (4), disagree, (5) strongly disagree

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Likert Scale

do you think snakes are the best pets?

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(1) strongly agree, (2) agree, (3) neutral, (4), disagree, (5) strongly disagree

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semantic differential scale

bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 good

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potent (strong-weak)

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activity (active-passive)

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scale uses bipolar adjective pairs to measure attitudes?

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criticism of attitude scales

social desirability- people will want to show the most positive qualities

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-dont want to appear unintelligent

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-agree with any statement (acquiescence bias)

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Theory of Reasoned Action

Assumes that people are rational decision makers who make use of all the information available to them.

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-Intentions are the best guide to their behavior

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subjective norm component.

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Ask to make a plan to walk more, 20 minutes a day

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subjective norms

an individual's perceptions about whether significant others think he or she should (or should not) perform the behavior in question

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Theory of Planned Behavior

Behavior is not always in our control, internal and external (lack of knowledge or skills)

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(limited resources).

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important people in my life would disapprove if I smoked cigarettes, I should be less likely to smoke cigarettes.

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attitude-behavior consistency

there should be a correlation between attitudes and behavior.

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example: the more unfavorable a persons attitude is towards something (cancer), the more they will be yearning to prevent it

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Persistance of attitudes

attitudes are interrealted and exist in elaborate social networks. attitudes formed via central processing are more persistent than peripheral processing

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branding

distinctive product image that is linked to favorable qualities. may be tangible or intangible in nature

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Methods of Maintaining Consistency

-Denial

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-Bolstering

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-Differentiation

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-Transcendence

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-Communicating

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-modifying one or both attitudes

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denial

denying or ignoring any inconsistency. "i really dont like that jacket after all"

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Bolstering

rationalizing or making excuses. "that cow is already dead, so what difference does it make"

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Transcendance

focusing on a higher or larger level. "no one is perfect"

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communicating

convincing others to change or that they did the right thing. "ill just have to convince my friends that I'm not a hypocrite when they see me in my new jacket"

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three main assumptions of consistency

  1. whenever there is a consistency among our beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we live in a psychological harmony

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  1. inconsistency is unpleasant and causes tension

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  1. people will strive to deny, reduce, or eliminate psychological inconsistency through attitude belief/change

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balance theory

a theory holding that people try to maintain balance among their beliefs, cognitions, and sentiments

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Triangle for balance theory

P- person (bottom left)

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O-other person (top)

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X-attitude object (bottom right)

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limitations of balance theory

  • Only 1 triad at a time

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  • Not accounting for the strength of the attitudes

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  • Not clear which element will change to restore the balance

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cognitive dissonance

after making a decision or performing a behavior, a person worries whether he or she did the right thing. the person is therefore motivated to reduce the resulting dissonance. post decision theory

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TCD is concerned with the relationships among cognitions

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what can be done to reduce dissonance

Changing cognitions- change one to make it consistent with the other

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Adding positive cognitions- add one or more consonant cognitions

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Altering importance

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counter attitudinal advocacy

stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude. shift not complete change. get them to persuade themselves

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psychological reactance

Situations in which people react defensively to rules, laws or other restrictions placed upon them by others

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reactance steps

  1. people percieve an unfair restriction on their actions

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  1. a state of reactance is activated

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-emotional intensive state

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  1. the person must act to remove the reactance

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examples of psychological reactance

  • Censorship (Recordings censored or banned are more desirable, making the brands more popular, increasing sales)

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  • Limited Editions and Supply (Consumers are willing to pay more for the privilege of owning one of the few items in the series; limited edition means freedom to purchase is decreased)

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  • The scarcity rule (if you dont buy it today you may never be able to

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what is credibility

judgments made by a perceiver (message recipient) concerning the believability of a communicator. RECIEVER BASED. perceptual phenomenon

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Primary Credibility

expertise, trustworthiness, goodwill

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Secondary Credibility

dynamism/extroversion, composure, sociability

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the sleeper effect

the delayed impact of a message may be more effective than its initial impact. the message might grow on the receivers

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absolute sleeper effect

occurs when a message from a high-credibility source loses favor over time, whereas a message from a low-credibility source gains favor over time

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relative sleeper effect

both messages lose favor over time, but the high-credibility message loses more favor than the low-credibility message. more common

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ways to enhance credibility

-Cite evidence for your position, identify the sources of your evidence, including your own qualifications

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