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136 Terms

1

Cartography

the study of making maps

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2

Cultural Ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

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3

Culture

A particular group's material characteristics, behavioral patterns, beliefs, social norms, and attitudes that are shared and transmitted.

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4

Density

The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of are

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5

Diffusion

The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time. Spreading of cultural norms.

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6

Distance Decay

the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction

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7

Equator

A line that runs through the middle of the Earth horizontally. This separates the Earth into North and South.

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8

formal region

An area in which everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristics.

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9

friction of distance

states that movement incurs some form of cost, in the form of physical effort, energy, time, and/or the expenditure of other resources, and that these costs are proportional to the distance traveled.

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10

functional region

Organized around a central node (hub) (cell towers, subways, busses, electricity, newspaper distributions)

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11

GIS

A computer system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on Earth's surface. By relating seemingly unrelated data, it can help individuals and organizations better understand spatial patterns and relationships.

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12

GPS

Geographic Positioning System. This system uses data from satellites to pin-point a location on earth and help people find their way to a destination

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13

Gravity model

A model used to estimate the amount of interaction between two cities

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14

Hearth

The region from which innovative ideas originate

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15

International Date Line

The date line runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through the Pacific Ocean. Left= +24 hrs, right= -24hrs

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16

Latitude

parallel lines drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator, left to right

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17

Longitude

The set of curving imaginary lines that run North-South, coming together at the poles

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18

Location

The position of anything on Earth's surface.

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19

Mercator projection

Square. Best near the equator and gets worse near the poles. A map projection that fairly accurately shows shape and direction, but distorts distance and size of land masses

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20

Model

Theoretical frameworks that let us predict things like spatial relationships, interaction with or across space, and other issues of geography.

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21

Node

A central point in a functional culture region where functions are coordinated and directed.

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22

Perceptual region

A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.

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23

Prime Meridian

designed as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England and divides the Earth in 2.

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24

projection

The process which the 3-D surface of Earth is transferred onto a 2D map

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25

remote sensing

The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long-distance methods. They can scan Earth's surface and transmit images in digital form to a receiving station on Earth.

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26

Robinson Projection

Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.

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27

scale

The relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface

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28

site

Physical characteristics of a place

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29

situation

Location of a place relative to other places

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30

space-time compression

How interconnectedness and technology have reduced the time it takes to get a person, idea, or product from one place to another.

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31

vernacular region

Same as a perceptual region. A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.

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32

age distribution

The proportion of individuals of different ages within a population. Percentage of the total population, or the population of each sex, at each age level.

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33

Agricultural Density

number of farmers compared to arable land. (Developed countries have lower agricultural density because of technology which allows a few people to form extensive land areas and feed many people. The highest agricultural densities are in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Want it to be low.)

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34

Arithmetic Density

Total # of objects in an area. Divide the population by the land area. It says the # of people but not where they are

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35

carrying capacity

The ability of the land to sustain a certain number of people.

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36

child mortality rate

Annual number of deaths of children under the age of 5, compared with total live births

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37

crude death rate

Total # of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in society

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38

crude birth rate

Total # of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in society

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39

demographic transition model

A tool demographers use to categorize countries' population growth rates and economic structures. The model analyzes birth rates, death rates, and total population trends in a society at a given point of time.

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40

demography

Study of the population and its characteristics

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41

dependency ratio

The # of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years. (The larger the dependency ratio, the greater the financial burden on those who are working to support those who do not.)

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42

doubling time

The # of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

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43

ecumene

Place of permanent human settlement (good climate, water, food). This has increased overtime.

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44

non-ecumene

The uninhabited or very sparsely populated regions of the world (dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, high lands)

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45

infant mortality rate

The annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age compared with total live births. The # of deaths among infants per 1,000 births.

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46

life expectancy

The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. This is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live

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47

Thomas Malthus

British reverend who concluded that population was growing at a faster rate than productivity of food in the late 1700s; coined the term overpopulation

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48

Natalism

Concerned with limiting population growth

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49

Pronatalism

Expansive. An attitude or policy that encourages childbearing. (U.S.S.R., later China)

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50

Antinatalism

Restrictive. Government policies that discourage couples from having children. (Earlier China)

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51

Natural Increase Rate

Percentage by which a population grows in a year. Sanitations is the biggest factor of population growth. CBR-CDR= NIR and move decimal to the left to make a percentage.

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52

Neomalthusians

Believe that the population of the world is growing too quickly for the scale of agricultural production to keep up. They advocate for programs and policies designed to control population growth

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53

overpopulation

The lack of necessary resources to meet the needs of the population of a defined area.

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54

Physiological Density

# of people supported by a unit area of arable land. Divide the pop. by the arable land area. You want it to be low density because it is how much can the land support the people (ex: Egypt)

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55

population center

A geographical point that represents the average location of the population.

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56

population pyramid

Also called age-sex graph. A special graph that can visually display a country's distinctive population structure. X-axis: % male displayed left of 0, % female displayed right of 0 Y-axis: Age cohorts typically grouped in 5yr intervals, youngest displayed at bottom and oldest at the top

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57

sex ratio

# of males per 100 females in the population

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58

total fertility rate

Average # of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (roughly 15-49).

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59

zero population growth

The lack of change in the total population over a long term. Often applied to stage 4 countries

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60

custom

The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.

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61

globalization

The increasing connection of economic, cultural, and political characteristics across the world. It provides an opportunity to diffuse ideas, as well as learn about other places (including the cultural landscape).

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62

habit

A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.

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63

material culture

Things we make and assign value to (cars, homes, fashion)

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64

popular culture

Culture that is not tied to a specific location but rather a general location based on widespread diffusion.

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65

accent

The manner in which people speak and the way words are pronounced in different parts of the world.

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66

creole

2 languages merge. The colonizers language and the indigenous language

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67

dialect

A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.

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68

extinct language

A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.

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69

Indo-Eurpoean

Most widely used language family, is the predominant one in Europe, South Asia, and North and Latin America. Has 8 branches, 4 are widely used (Indo,Iranian, Germanic, Romance, and Balto-Slavic) and 4 less spoken (Albanian, Armenian, Celtic, and Greek).

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70

Isogloss

A boundary line between two distinct linguistic regions.

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71

isolated language

A language that is unrelated to any other language and therefore not attached to any language family.

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72

language

A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.

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73

language branch

A collection of languages related by a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago, derived from the same family.

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74

language family

A collection of languages related by a common ancestor long before recorded history.

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75

Language Group

A Collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.

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76

lingua franca

A universal language that everyone can understand, in order to conduct trade and facilitate business, are able to communicate with one another.

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77

literary tradition

A language that can be spoken and written

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78

national language

Most common language used in the nation: , language with the widest distribution and most speakers

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79

official language

Government appoints this. The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents

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80

pidgin

Basic communication between groups that have no shared language. They lack grammar and sentence structure, used primarily for trade, and are not universal

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81

slang

An informal, often short-lived kind of language used in place of standard words

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82

standard language

The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.

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83

syntax

The manner in which words are arranged into sentences

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84

brain drain

Large-scale emigration by talented people

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85

brain gain

opening up new opportunities and bringing business experience and special skills

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86

chain migration

Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.

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87

Emigration

moving out of an area

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88

immigration

moving into a new area/location

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89

forced migration

The pressured movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region.

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90

voluntary migration

Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity

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91

gravity model

A model used to estimate the amount of interaction between two cities.

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92

guest worker

a worker who temporarily migrated to the developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or North Africa, in search of a higher-paying job.

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93

Internal Migration

Permanent move within the same country Interregional- from 1 region to another Intraregional- within a region, such as cities to suburbs

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94

International Migration

Permanent move from 1 country to another Voluntary- Economic or quality of life improvements (move, family) Involuntary (forced)- Political or environmental factors (pandemic, natural disaster)

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95

intervening obstacle

An environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration.

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96

migration transition

A change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produces the demographic transition.

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97

mobility

All types of movements between locations

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98

net migration

The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration

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99

push factor

A factor that induces people to move out of their present location

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100

pull factor

A factor that induces people to move to a new location

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