BiO181 Exam 2

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What are the major components of the bases in a nucleotide?

1 / 117

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

118 Terms

1

What are the major components of the bases in a nucleotide?

Nitrogen

Single or double carbon ring

New cards
2

The covalent bond that joins two amino acids is called a _______ bond.

peptide

New cards
3

What are the three major structural components of an amino acid?

Side chain (R group)

Amino group

Carboxyl group

New cards
4

Which of the following statements is true about adenine and guanine?

They consist of two fused rings of C and N atoms.

They are purine bases.

New cards
5

Which are pyrimidine bases found in DNA?

Thymine

Cytosine

New cards
6

RNA molecules contain what type of sugar?

ribose

New cards
7

What base pairs are found in DNA?

Adenine-thymine

Cytosine-guanine

New cards
8

What does RNA contain?

Uracil

Ribose

Guanine

Cytosine

Adenine

New cards
9

4 Bases in RNA?

Uracil

Cytosine

Guanine

Adenine

New cards
10

The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is called the ___ structure

primary

New cards
11

Carboxyl group

What part of the amino acid is circled?

<p>What part of the amino acid is circled?</p>
New cards
12

What are the 4 bases of DNA?

Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine

New cards
13

What are the three basic components of a nucleotide?

Phosphate group, Sugar, Base

New cards
14

What type of bond is responsible for the base pairing between two strands of DNA in the double helix?

Hydrogen Bond

New cards
15

In a DNA double helix, adenine on one strand is paired to ______ on the other strand via ______ hydrogen bonds.

thymine ; two

New cards
16

For a molecule to serve as the genetic material, it must meet the following key criteria:

information, replication, variation, transmission

New cards
17

RNA differs from DNA in that RNA contains the base ___, and does not contain the base ___

uracil, thymine

New cards
18

A linear DNA strand contains two ends: the 5 prime end has a free ______ group, while the 3 prime end has a free ______ group.

P, OH

New cards
19

Which amino acid is responsible for the formation of disulfide bonds?

Cysteine

New cards
20

The terminator is a site in the DNA where the ___ of a gene ends

transcription

New cards
21

What are the stages of transcription?

initiation, elongation, termination

New cards
22

ranscription begins at a site in DNA called the

promoter

New cards
23

What is synthesized during the elongation stage of transcription

RNA

New cards
24

How is the 5' end of a eukaryotic mRNA modified?

a cap is added to it

New cards
25

How is the 3' end of a eukaryotic mRNA modified?

A poly A tail is added to it

New cards
26

introns

a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule which does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes.

New cards
27

exons

Coding segments of eukaryotic DNA.

New cards
28

what is the spliceosome complex's function and what does it include?

A large complex made up of proteins and RNA molecules that splices RNA by removing of introns and connecting exons

New cards
29

Chargaff's Rule

A=T and C=G

New cards
30

antiparallel configuration

The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix.

Connected with hydrogen bonds

New cards
31

Pyrimidines

cytosine, thymine, uracil

New cards
32

Purines

Adenine and Guanine

New cards
33

polymerization

putting a polymer together using a dehydration reaction

New cards
34

Sugar used in RNA

ribose

New cards
35

Sugar used in DNA

deoxyribose

New cards
36

What is the difference between DNA and RNA

DNA is double stranded and RNA is single stranded

DNA stores and transfers genetic information, RNA codes

New cards
37

what bond connects one nucelotide to the next

phosphodiester bonds

New cards
38

non-polar amino acids

hydrophobic

New cards
39

polar amino acids

hydrophilic

New cards
40

charged animo acids

hydrophilic

New cards
41

What defines the function of a protein

structure

New cards
42

What is a denatured protein

a protein that has lost its shape and function by being unfolded

New cards
43

N-terminus

amino end

New cards
44

C-terminus

carboxyl end

New cards
45

what is a peptide bond?

covalent bond between the carboxyl group and amino group

New cards
46

primary structure

peptide bonds

specific order of amino acids- unique to every protein

New cards
47

secondary structure

Hydrogen bonds form spirals ((a helix) or pleats (beta)

New cards
48

Tertiary Structure

additional folding of the polypeptide forms a 3D structure

New cards
49

What are the 5 types of interactions in a tertiary structure?

Disulfide bonds (covalent bond)

Hydrogen bonds

Ionic bonds

Non-polar interactions

Vander Waals interactions

New cards
50

disulfide bond in tertiary structure

covalent bond between 2 cysteine amino acids

New cards
51

ionic bond in a tertiary structure

between charged R-Groups

New cards
52

hydrogen bonds in tertiary structure

between polar R-groups

New cards
53

non-polar interactions in a tertiary structure

hydrophobic affect between non-polar R-Groups

New cards
54

Van der Waals interactions

weak attractions between atoms close to each other

New cards
55

quartenary structure

interactions of R-groups of two or more polypeptides

New cards
56

how does a protein become denatured

high head

low pH

New cards
57

what are polymers of nucleotides

nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

New cards
58

what does DNA include?

nucleotides, strand, double helix, chromosome, genome

New cards
59

what are nucelotides held by

covalent bonds

New cards
60

what are strands held together by

phosphodiester bonds

New cards
61

what is a double helix held together by?

hydrogen bonds

New cards
62

what is a hairpin

sections of the RNA sequence that are complementary to each other

New cards
63

gene expression

explain how a gene becomes a protein

genes are turned off whenever/wherever

include transcription and translation

New cards
64

central dogma

DNA -> RNA -> Protein

gene sequence of DNA that makes instructions to make a protein

New cards
65

transcription

DNA --> mRNA

(make a copy)

New cards
66

translation

mRNA --> protein

(new language)

New cards
67

where does translation and transcription happen in prokaryotic cells?

cytoplasm

New cards
68

where does translation and transcription happen in eukaryotic cells?

transcription happens in the nucleus, translation happens in the cytoplasm

New cards
69

what are the 2 exceptions to the central dogma?

when a functional RNA is synthesized

retroviruses- RNA viruses (HIV)

New cards
70

how does reverse transcription work?

uses RNA transcriptase to reverse-transcribe RNA genomes into DNA, which is then integrated into the host genome and replicated along with it.

New cards
71

what is a gene?

segment (sequence) of DNA that encodes for one protein

example: chromosomes cookbook, genes recipes

New cards
72

what is the coding strand?

strand of DNA that is complementary to the template strand

(non-template)

Carries information to make proteins

New cards
73

what is the non-coding strand?

template strand

New cards
74

promoter

sequence in gene that marks the location on the template strand

starts transcription

New cards
75

What is the "+1" site of a gene?

first nucleotide that is transcribed

direction of transcription

New cards
76

upstream

lies towards the 5' end of the DNA coding strand, 5' side

New cards
77

downstream

is in the direction of transcription, moving toward the 3' side

New cards
78

Consider a fragment of DNA that has a total of 10 base pairs. Four of these contain Adenine and six contain Guanine. How many hydrogen bonds would there be in this fragment between purine/pyrimidine pairs?

2*4 =8

3*6 =18

18+8=26

26 hydrogen bonds

New cards
79

If adenine makes up 20% of the bases in a DNA double helix, what percent of the bases are guanine?

30%

New cards
80

You isolate a nucleic acid from a cell. How can you determine whether you have isolated RNA or DNA?

Look at the nitrogenous bases of the molecule (thymine or uracil)

Look at the sugars of the molecule (DNA will have deoxyribose, RNA will have ribose)

New cards
81

transcription

the process in which a particular segment of DNA is converted into RNA

(Creating rna from the dna)

New cards
82

translation

the process of using the information in the RNA to synthesize polypeptides

New cards
83

Translation begins when mRNA becomes associated with a

ribosome

New cards
84

What is the purpose of the genetic code?

It specifies the relationship between a sequence of nucleotides and a sequence of amino acids

New cards
85

What amino acid is specified by the start codon?

Methionine

New cards
86

What structural features are common to all tRNAs?

Cloverleaf pattern with three stem-loops

Acceptor stem for amino acid attachment

New cards
87

initiation of transcription

RNA polymerase binds to promoter

New cards
88

elongation of transcription

RNA polymerase unzips the DNA and assembles RNA nucleotides using one strand of DNA as a template.

New cards
89

termination of transcription

RNA polymerase reaches a terminator sequence (Stop codon) and detaches from the template

New cards
90

initiation of translation

mRNA is attached to a subunit of the ribosome, the first codon is always AUG

New cards
91

elongation of translation

Peptide bonds are formed between amino acids to synthesize a polypeptide.

New cards
92

termination of translation

occurs when a stop codon in the mRNA reaches the A site of the ribosome

New cards
93

what are the three steps in RNA processing?

1. Capping (Addition of 5' cap)

2.Tailing (addition of poly-A tail (3') string of AAAA's)

3. Splicing (removal of introns)

New cards
94

what is the function of capping?

1. helps mRNA exit the nucleus

2. prevents loss of sequence in 5' end (degradation)

3. (in eukaryotes)= help mRNA bind to ribosome

New cards
95

what is the function of a poly-a tail?

prevents degradation (loss of sequence)

New cards
96

Why do we need mRNA in eukaryotic cells?

1. Remove non-coding information

2. Prevents mRNA from loosing sequence

New cards
97

what is a codon?

a three nucleotide sequence in mRNA (64 codons total)

New cards
98

61 codons specify for an _

amino acid

New cards
99

1 Specifies for a __ codon

and the amino acid ___

"start" (known as AUG)

Methionine (Met)

AUG -> MET

New cards
100

3 codons mean __

stop

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3359 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1504 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(9)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard116 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard112 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard66 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard108 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
4.3 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard63 terms
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)