PSY 111 Exam 3 Flashcards

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personality traits

Enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior

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"The Big Five" Model of Personality (OCEAN)

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

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Openness

High: Open to new experience, adventurous Low: Likes to stick to the same routine

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Conscientiousness

High: Dependable, orderly, self-disciplined Low: Impulsive, disorganized

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Extraversion

High: Outgoing, assertive, sociable Low: Reserved, quiet, withdrawn

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Agreeableness

High: Cooperative, trusting, good-natured Low: Critical, suspicious

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Neuroticism

High: Prone to anxiety, anger, depression Low: Calm, even-tempered

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HEXACO model of personality

  • Similar to the "Big Five Model" of personality

  • Adds in a 6th personality trait: Honesty-Humility

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Honesty-Humility

High: Honest, sincere, fair, and selfless Low: Manipulative, narcissistic, and self-centered

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Conscientiousness, agreeableness, and extraversion tend to ___________ with age.

increase

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Neuroticism tends to ________ with age.

decrease

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Openness to experiences tends to _______ after middle age.

decrease

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person-situation debate

A debate centering on how much someone's behavior in different situations is due to their personality or the situation

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fundamental attribution error

We have a tendency to attribute other people's behavior to personality, when their behavior might be better explained by the situation

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positive pyschology

The study of human flourishing, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive

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Positive psychology has identified several positive character strengths and skills, including...

Forgiveness, humility, gratitude

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Forgiveness

Showing grace and mercy and pardoning someone for what they have done wrong. People can forgive others and forgive themselves, but forgiving does not mean forgetting.

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Humility

An accurate sense of your abilities and achievements. Not overestimating or underestimating your abilities.

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Gratitude

Feeling appreciation and thankfulness for one's gifts in life.

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Toxic positivity

The act of rejecting or denying stress, negativity, or other negative experiences that exist

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What are the 4 keys to positive romantic relationships?

Positive relationship deposits, active-constructive responding, forgiveness, active listening

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Positive relationship deposits

For romantic relationships to flourish:

  • Aim for a 20:1 ratio of positive interactions to negative interactions in everyday life.

  • Aim for a 5:1 ratio during conflict

  • Positive interactions need to significantly outnumber negative ones.

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Active-constructive responding

Responding enthusiastically to positive news shared by your partner. Helps to build intimacy between partners.

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Active & Constructive Response

Authentic, enthusiastic, supportive

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Passive & Constructive Response

Understated support

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Active & Destructive Response

Pointing out the negative

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Passive & Destructive Response

Ignoring the event

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Forgiveness in relationships

Apologize for mistakes and forgive your partner. Unresolved conflict can lead to a negative cycle of interaction in the relationship.

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Active listening

Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. Works to validate the other person's feelings.

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The 2 paths to persuasion are...

Central route and peripheral route

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Central route

A method of persuasion that uses evidence and logical arguments to influence people

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Peripheral route

A method of persuasion characterized by an emphasis on factors other than the message itself (relies on things like sex appeal, celebrities, and cute animals).

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Triad of Trustworthiness

authority, honesty, likability

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perceived authority

People are more persuaded by people who possess more perceived authority, expertise and credibility

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likeability

Affection resulting from physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits. We tend to trust people that we like.

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honesty

The moral dimension of trustworthiness

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4 Techniques to increase "trustworthiness"

1.) Testimonials and endorsements 2.) Presenting the message as education 3.) Word of mouth 4.) The maven

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Testimonials and endorsements

Featuring someone, like a celebrity, saying how the product worked for them can be convincing (children are particularly persuaded by this).

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Presenting the message as education

The message is presented as objective information. Salespeople are educating you, so that you can make an informed decision about the product.

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Word of mouth

Information about products, services, and experiences that is transmitted from consumer to consumer

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The maven

Mavens:

  • Know and communicate with a lot of people

  • Are trusted and likely to be asked for their opinions by others

  • Enjoy sharing their opinion with others Salespeople can plant seeds with mavens

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7 Persuasive Tricks

  • Free gifts and reciprocity

  • Social proof

  • Getting a foot-in-the-door

  • A door-in-the-face

  • "And that's not all"

  • The sunk cost trap

  • Scarcity

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Free gifts and reciprocity

When someone does something for us or gives us something, we feel obligated to "return the favor"

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social proof

Positive influence created when someone finds out that others are doing something.

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getting a foot-in-the-door

Once we have made an initial commitment, it is more likely that we will agree to subsequent commitments

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A door-in-the-face

Start with a large request (which you think the other person will say "no" to), and then follow it with a smaller, more reasonable request.

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"And that's not all"

Salesperson asks for a high price, pauses to let the customer consider, then lowers the price or adds a bonus offer

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The sunk cost trap

You continue to spend money or time on something because you don't want to "lose" your prior investment

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Scarcity

Things tend to be more attractive when their availability is limited

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Conformity

Tendency to think and act like the people around us.

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Normative influence

A reason for conformity. We're concerned about what others think of us, and we don't want to be different from everyone else.

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Informational influence

A reason for conformity. Other people are a valuable source of information and can change our perspective.

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Conformity tends to increase when...

  • There are more confederates in the study

  • Participants are teenagers.

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Conformity tends to decrease when...

  • One confederate in the study isn't conforming

  • Confederates in the study aren't aware of the participant's response

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Obedience

Responding to an order or command from a person in authority.

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Obedience rates decrease when (Milgram's Study)...

  • The teacher is in the same room as the learner

  • The teacher needs to touch the learner to administer the shock -Participants saw other teachers refuse to administer the shock

  • Instructions came from another participant, instead of the experimenter

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Bystander intervention research focuses on...

  • How bystanders identify emergency situations

  • When bystanders take responsibility for helping during an emergency situation

  • How the costs and benefits of helping affect bystanders' decisions of whether and how to help

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plurastic ignorance

The case in which people think that everyone else is interpreting a situation in a certain way, when in fact they are not. This can lead to a person not acting in an emergency situation.

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diffusion of responsibility

  • If a bystander is alone, the responsibility to help all falls on that person

  • If there are multiple bystanders, the responsibility to help is divided among the bystanders

  • Since bystanders have less personal responsibility, they may not intervene

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Costs and benefits of helping

Potential helpers engage in a cost-benefit analysis (help is more likely to be given when there are fewer potential costs).

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3 Potential reasons to help others

  • Evolutionary forces

  • Selfish, egoistic motivations

  • Selfless, altruistic motivations

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evolutionary forces as a reason to help other people

We are helpful in ways that increase the chances that our DNA will be passed on to future generations

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Reciprocal altruism

Being a good helper increases the chances that you'll be helped later (Increases chances of survival and reproductive success).

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Selfish, egoistic motivations for helping

Helpers help to the extent that it provides advantages to them or makes them feel better (benefits to the victim are just a byproduct).

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2 models for selfish, egoistic helping

Negative state relief model - we help others in order to boost our own mood

Arousal: cost-reward model - we experience negative feelings when we see someone else in need, and we help to relieve those negative feelings

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Altruism

Help with the ultimate goal of improving another's welfare; no expectation of benefits for the helper

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empathy-altruism model

The key to altruism is empathizing with the victim and imagining how the victim might feel

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Groups are helpful in these keys ways...

  • Fulfill the "need to belong"

  • Provide practical information, assistance, and support from other people

  • Define our identity and influence our self-esteem (for better or worse)

  • Increase our "evolutionary fitness" (EX: our ability to survive and procreate)

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social identity theory

We categorize ourselves into groups and then draw part of our identity from those groups

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A majority of groups tend to develop across these 5 stages...

1.)Forming - group members learn about one another and explore the group purpose 2.) Storming - group conflict, solutions are sought 3.) Norming - norms and roles develop, which increases group stability and cohesion 4.) Performing - group works as a unit to achieve desired goals 5.) Adjourning - tasks are completed, unresolved issues are dealt with, and the group disbands

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social facilitation

An individual performs better when other people are around/watching (only occurs when other people are around/watching).

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social interference

An individual performs worse when other people are around/watching (occurs for behaviors that aren't well-learned or instinctive)

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social loafing

People exert less effort when working on a collective endeavor than when working alone

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Social loafing is decreased and teamwork is increased when...

  • Groups have a shared mental model (shared understanding between group members)

  • Groups are cohesive (group members like one another and have group-level goals)

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group polarization

After group discussion, judgements are more extreme than before group discussion

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common knowledge effect

Groups spend more time discussing common knowledge, rather than knowledge known by only one or a few group members

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Groupthink

The desire for group agreement overrides realistic evaluation of the situation

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Factors that cause groupthink...

  • Extreme cohesion in the group

  • Isolated group

  • Biased leader

  • Decisional stress

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Two of the cognitive tools that we use regularly to simplify our world are...

Schemas and Heuristics

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Schema

A mental model of things that we come across in our daily lives

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Heuristic

Mental shortcuts that reduce problem solving to simple, rule-based decisions

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Representative heuristic

Judging the likelihood that something belongs to a category based on how similar it is to your mental representation of that category

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Availability heuristic

Judging the likelihood of an event based on how easily instances of that event come to mind

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Planning fallacy

Underestimating how long it takes to complete a task

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Affective forecasting

Predicting how you will feel in the future after a given event

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Impact bias

Overestimating the intensity of future feelings after an event

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Durability bias

Overestimating the duration (or amount of time) that future feelings will last after an event

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Hot cognition

Cognitive process are influenced by our thoughts and feelings

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Motivated skepticism

Skeptical of evidence that goes against what we want to believe, even if that evidence is strong

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Need for closure

The desire to come to a decision quickly can influence how carefully we consider the available information

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Mood-congruent memory

It's easier for us to recall memories in which we were experiencing a mood similar to our current mood

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Explicit attitude

An attitude that a person is consciously aware of and can report

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Implicit attitude

An attitude that a person cannot verbally or overtly state.

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Discontinuous development

View that development takes place in unique stages, which happen at specific times or ages (EX: Learning to walk)

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Continuous development

View that development is a cumulative process: gradually improving on existing skills (EX: Learning a language later in life)

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Identical twin studies can be helpful in determining the extent to which a trait is driven by...

Nature (biology) vs. nurture (environment)

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If the identical twins are similar on a given trait (EX: IQ), then that trait is probably driven by...

Nature (genes)

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If the identical twins are different on a given trait (EX: IQ), then that trait is probably driven by...

Nurture (environment)

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The 4 stages of cognitive development are...

  • Sensorimotor stage (birth-2 years)

  • Preoperational reasoning stage (2-6 years)

  • Concrete operational reasoning stage (7-11 years)

  • Formal operational reasoning stage (12 years- adult)

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Sensorimotor stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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