CHEM

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137 Terms

1

chemistry

study of matter and changes it undergoes

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2

matter

anything that takes up space and mass

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3

worldview

perspective from which to see and interpret life

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4

model

workable explanation, description, or representation of an actual molecule

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5

aphothecaries

early pharmacist in ancient chemistry

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6

Greek philosphers

applied reasoning to think about the nature of matter

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7

alchemist

searched for immortality through medicines

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8

alchemy

blend of astrology and mystcism with observation and experimentation

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9

Benjamin Rush

The first professor of chemistry in the US

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10

modern chemistry

uses different models to interpret what we observe about the nature of matter and the changes it undergoes

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11

world view

belive that life evolved from nonliving compounds

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12

biblical view

living tihngs traced back to God's special Cration by His word

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13

biblical triad

Biblical principles, biblical outcomes, biblical principles

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14

deductive reasoning

general statements called premises to a specific conclusion

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15

inductive reasoning

uses facts and or data and general conclusions

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16

Qualitive data

descriptive data

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17

Quantitative data

numerical data

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18

experimental group

group of samples exposed to the independent variable

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19

control group

group of samples not exposed to the independent variable

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20

independent variable

variable that is changed

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21

dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

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22

theory

EXPLANATION of a natural phenomenon

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23

law

DESCRIBES a relationship between a repeating pattern of a natural phenomenon

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24

hypothesis

suggested explanation to a scientific question

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25

classifications of matter

pure substances and mixtures

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26

pure substance

consist of only one type of matter

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27

mixture

2 or more substance that are physically combined

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28

homogenous mixture

a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout (e.x sugar water, soda)

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29

heterogenous mixture

a mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout/ can take apart easily (e.x salad, pizza)

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30

ways to seperate mixtures

filtration, distillation, decanting

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31

filtration

used to filter bigger particles from small fluid particles

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32

distillation

HOMOgenous mixture way to seperate, uses different boiling points

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33

decanting

HETEROgenous mixture way to seperate, pouring less dense material onto denser material

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34

how do we distringuish between two catergories of matter

physical and chemical property

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35

physical property

anything that is observed or measured w/o altering a substance's chemical composition

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36

chemical property

properties that describe how matter acts in the present

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37

examples of physical property

malleability, density, conductivity, ductility,

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38

examples of chemical property

reactivity, flammability, toxicity

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39

difference between atoms. elements, and compounds

An atom is the smallest form of an element, an element is a substance that can't be broken down into smaller substances, and a compound is two or more different elements that join together.

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40

7 diatomic elements

hydrogen, nitrogen, fluorine, oxygen, iodine, chlorine, bromine

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41

potential energy

energy of an object due to its position or condition

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42

kinetic energy

energy due to an object's motion

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43

thermodynamics

study of movement and conversion of energy

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44

conservation of mass-energy

matter and energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be transfromed or transferred between objects

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45

law of entropy

(high to low concentration), never decreases in a system

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46

thermal energy

The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance

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47

heat

flow of thermal energy

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48

temperature

the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance

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49

exothermic process

RELEASE energy

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50

endothermic process

ABSORBS energy

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51

absolute zero

a temperature of 0 kelvins, lowest point

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52

Aristotle

Greek philosopher, continous theory of matter

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53

Democritus

Greek Philosopher, atomism

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54

what replaced philosophical atomism

scientific atomism

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55

Continous theory of matter

matter could be continously subdivided without end

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56

atomism

matter was made of seperate discrete particles

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57

Who founded the Law of Definite Proportions?

French Chemist Joseph Proust in 1794

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58

What does l.o.d.p say

states every compound is formed of element combined in specific ratios by mass that are unique for that compound (e.x water)

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59

who made a new atomic model

English school teacher John Dalton

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60

what was the new atomic model based on

experimental evidence instead of philoshopy

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61

Law of multiple proportions

elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds

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62

do elements have the same mass

no, they each have different masses

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63

why was philoshopy used during greek times

because of the lack of tech

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64

J.J Thomson

discovered the electron, English Physicist

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65

How did J.J. Thomson discover the electron?

cathode ray tube experiment

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66

Hans Geiger

conducted the gold foil experiment that led to the discovery of the nucleus

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67

who discovered the nucleus

Ernest Rutherford

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68

who named the protons

Ernest Rutherford

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69

measurement

comparison of an unknown quanity to a known STANDARD unit

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70

dimensions

measurable properties. ex. length, mass, volume, time, electrical charge

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71

what needs to happen before a dimension can be measured

there must be a unit of measure defined for that dimensions

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72

graduated scale

the spacing of the marks on a instrument used for measuring

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73

instrument

artifical device made for refining, extending, or substituting for human senses

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74

what does a measurements consis of

number and a unit

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75

unit

standard by which the scientist compares the object

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76

Metric system

The decimal measuring system based on the meter, liter, and gram as units of length, capacity, and weight or mass. (powers of 10)

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77

France

first european nation to adopt MMS (had kilogram and meter)

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78

SI

International System of Units; stanard measuring system, US and 2 other countries don't use

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79

ampere

electrical current

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80

candela

light intensity

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81

kelvin

temperature

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82

kilogram

mass

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83

meter

length

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84

mole

number of particles (most used in science)

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85

second

time

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86

base unit

part of the MS multiplied by power of ten

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87

derived units

combinations of SI base units

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88

square meter

area

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89

cubic meter

volume

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90

kilogram per cubic meter

density

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91

hertz

frequency

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92

newton

force

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93

pascal

pressure

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94

joule

energy

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95

celcius

celcius temperature

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96

how to change size of a unit

prefix

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97

what do we call the process by which scientists quantify their observations of their surroundings?

taking measurements

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98

unit conversion

mechanical process to change units

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99

conversion factor

fraction containing both original unit and equivalent value

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100

math rule 2

The sum or difference of measured data cannot have greater precision than the least precise quantity in the sum or difference

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