BIO - NMAT

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nucleus

double membraned sac that encloses a cell's DNA

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bacterium

member of single-celled organisms

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eukaryote

organism whose cells characteristically have a nucleus

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protist

member of a diverse group of simple eukaryotes

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homeostasis

Set of processes by which an organism keeps its internal conditions within tolerable ranges

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growth

in multicelled species, an increase in the number, size, and volume of cells

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development

multistep process by which the first cell of a new multicelled organism gives rise to an adult

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reproduction

Process by which parents produce offspring

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inheritance

transmission of DNA to offspring

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energy

capacity to do work

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nutrient

substance that an organism needs for growth and survival but cannot make for itself

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producer

Organism that makes its own food using energy and nonbiological raw materials from the environment

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photosynthesis

Process by which producers use light energy to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water

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consumer

organism that gets energy and nutrients by feeding on tissues, wastes, or remains of other organisms

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atom

fundamental building block of all matter

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molecule

An association of two or more atoms

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cell

smallest unit of life

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organism

Individual that consists of one or more cells

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tissue

in multicellular organisims, a group of similar cells that carry out a common function

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organ

in multicelled organisms, a grouping of tissues engaged in a collective task

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organ system

in multicelled organisms, set of interacting organs that carry out a particular body function

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population

group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area

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community

all populations of all species in a given area

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ecosystem

A community interacting with its environment

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biosphere

All regions of Earth where organisms live

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fungus

type of eukaryotic consumer that obtains nutrients by digestion and absorption outside the body

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plant

multicelled, typically photosynthetic producer

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animal

multicelled consumer that develops through a series of stages and moves about during part or all of its life cycle

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archean

member of a group of single-celled organisms that differ from bacteria

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species

Type of organism

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taxonomy

the science of naming and classifying organisms

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genus

a group of species that share a unique set of traits

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specific epithet

Second part of scientific name.

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taxon

Linnaean category; a grouping of organisms

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experimental group

in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment

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control group

in an experiment, the group of participants that doesn't receive the manipulation

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Scientific Method

Making, testing, and evaluating hypotheses

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atom

particle that is a fundamental building block of all matter

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proton

positively charged particle that occurs in the nucleus of an atom

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neutron

uncharged subatomic particle in the atomic nucleus

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electron

Negatively charged subatomic particle

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charge

electrical property. opposite charges attract, and like charges repel

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nucleus

core of an atom; occupied by protons and neutrons

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atomic number

number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

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element

A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means

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periodic table

tabular arrangement of all known elements by their atomic number

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isotopes

Forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons their atoms carry

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mass number

total number of protons and neutrons

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radioisotope

Isotope with an unstable nucleus

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radioactive decay

process by which an unstable element naturally changes into another stable element

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tracer

a molecule labelled with a detectable substance

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shell model

model of electron distribution in an atom

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ion

charged atom

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electronegativity

Measure of the ability of an atom to pull electrons away from other atoms

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chemical bond

an attractive force that arises between two atoms when their electrons interact

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molecule

group of atoms bonded together

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compound

Group of molecules

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mixture

an intermingling of two or more types of molecules

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ionic bond

type of chemical bond in which a strong mutual attraction links ions of opposite charge

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covalent bond

chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons

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polarity

Any separation of charge into distinct positive and negative regions.

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hydrogen bond

Attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom.

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solvent

Liquid substance that will dissolve another substance

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solute

A dissolved substance

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salt

compound that releases ions other than H+ and OH- when it dissolves in water

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hydrophilic

Describes a substance that dissolves easily in water

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hydrophobic

Describes a substance that resists dissolving in water

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cohesion

Tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another

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evaporation

Transition of a liquid to a vapor

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temperature

Measure of molecular motion

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concentration

The number of molecules or ions per unit volume of a solution

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pH

measure of the number of hydrogen ions in a fluid

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acid

substance that releases hydrogen ions in water

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base

substance that accepts hydrogen ions in water

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buffer

A solution that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.

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hydrocarbon

Compound or region of one that consists only of carbon and hydrogen atoms

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functional group

a group of atoms bonded to a carbon of an organic compound

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monomers

Molecules that are subunits of polymers

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polymer

molecule that consists of multiple monomers

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metabolism

All enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy

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enzyme

compound (usually a protein) that speeds up a reaction without being changed by it

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condensation

process by which enzymes build large molecules from smaller subunits; water also forms

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hydrolysis

process by which an enzyme breaks a molecule into smaller subunits by attaching a hydroxyl group to one part and hydrogen atoms to the other

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carbohydrate

molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in 1:2:1 ratio

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lipid

fatty, oily, waxy organic compound

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fatty acid

organic compound that consists of a chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end

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fat

lipid that consists of a glycerol molecule with one, two, or three fatty acid tails

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triglyceride

A fat with three fatty acid tails

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phospholipid

A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head. The main constituent of cell membranes.

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wax

Water-repellent lipid with long fatty acid tails bonded to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.

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steroid

type of lipid with four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails

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protein

Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

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amino acid

small organic compound that is a subunit of proteins: consists of a carboxyl group, an amine group, and a side group (R)

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peptide bond

a bond between amino acids

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polypeptide

Chain of amino acids

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denature

To unravel the shape of a protein or other large biological molecule

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prion

infectious protein

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nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

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ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

nucleotide with two extra phosphate groups; main source of energy in living things

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nucleic acid

Single- or double-stranded chain of nucleotides joined by sugar-phosphate bonds e.g., DNA, RNA.

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