Biotech Final

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Microscopic

Not visible to the unaided eye/ only visible with a microscope

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Who discovered chromosomes and When?

Walter Fleming in the 1870s

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Who discovered that certain sections of chromosomes in each cell controlloed the development of characteristics?

Wilhelm Johannsen in 1909

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How many genes do humans have?

100,000

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How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?

23 pairs, 46 total

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Which men discovered DNA?

James Watson (American) and Francis Crick (British) in 1953

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What are the four bases of DNA and what connects to what?

Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C)

A+T and G+C

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Who discovered restriction enzymes, and what are they?

Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans. Enzymes that destroy the DNA of invading viruses

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Ligase enzyme

Enzyme used to join two parts of DNA to form the new recombinant DNA

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Who were the first to successfully produce recombinant DNA

Stanley Cohen and Herbet Boyer

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What do all living things do?

respirate, grow, repair, move, reproduce, have a life span, respond to stimuli

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What does excretion mean?

Elimination

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Who was the first to sudy biological heredity

Gregor Mendel

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How is gender determined?

By the X or Y chromosomes carried by the sperm that fertilises the egg

XX for girl XY for boy

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What is the most dramatic tool of biotechnology?

Genetic Engineering

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What is the Genome Project? When did it start and end?

A goal to identify all human genes and their funtion. Started in 1986 completed in 2003

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Physical gene map

Indicates the position of indvidual genes and the actual distance between genes on the same chromosone in cell nucleus

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Linkage gene map

Idicate the positions of genes and which genes are related and likely to combine

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Enzymes

Proteins that speed up chemical reactions (catalysts)

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Proteins

polymers of amino acids

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Polymerase chain reaction(PCR)

is a method of making many copies of a spliced gene

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What is gel electrophoresis used for? What is the process?

To identify the sequence of DNA bases in a gene. Using an electric current and probes, they identify bases by the rate at which they migrate through the gel. Large segments move slowly, while small fragments move faster.

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What two principles has biotechnology concentrated the development of?

Genetic engineering and the use of microbes

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What were the first living creatures? (probably)

Microbes

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How many types of microbes are there?

5

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Bacteria

single-celled microscopic organisms with only one chromosome and no nucleus that can be harmful or beneficial to people

(Procaryotes)

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Algae

microscopic plant organisms that grow as single cells or in long filaments

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Lichen

plant colonies composed of algae and fungi

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Fungi

considered to be their own kingdom. The basic unit of a fungus is not the cell, but rather a tube-shaped structure called a hypha.

fungi hyphae don't contain chlorophyl

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Protozoa

microscopic, one-celled creatures that can move about under their own power

considered the "first animals" because their simple structure includes most of the basic characteristics of animal cells

Live only in liquid environments

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Viruses

Very simple, very small microbes that are actually particles, not cells

Simplest viruses are composed of a strand of DNA carrying only a handful of genes

Can't reproduce on their own but must infect a host cell

DNA is protected by a coat made up of many identical protein subunits

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Clones

Clones are organisms that have identical genes.

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When was the microscope invented?

17th century

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What did Robert Hooke do?

Discovered and named cells

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What was invented in the 1930s?

Electon microscope

(The thing could not be alive, had to be cut in thin slices and have all water removed)

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Who photographed the Molecule using X-ray diffraction photography?

Rosalinnd Franklin and Maurice Wilkins

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What is yeast?

single-celled organisms that can be seen only with a microscope

contain special enzymes that convert sugar into carbon dioxide and ethanol

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How is beer made?

Using yeast for fermentation

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What fungus caused the irish potato famine?

Phytophthora

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Rhizobium

nitrogen fixing bacteria

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Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t)

natural insect killer that lives in the soil

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What was the first gentically engineered plant?

Disease resistant petunia in the 1980s

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Transgenic

The transfer of genetic material from one species to a different species

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Bacteriophages

viruses that infect bacteria

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How far back do edible microbes (SCPs or Single-cell proteins)?

Aztecs in Mexicp

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What does bGH stand for?

bovine growth hormone

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What was the first animal cloned?

A sheep named dolly

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What did Edward Jenner do?

He created the small pox vaccination from cow pox in 1796

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What are altered pig genes used for?

Synthetic insulin

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Alteplase (tPA)

Dissolves blood clots in heart attack victims

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Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT)

Treat emphysema

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what is the likelihood of a baby being born with a genetic defect?

1 out of every 100 born

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Fragile X syndrome

Genetic mutation carried on the X-chromosome that causes varying degrees of intellectual disability and hyperactivity

Occurs in one out of every 1,500 boys and less frequently in girls

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When was the first gene therapy?

1990 on a four year old girl with Sever Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCIDs)

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How many antibiotics are there and how many are used to fight diseases?

5,000 total 100 used to fight diseases

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Who discovered penicillin?

Alexander Fleming in 1928

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Who isolated penicillin?

Howard Florey

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B cells

produce antibodies

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Who was the human guniea pig for Penicilin?

Albert Alexander

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Antiviral vaccines

Vaccines that fight viruses

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Interferons?

proteins that exist naturally in the immune systems of all mammals and are used to help fight off invading viruses

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Who injected a boy with rabies without permission?

Louis Pasteur in 1885

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When does cancer occur?

affected cells grow wildly, invading healthy tissue, and derailing the body's processes

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Carcinogenic

Substances that cause cancer in people

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Oncogenes

cancer causing genes

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What does HIV and AIDS stand for?

Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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What causes AIDS?

HIV

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Forensic medicine

biology and biotechnology used in a legal setting

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Who was the first to use fingerprints in police-related work?

William Herschel in 1860

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Who developed genetic fingerprinting or DNA typing

Alec Jefferys in 1984

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What are RFLPs?

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

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Southern blot

technique named after Edwin Southern used in recombinant DNA technology that allows researchers to stabilize specific DNA sequences from an electrophoresis gel and then localize them using DNA dyes or probes.

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Autoradiograph

The x-ray picture of RFLPs

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Germ line gene therapy

Egg and sperm are genetically altered

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Somatic gene therapy

alters the patient's genes, normally only a temporary cute

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Retrovirus

A special kind of virus used in gene therapy

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Bioremediation

the use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify a polluted area

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Bioassist

usage of microbes that already exist at the polluted site

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Bioinjection

Microbes that have cleansing properties are injected into a polluted environment

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Synechococcus

a bacterium that could eliminate large amounts of carbon dioxide to help reduce global warming

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What does Thioubacillus have the ability to absorb?

SIlver

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Who first observed and identified microorganisms with the microscope?

Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1680

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What do scientists believe about stromatolites?

Mats covered areas of the Earth roughly five billion years ago

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Steps to produce Ethanol

  1. Add water to ground up grains or plants

  2. Heat up the mash

  3. Ethanol water mixture is heated to vaporize the ethanol which is collected and cooled

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