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What is a Political Party?

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What is a Political Party?

Political parties act in government to represent the public.

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Political parties introduction

A political party is a group of similarly minded people who aim to achieve their objectives by fielding candidates for election to political office.

A political party puts the policies it aims to pass into law in its manifesto, which is a document listing policy pledges.

The party that wins power as a result of electoral victory earns a mandate, which is when a political party or decision-maker has the authority to make decisions or put policies in place.

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Functions of UK Political Parties

Political parties in the UK have a number of key roles which ensure that the UK's system of representative democracy can work in practice.

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Government and opposition roles

Parties ensure that a single government is formed as a result of the general election which is able to safely pass its legislation through the House of Commons.

Parties also perform the role of the opposition parties who check the actions of the government and hold it to account.

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Political participation

Political parties allow people to have a greater participation in politics by becoming members of the party and so increase their involvement in the democratic process.

Parties also aim to increase political engagement by educating citizens on political issues.

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Representation

A key role of political parties is representing their members.The Labour Party's membership has been increasing under Jeremy Corbyn, growing by nearly 200,000 members since December 2015.

But, overall party membership has been declining since the 1950s - so this role has changed in recent years.

Political parties represent the wider public in Parliament, regional parliaments and assemblies, and in local councils.

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What do parties present their policy ideas in?

a manifesto

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Functions of UK Political Parties 2

Political parties in the UK have a number of key roles which ensure that the UK's system of representative democracy can work in practice.

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Creating policy

Political parties establish policies which they believe are in the interests of voters and meet their needs.

These policy proposals are presented to voters in the form of a party manifesto.In the 2017 elections, the Conservatives promised a balanced budget by 2025 and an orderly Brexit.Labour promised the end of austerity, tax increases, and the abolition of tuition fees for university.

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Recruiting politicians

Parties recruit individuals into the political system and choose those individuals they believe to be most suitable to stand for public office.

Parties also play a role in the promotion of politicians, with those who are seen as having the qualities most suitable for national leadership roles promoted to more senior positions within the party.Prospective MPs have to apply in writing and sit interviews for selection.Some parties have all-women shortlists for some elections.

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Choice at elections

Political parties offer voters a clear choice at elections, ensuring that voters are able to support the party whose policies most appeal to them.

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Functions of UK political parties:

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Offering voters a choice at elections

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Recruiting politicians and promoting them to national leadership

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Create policies they believe are in the national interest

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Current Party Funding

The funding of UK political parties comes in a number of forms. Parties receive funding through membership fees, however, most of their funding comes through donations.

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Membership fees

Political parties receive funding from membership fees paid for by party members, however, this is not the major source of income for the main UK parties due to declining party membership.The Conservatives membership income decreased to under £1 million in 2017.The Labour party have seen a rise under Jeremy Corbyn in membership fees to over £16 million reflecting the rise in party membership since he became the leader.

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Donations

Parties have become increasingly reliant on donations from individuals and organisations, and receive the majority of their funding from donations.

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Short money

Short money is the funds received by opposition parties that win two or more seats in the House of Commons at the general election or win one seat and gain more than 150,000 votes.

Short money is designed to cover party administrative costs and to allow for effective scrutiny of the government.

Labour currently receive the most Short money because they are the opposition party with the most seats.

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Examples of Party Funding

Different parties have different attitudes to party funding. Over time, the sources of funding for parties may change as a result of ideological changes within the party.

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Jeremy Corbyn and party funding

Under Jeremy Corbyn, there has been a move towards a large amount of party funding coming from smaller donations made by ordinary members of the party with over £18 million received in 2017.

There has also been a rise in income from trade unions under Corbyn, with the trade union Unite donating £4.5 million in the 2017 general election.

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New Labour and party funding

Historically the Labour Party was mainly funded by trade unions.

There were efforts made by previous Labour leaders such as Tony Blair to decrease trade union influence within the party.

Under New Labour, the Party was increasingly funded by large donations from a small number of wealthy individuals such as Lord Sainsbury and Bernie Ecclestone.

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Conservative Party funding

The Conservatives receive the majority of their funding from wealthy donors such as Ehud Sheleg and Lord Bamford.

In 2017 it was revealed that large amounts of party funding for the general election came from hedge funds and bankers.

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Reforms to Party Funding

Controversies have led to proposals to reform party funding.

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Funding controversies

Controversies around party funding have come from a small number of large individual donations including the 'Cash for Questions' and Bernie Ecclestone affairs.

Controversies have led to the belief that individuals can buy access to, and influence over political decision makers.

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Regulations introduced: PPERA

One new regulation introduced was the Political Parties, Election and Referendums Act (PPERA) in 2000.

PPERA introduced party spending limits at general elections to £30,000 for each constituency.

PPERA also limits spending for elections to European Parliament and devolved bodies and says parties must make public any individual donations over £5,000.

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Regulations introduced: PPEA

Political Parties and Election Act (PPEA) was introduced in 2009.

PPEA enabled the Electoral Commission to investigate and fine parties who broke the rules of the PPERA.

PPEA also limits donations allowed from non-UK residents and reduces the amount at which donations need to be made public by parties.

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Have funding reforms worked?

Regulations have increased the transparency of party funding

But, there are still issues with funding and transparency:Parties have encouraged supporters to give long-term 'loans' instead of donations to get around the regulations set out by the PPERA.The main political parties still receive large donations from wealthy individuals - these donors have not been deterred.

Bigger reforms such as introducing state funding are unlikely, as they would come at the taxpayers' expense.

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What are current issues with party funding and transparency?

1

Main political parties still receive large donations from wealthy individuals

2

Parties have encouraged supporters to give out long-term loans instead of donations

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State Funding

State funding has been put forward as a new means of providing funding for political parties. The Phillips Report in 2007 suggested funding per voter or per member for each party.

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Case against state funding

Taxpayers might oppose funding parties they are opposed to, especially more radical parties.

In practice, it would be hard to work out how much each party should receive.

State funding will not solve the problem of parties having different levels of funding, as parties have different levels of membership to one another.

In a democracy and a free society, it could be argued that individuals who wish to donate money to a party be allowed to do so.

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Case for state funding

State funding would remove the influence and access private donors have to political decision makers.

State funding gives politicians more time to serve the interests of their constituents rather than spending time seeking funding.

Minority parties could compete better if the funding gap between major and minor parties was smaller. Greater funding for opposition parties would allow them to research policy and offer a strong alternative to the government, which is good for democracy.

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Current public funding

Current public funding exists through Short money, Cranborne money which is paid to opposition parties in the House of Lords, and Policy Development Grants.

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Explain membership fees

Political parties receive funding from membership fees paid for by party members. The Labour party saw a rise under Jeremy Corbyn in membership fees to over £18 million reflecting the rise in party membership since he became the leader.

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Why membership fees are an effective source

Membership fees are very successful when the party has large grassroots support. Labour under Mr Corbyn gained party funding from more ordinary members as opposed to big business or wealthy elite backers. This is seen as more transparent, puts less pressure on the party to promote any one individual's interests, and guarantees a flow of annual income.

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Why membership fees are not the most effective source

Membership can vary over time. Political parties have, as a trend, suffered from a decline in memberships which threatens their revenue. Donations may be a better source of income and parties have become increasingly reliant on them, with Conservative membership fees bringing in less than £1 million in 2017.

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How does state funding benfits

- state funding would remove the influence and access private doners have to political decision makers

- state funding gives politicians more tome to serve the interest of their consistuanet rather than spending time and seeking funding .

- Minority parties could compete beterr if the funding gap between major and minor parties was smaller

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Traditional/One-Nation Conservatism

For most of the 19th and 20th centuries, the Conservative Party had a traditional/one-nation conservative ideology. This was mostly the case until Thatcher's leadership.

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Conservative Party beginnings

The Conservative Party was established from the Tory Party in the 1830s.

Throughout the twentieth century, the Conservative Party was traditionally/one-nation conservative in its ideology.

One-nation conservatism was an evolution of traditional conservatism after the industrial revolution.

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Preserving the status quo

One-nation conservatives support traditional institutions (eg the Church, the family and the class system) and the enduring rules of British society.

The Conservative Party believed in pragmatically dealing with issues whilst looking to maintain the status quo and gradually improving on what already exists.

Institutions like the Church are important, and so must be preserved to moderate society.

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The role of the state

One-nation conservatism is a paternalistic ideology.Supporters believe that the rich have an obligation to look after the poorest and those who can't take care of themselves.

This type of conservatism supports a Keynesian mixed economy, but if required the state can intervene.

Working internationally with other countries, and greater integration with Europe, are also supported.

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Thatcherism

Thatcherism was the ideology adopted by Margaret Thatcher, the party leader from 1975 until 1990, and the dominant ideology within the Conservative Party during this period.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Thatcher was a key figure in the New Right movement.

She became the party leader in 1975, and helped move the party to a more radical free-market right wing ideology.

Thatcher was the first female leader of the Conservatives, and the first female PM in Britain.

Thatcher was PM from 1979 to 1990, when she was challenged to the party leadership and stepped down.

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Thatcherism and the New Right

Thatcherism came as part of the New Right Movement.

The New Right movement combined an orthodox conservative state with a neo-liberal state.

Orthodox conservative ideas: social policy and law and order.

Neo-liberal ideas: the free market, monetarism and less regulation.

During the 1970s and 80s the New Right movement was popular on the right, with scholars and think tanks writing about neoliberal ideas.

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Key parts of Thatcherism

Thatcherism argued for the importance of individual needs over society.

Thatcherism proposed a small state where the role of the government and state intervention is reduced.

Thatcherism supported self-reliance.

Thatcherism endorsed business deregulation and industry privatisation.

Thatcherism supported reduced trade union powers.

Thatcherism placed importance on national sovereignty.

Thatcherism supported fewer taxes and making the welfare state smaller by limiting benefits.

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Thatcherism vs one nation

One-nation conservatism has a more pragmatic (practical) approach compared to Thatcherism's assertive and dogmatic (uncompromising on principles) approach.

One-nation conservatism favours small and gradual changes, but Thatcherism supports a radical approach to change.

One-nation conservatism focuses on looking after the needs of society, while Thatcherism focuses on individual needs.

One-nation conservatism supports a mixed economy whilst Thatcherism supports a free-market economy.

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Conservatives under David Cameron

David Cameron was leader of the Conservative party from 2005 to 2016. Under his leadership the Conservatives were elected in coalition in 2010, and won an election in 2015.

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Election as leader

David Cameron was elected leader of the Conservatives in 2005 replacing Michael Howard and was labelled the 'heir to Blair' by many.Comparisons were made to when Tony Blair became Labour leader and revolutionised the Labour party.

Cameron stepped down as leader after the 2016 EU referendum.

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Party image and ideology

David Cameron was focused on making the Conservative party more electable.

Cameron looked to end the 'nasty party' image that voters had.

Cameron also aimed to move the party focus towards issues that would appeal to voters, such as the environment, and away from issues that divided the party, such as Europe.

Cameron adopted a more liberal approach towards the environment.

Cameron also believed in limiting state intervention.

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2010 election campaign

The 2010 Conservative manifesto made policy promises, but was argued to lack substance.

Policies included:Stronger economic management, with tax and spending cuts and deficit reduction.Replacing the Human Rights Act with a UK Bill of RightsAccepting EU principles, but staying opposed to the transfer of powers away from the UK.Tougher exams and reduced state control over schools.

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Coalition government

The 2010 election resulted in a hung parliament (no party had a majority).

The Conservatives entered into an agreement with the Lib Dems to form a coalition (two or more parties join together to form a government).

The government's policies included reducing benefits, deficit and spending cuts, and a referendum on the Alternative Vote system.

The economic policy came from the Conservatives, but the political reform policies were mostly from the Lib Dems.

The coalition ended in 2015.

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Conservatives under Theresa May

Theresa May became party leader following the EU referendum in 2016. She is the second female leader of the Conservatives, and the second female PM in the UK.

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Impact of Brexit

The Conservatives had achieved little notable change after successfully winning the 2015 election with much focus on the EU referendum.

Under Theresa May a significant amount of work has been focused on preparing for Brexit and negotiating a deal for Britain's withdrawal from the EU.

Brexit talks have divided the Conservative party and May's cabinet, with ministers resigning over decisions regarding Brexit.

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May's policy proposals

Regional government: May decided not to put in place the previous government's proposals for elected mayors in cities and abandoned the 'northern powerhouse' plans.

Environment: May replaced the government Department for Energy and Climate Change with departments preparing for Brexit, the Department for Exiting the European Union and the Department for International Trade.

Education: May put forward proposals in favour of grammar schools which allowed comprehensives to become grammars.

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2017 general election

Theresa May called a 'snap' election in 2017 to strengthen her majority for the upcoming Brexit talks.

The Conservative Party lost its majority, and so entered into a 'confidence and supply' deal with the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP).

This means that the DUP agrees to support the government in budget votes, and not vote against the government in a vote of no confidence.

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The Impact of Brexit

A significant amount of work has been focused on preparing for Brexit and negotiating a deal for Britain's withdrawal from the EU. Brexit talks have divided May's cabinet, with ministers resigning over decisions regarding Brexit.

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rishis sunak polices

1- half inflation

- stop boats

- reduce nhs waiting list

- grow the ecnomy

-reduce debt

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History of Labour

The Labour Party was founded in 1900, and aimed to bring working class people into parliament.

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Founding of Labour

The Labour Party was established at the start of the twentieth century by the Trade Union Congress, the Independent Labour Party, the Fabians and the Social Democratic Federation.

The Labour Party was founded with the aim of representing the working class and bringing them into parliament.

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Old Labour ideas

- Old Labour is a term used to describe the labour party when its political ideology was based on socialism and when the party had strong links with trade unions, socialist societies and the working class.

--> Old Labour ideas included a belief in nationalisation, opposition to capitalism, a belief in equality and redistributing wealth to the poor from the wealthy, continually investing in welfare services and greater state control over the economy

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Clause IV (Labour Party)

Part of the 1918 constitution of the Labour Party in Britain which set out the aims and values of the party.

The clause stated: "To secure for the workers by hand or by brain the full fruits of their industry and the most equitable distribution thereof that may be possible upon the basis of the common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange, and the best obtainable system of popular administration and control of each industry or service."

For the first time, the party officially stated its socialist element in an official document. This clause was seen by supporters as a straightforward commitment to nationalisation or the "common ownership". Its application was the subject of considerable debate and dispute.

It was revised in 1995 by Tony Blair.

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1983 manifesto

Michael Foot, the Labour leader in the 1983 general election, proposed a manifesto which clearly demonstrated ideas of 'Old Labour' including policies for greater state control of industries, more workers rights and nuclear disarmament.The manifesto was described by Labour MP Gerald Kaufman as 'the longest suicide note in history' after Labour lost the election.

Some believe that the 1983 loss was because of the the party's left-wing ideas.

After 1983 the Labour party tried to reform.

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New Labour

New Labour is what the rebranded and reformed Labour Party was known as from 1994 onwards. Tony Blair had a big influence on the policies and image of New Labour.

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New Labour ideas

ew Labour advocated a number of key ideas including:

Reduced trade union power in the party and decreasing the reliance on them for funding.

Increasing the party leader's power over areas such as candidate selection, making policy and party structure.

Moving away from traditional Labour policies on tax and spending.

Acceptance of Conservative privatisation programmes.

Acceptance of devolution and of membership of the EU and NATO.

Support for private schools and healthcare.

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Clause Four

Under the leadership of Tony Blair, Clause IV of the party constitution which outlined key socialist ideas was reworded.

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Rebranding the Labour Party

- After a number of general election defeats between 1979 and 1992 the Labour party began a process of reforming to widen its appeal among the electorate.

- New Labour was the label for the Labour party under Tony Blair used by Blair at a Labour Party conference in 1994.

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New Labour Policies:

1

Reduced trade union power

2

Acceptance of privatisation done by the Conservatives

3

Support for private schools and healthcare

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Recent Labour Leaders

Since Tony Blair, there have been three Labour leaders. Each leader has brought about new ideas and policies that have changed the direction of the party.

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Jeremy Corbyn

eremy Corbyn was elected party leader in 2015 with 59.5% of first vote preferences.

Corbyn's election was seen as a surprise by many because he was seen to be a committed socialist and regular rebel within the party.

Corbyn regularly opposed the party elite, particularly under Tony Blair's leadership.

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Corbyn's policies

The policies Corbyn advocated for included:Reducing wealth inequality and promoting a more equal society.Placing peace as the core objective of foreign policy.National education for all.Achieving full employment and increasing job security for workers.

Under Corbyn, Labour was greatly divided between its left and right.There are factions such as 'Progress', who believe in New Labour values, and Momentum who are the campaign group in support of Jeremy Corbyn.

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2010 general election

The 2010 manifesto outlined a focus on job creating and increasing the minimum wage.The 2010 manifesto also outlined Labour's support for the NHS and education.There was a focus on the need for constitutional reform in the 2010 manifesto under Brown.

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Gordon Brown

Gordon Brown succeeded Tony Blair as leader of Labour and PM in June 2007.

Under Gordon Brown, the main ideology was to increase the state's role in both the economic market and society.Some high street banks were nationalised.Brown put in place an economic policy focused on managing the deficit without introducing cuts to public services.

Brown's economic policy was similar to the 'tax and spend' policies of Old Labour.

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Ed Miliband

Ed Miliband became Labour party leader in 2010, after Labour lost the election.

Miliband was labelled 'Red Ed' after his party leadership election victory, which was a result of the support he received from the trade unions.

Ed Miliband suffered a significant electoral defeat in the 2015 election.This led to those on the left of the party calling for it to return to its socialist roots and those of the right stating the need to return to the principles of New Labour.

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The Liberal Democrat Party

The Liberal Democrats are a relatively new party in UK politics, but emerged from an important liberal movement in UK politics.

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Founding of the party

The Liberal Democrats formed when the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party merged in 1988.The Liberals were a major political force in the 19th and early 20th century but had declined in popularity.The Social Democratic Party was formed by the 'Gang of Four', four Labour Party politicians who left the party in 1981 because they were unhappy with the policies under Michael Foot.

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Development of the party

Under the first leader Paddy Ashdown, the party tried to be the middle ground between Labour and the Conservatives, but with policies focusing on reform.

At first, the party failed to win seats, but in the 1990s the Lib Dems started winning by-elections and increasing support in local elections.

In 1997 the Lib Dems won 46 seats, and increased this in 2001 and 2005.

There was a decline in popularity after 2006, and Nick Clegg became leader in 2007.

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Liberal ideology: classical

Classical liberalism argues for limited state intervention, and advocates equality, tolerance and freedom.

Classical liberalism proposes that the best way to improve people's livelihoods is through self-improvement rather than through the state playing a role.

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Liberal ideology: modern

Modern liberalism advocates the need for more state intervention by introducing regulation of the market and providing welfare for people.Scholars such as Thomas Hill Green and Leonard Hobhouse advocated modern or new liberalism.

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Nick Clegg

The Lib Dems gained more support in the 2010 election campaign, and Nick Clegg was a popular figure.Nick Clegg became a popular figure after the leadership debates.

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The Coalition Government

Despite increased popularity, the Lib Dems lost seats in 2010 and joined the Conservatives in a coalition government after the 2010 election.The coalition meant that the party broke election promises such as not increasing tuition fees.The Lib Dems were a moderating force in the coalition government and blocked some Conservative policies - such as inheritance tax cuts.

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Leaders after 2015

Tim Farron was the leader after Nick Clegg, and led the party at the 2017 general election.Farron lost popularity when he made controversial comments on homosexuality.

After Tim Farron, Vince Cable became leader and then, in 2019, the party elected its first female leader Jo Swinson.

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Conservative Ideas & Policies

Conservative policies outlined in their 2017 election manifesto involve tax cuts and leading the country through Brexit.

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Economy

Increase higher tax rate to £50,000.

Increase personal allowance (tax-free earnings).

Cut corporation tax.

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Law and order

Investing to modernise prisons.

Restructuring the police force.

Limiting stop and search.

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Foreign policy

Exit EU single market and customs union.

Increasing budget of Ministry of Defence.

Keep Trident (nuclear deterrent).

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Welfare

Ending triple lock on pensions (pensions rise by inflation, wages, or 2.5%) and having a double lock (pensions rise by inflation or wages).

Means-testing the winter fuel allowance.

Since being in power, the Conservatives have implemented structural change to the welfare system.The 2017 campaign didn't promise any policy reversals from before.

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Liberal Democrat Ideas & Policies

The 2017 Liberal Democrat manifesto supported tax reform and a vote on the final Brexit deal.

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Law and order

Increase community policing.

Protect individual rights.

Stay in the European Court of Human Rights.

Introduce Digital Bill of Rights.

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Welfare

Making the benefits system fairer for young people and the disabled.

Reversing Conservative policies that cut benefits for some people.

Reforming benefits assessments.

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Economy

Support capital investment.

Eliminating the "day-to-day" deficit.

Reforming taxes and increasing tax on corporations.

Encouraging a living wage.

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Foreign policy

Controlling sales of arms to countries with human rights abuses.

Promote cooperation internationally.

Vote on the final Brexit deal.

Remaining in the single market.

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Nationalist Parties

Nationalist parties appeal to the shared identity of a region or nation, and base their campaigns and objectives on this identity

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What are nationalist parties?

Nationalist parties seek to appeal to the shared identity and language of individuals from a geographical area such as a region or nation.

Nationalist parties have different objectives, with some seeking full independence for their region or nation whilst others promote nationalist policies.

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The British National Party

The British National Party (BNP) have campaigned for values they see as being held by indigenous UK people.

The BNP is considered now to be a far-right party with fascist values.

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The Scottish National Party

The Scottish National Party (SNP) have campaigned for Scottish Independence and were instrumental in bringing about the Scottish Referendum on Independence in 2014.

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Single-Issue Parties

Single-issue parties base their ideas around a single issue, goal or policy.

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The Green Party

The Green Party are an example of a party with policies based on one ideological perspective.

The Green Party's policies are based around the principles of social justice and environmentalism.

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What are single-issue parties?

Single-issue parties may offer a range of policies all of which are based on a particular ideological perspective.

Other single-issue parties have a primary goal, and campaign on a particular issue or policy.

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UKIP

The United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) are an example of a party with policies based on a primary goal.

UKIP campaigned for the UK to leave the EU.

It could also be argued that UKIP also bases their policies around the ideology of British nationalism.

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The Impact of Minority Parties

While the mainstream parties have had the greatest electoral success, minority parties have an important role to play in the UK political system.

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Local and EU elections

Minor parties can have an impact on elections at the local and EU level.

Fewer people vote in local and EU elections, and minor parties can be more successful than in national elections.UKIP won more seats than Labour and the Conservatives in the 2014 EU parliament election.

By winning these elections, minor parties can make their agenda public and known, and put pressure on major parties.

Minor parties get power to dictate policy at a local and EU level.

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National elections

Minor parties are able to electorally harm other mainstream parties by taking their voters in elections and attracting their membership.The Conservatives lost 2 MPs to UKIP before 2015.

Minor parties also have a role in reflecting protests and grievances.People may vote for minority parties to express unhappiness with the major parties.

In minority governments, minority party support can be vital.In 2017 the Conservatives made a 'confidence and supply' agreement with the DUP.

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Putting issues on the agenda

If successful in gaining seats at a local or national level, minor parties can impact policy and put their main issues and cause at the centre of political debate.UKIP helped make the EU an issue debated at the national level.

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