Chapter 7 KIN 223

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What are the components of the skeletal system?

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What are the components of the skeletal system?

bones of skeleton, cartilage, ligaments, other CT

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two types of bone

compact bone and spongy bone

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what type of bone is dense or cortical bone?

compact

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what type of bone takes of 80% of bone mass?

compact bone

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what type of bone is known as cancellous or trabecular?

spongy bone

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what type of bone is located internal to compact bone, appears porous, and is 20% of bone mass?

spongy bone

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what structure is semirigid connective tissue that is more flexible than bone?

cartilage

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two types of cartilage

hyaline and fibrocartilage

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what type of cartilage attaches ribs to sternum, covers ends of some bones, is found within growth plates, and is a model for bone formation?

hyaline cartilage

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what type of cartilage withstands compression and is located in intervertebral discs, public symphysis, and menisci of knee?

fibrocartilage

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What connects muscle to bone?

tendons

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what connects bone to bone?

ligaments

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what are the four basic functions of bones?

-support and protection

-levers for movement

-hematopoiesis

-storage of mineral and energy reserves

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what is known as blood cell production and occurs in red bone marrow CT?

hematopoiesis

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what minerals are stored in bones?

calcium and phosphate

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this type of bone is greater in length than width

long bones

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example of long bone

femur, humerus

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this type of bone has a length that is nearly equal to width

short bones

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example of short bone

carpals and tarsals

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this type of bone has flat, thin surfaces that may be slightly curved

flat bones

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example of flat bones

cranial bones

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this type of bone is elaborate and sometimes has a complex shape

irregular bones

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example of irregular bones

vertebrae

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What region of the bone is elongated, with a usual cylindrical shaft

diaphysis

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What region of the bone provides leverage and weight support?

diaphysis

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What regions of the bone has compact bone with thin spicules of spongy bone extending inward?

diaphysis

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what is the diaphysis?

the shaft of a long bone

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What region of the bone is a hollow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis?

medullary (marrow) cavity

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What region of the bone contains red bone marrow in children and yellow bone marrow in adults?

medullary (marrow) cavity

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What is the knobby region at each end of long bone?

epiphysis

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What epiphysis is the end of the bone closest to body trunk?

proximal epiphysis

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What epiphysis is the end farthest from trunk?

distal epiphysis

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What is the epiphysis composed of?

Outer thin layer of compact bone and inner region of spongy bone.

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What type of cartilage covers the joint surface?

articular cartilage

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What type of cartilage is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage?

articular cartilage

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What type of cartilage reduces friction?

articular cartilage

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What type of cartilage absorbs shock in moveable joints?

articular cartilage

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Metaphysis

Region where bone widens and transfers weight between the diaphysis and epiphysis.

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Epiphyseal plate

growth plate

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what is the epiphyseal plate composed of?

hyaline cartilage

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what does the epiphyseal line become in adults?

epiphyseal line

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periostem

tough sheath covering outer surface of bone

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role of periosteum

serves an an attachment point for tendons and ligaments, anchors blood vessels and nerves to bone surface, and protects bone from surrounding structures

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What structure anchors the periosteum to the bone?

perforating fibers

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What is the inner cellular layer of the periosteum composed of?

osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts

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What are the three "layers" of the periosteum?

fibrous layer, cellular layer, perforating fibers

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Endosteum

covers all internal surfaces of bone within medullary cavity

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what do flat bones, irregular bones, and short bones lack?

medullary cavity

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Diploƫ

spongy bone in flat bone of skull

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nutrient foramen

small opening or hole in bone, artery entrance and vein exit here.

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Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue)

forms red blood cells

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Where is red bone marrow found in children?

spongy bone and medullary cavity of long bones

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Where is red bone marrow found in adults?

skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, ossa coxae, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur

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What is yellow bone marrow?

fatty substance; product of red bone marrow degeneration as children mature.

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When would yellow bone marrow convert back to red bone marrow?

severe anemia

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four types of cells found in bone connective tissue

osteoprogenitor, osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte

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What are osteoprogenitor cells?

Mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts

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Where are osteoprogenitor cells located?

periosteum and endosteum

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osteoblasts

bone forming cells

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What do osteoblasts secrete?

osteoid

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osteoid

initial semisolid organic form of bone matrix that later calcifies

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what do osteoblasts differentiate into?

osteocytes

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osteocytes

mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts

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what do osteoblasts do?

detect stress on bone; trigger new bone formation

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osteoclasts

large, multinuclear, phagocytic cells that resorb or break down bone matrix

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Resorption lacuna

a depression or pit in the bone surface that contains osteoclasts

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what type of border do osteoclasts have?

ruffled border

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organic components of the bone matrix

Osteoid produced by osteoblasts, contains

Collagen protein

Semisolid ground substance of proteoglycans and glycoproteins

Gives bone tensile strength by resisting stretching

Contributes to bone flexibility

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What do the organic components of the bone matrix do?

gives bone tensile strength by resisting stretching and contributes to bone flexibility

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inorganic components of bone

salt crystals, calcium phosphate

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What do the inorganic components of bone interact with?

calcium hydroxide

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what do the inorganic components and calcium hydroxide form?

crystals called hydroxyapatite

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What do the hydroxyapatite crystals do?

harden matrix and account for rigidity of bones

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Calcification

deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals

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How does bone formation start?

secretion of osteoid

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What does the bone formation process require?

vitamin D, vitamin C, calcium and phosphate

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osteitis deformans

results from disruption between osteoclast and osteoblast function

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osteons (bulls-eye target)

basic functional and structural unit of mature compact bone

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central (Haversian) canal

-Cylindrical channel at center of osteon and parallel to it.

-Blood vessels and nerves extend through channel

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Concentric lamellae

Rings of bone CT that surround the central canal. Composed of collagen fibers.

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osteocytes (car)

mature bone cells

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where are osteocytes found?

lacunae

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Canaliculi

tiny, interconnecting channels within bone CT that extend from each lacuna, travel through lamellae and connect to lacunae and central canal.

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canaliculi role

allow exchange of nutrients, minerals, gases, and wastes between blood vessels and osteocytes.

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