social psych exam 1

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motivational theory

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182 Terms

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motivational theory

suggests that motivation among people originates from the interrelationships of behavioral, biological, and evolutionary forces

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learning theory

current behavior is affected by previous experiences

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3

cognitive theory

role of current perceptions of social situations; our brain categorizes people & objects in the social world

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decision-making theory

logical, reasoned, rational thinking about decisions; uses cost/benefit analysis

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5

developmental theories

changes in brain structure, experiences, knowledge over lifespan influence social life

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sociocultural theories

focuses on how diverse social/cultural backgrounds affect people

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evolutionary theories

focuses primarily on psychological adaptations: mechanisms of the mind that have evolved to solve specific problems of survival or reproduction

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8

scientific/empirical approach

An approach to knowledge that emphasizes empirical processes, testable hypotheses, systematic and controlled observation of operationally defined phenomena, "data collection using accurate & precise instrumentation, valid & reliable measures", & objective reporting of the results

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9

characteristics of a good research question

-objective

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10

-testable

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-innovative

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-specific

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-feasible

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14

independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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15

dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

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16

alternative hypothesis

what you expect to find

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null hypothesis

assuming no finding

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sampling

process by which participants are selected; should be representative, unbiased, and large enough to detect an effect

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19

objective measurement

-participant observation

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20

-biomedical tests or samples

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-official records

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subjective measurement

-self-reported surveys

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-first-hand accounts of events/phenomena

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-personal records

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quanitative measurements

constructs in numbers & uses statistics to analyze data

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qualitative measurement

open-ended questions that focus on narrative descriptions, & analyzes themes

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internal validity

extent to which a study provides good evidence that the independent variable is affected/correlated with the dependent

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external validity

extent to which study findings generalize to other situations/populations

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sources of bias in research

-researcher can be biased towards results they want or expect

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-participants can be biased toward what they think the study is about

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-sample can be biased if not representative of population studying

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correlational studies

examine/observe relationships between variables

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experimental studies

randomly assign participants to different conditions with different levels of the independent variable

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advantages of correlational research

does not manipulate or create changes in any variables

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35

disadvantages of correlational research

-only measures variables

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-can have reverse causality

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-can have unmeasured variables

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advantages of experimental research

-useful to determine causality

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-can use multiple methods

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-lab study can control environment

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disadvantages of experimental research

-not always practical or ethical

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ethical considerations

Issues of research that take into account the welfare of participants

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replication

when the original study is repeated by other investigators in other labs

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self-concept

all individuals beliefs & perceptions about themselves & their own attributes

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self-perception theory

theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs

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facial feedback hypothesis

emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify

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self comparison theory

when we are unsure of how to evaluate ourself, we use others to compare to

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upward comparison

comparing yourself with a person who ranks higher than you on some dimension

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downward comparison

comparing yourself with a person who ranks lower than you on some dimension

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bias blind spot

we're biases to think that we're not biased

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above average effect

people who believe that they are doing better than others

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egocentric bias

"everyone's looking at me"

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-also known as the spotlight effect

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54

P.T. Barnum effect

tendency of people to accept descriptions that apply to almost everyone as applying specifically to them

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barnum blue

-emotionally driven

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-seeks harmony in groups

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-enthusiastic

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-creative

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-sympathetic

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barnum gold

-loyalty driven

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-respects rules & authority

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-responsible

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-organized

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-appreciative

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barnum orange

-short-term drive

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-welcomes change & variety

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-adventurous

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-competitive

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-impulsive

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barnum green

-logically driven

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-independent thinker

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-focused

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-efficient

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-analytical

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INTRAgroup

focus on differences between self & other group members (see yourself more as an individual)

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INTERgroup

focus on self as similar to group & group members (see yourself more as a group member)

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self-esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

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impression management

the attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen

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self-monitoring

being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression

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80

self-discrepancy theory

theory that behavior is motivated by standards reflecting ideal and ought selves. Falling short of these standards produces specific emotions: dejection-related emotions for actual-ideal discrepancies, and agitation-related emotions for actual-ought discrepancies

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81

social cognition

consists of the ensemble of mental processes that are specifically attuned to perceiving, understanding, & interacting with other people

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steps to social cognition

-gathering information

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-deciding what information to use

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-integrating information into judgment

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mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

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86

dual process theory

we can make judgements in a careful, systematic way or in a rapid, effortless way

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87

schemas

organized, structured set cognitions, thoughts, or ideas about concept/stimulus

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-can include knowledge, associations, examples

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script

schema about a well-known situation

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advantages of schemas

-helps process, organize interpret, & evaluate info quickly

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-helps remember & recall better

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-helps fill in missing information in a situation & interpret ambiguous situations

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disadvantages of schemas

-can lead to errors & biases

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-tend to accept information that fits & ignore information that contradicts

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-often unwilling to change even if faced with a lot of contradicting information

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-leads to stereotyping

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primacy effect

activated first/early on & continued use later

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-example: start by organizing

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recency effect

recently activated/used for something else & then used again even if not related & without awreness

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100

heuristics

Mental shortcuts or "rules of thumb" that often lead to a solution (but not always).

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