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Emotions are a mix of

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1

Emotions are a mix of

Expressive behavior, bodily arousal, and conscious experience

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2

James-Lange Theory

Arousal occurs before emotion

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3

Emotion

Result of attention to arousal

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4

Cannon Bard Theory

Arousal and emotions happen at the same time

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5

Schaenter-Singer Theory

"A factor" theory that emotions are arousal and a cognitive label. Emotions don't exist until we add a label to body sensations

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6

Spillover effect

People "caught" the emotions of others

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7

Fuels emotion

Arousal

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8

Channels emotion

Cognition

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9

Zajonc, LeDoux, Lazarus

Emotion without cognition/awareness; straight to amygdala, bypasses cortex

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10

Sympathetic nervous system

Psychological arousal felt during different emotions triggers activity in organs

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11

Parasympathetic nervous system

Calming

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12

Emotions in the left frontal lobe

Positive emotions

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13

Emotions in the right frontal lobe

Negative emotions

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14

Emotional content is easily read in the

Eyes and face

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15

Introverted people excel at

Reading emotions; extroverted people are easier to read

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16

The gender generally better at reading emotional cues

Women; they're also more likely to express empathy

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17

Universally understood facial expressions

Smiles, frowns

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18

Cultures differ in

How much emotion is expressed

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19

Facial feedback effect

The tendency of facial muscle states trigger corresponding feelings

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20

Behavior feedback effect

The tendency of behavior to influence our own and others' thoughts, feelings, and actions

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21

Persistent anger

Harmful to our bodies

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22

Chronic hostility has a link to

Heart disease

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23

The Catharsis Myth

We can reduce anger by "releasing" it (hostile outbursts)

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24

Expressing anger breeds what?

More anger

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25

The best way to cope with anger

Wait, then use a distraction, exercise, a hobby, etc

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26

Feel-good, do-good phenomenon

The tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

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27

Positive psychology

The study of happiness and life satisfaction

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28

Adaptation level phenomenon

We adjust to our neutral levels; happiness is relative to past experiences

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29

Money can buy happiness when

It gets you out of poverty

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30

Relative deprivation

Happiness is relative to others' wealth, successes, etc

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31

Stressor

An event or conditions that we view as threatening, challenging, or overwhelming

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32

Appraisal

Deciding whether to view something as a stressor

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33

Stress reaction

Any emotional or physical response to a stressor

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34

Stress

The process of appraising and responding to a stressor

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35

Stress arises from

How we appraise events, rather than from the event itself

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36

General Adaptation Syndrome

Three phases (Alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion)

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37

Coronary heart disease

Stress is closely linked to this; the leading cause of death in the US

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38

Worsens experience of stress

Chronic stress and personality style

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39

Type A

Reactive, impatient, competitive, easily angered; more likely to have a heart attack. The most toxic component is anger

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Type B

Easygoing

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Problem focused coping

Changing the stressor or the way we interact with the stressor

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42

Emotion focused coping

Reducing the emotional impact of stress by getting support and comfort from others

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43

Losing control

Provokes an outpour of stress hormones; Blood pressure increases, immune responses drop

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44

Optimistic people

Expect to have more control, cope better with stressful events, have stronger immune systems

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45

Internal locus of control

We control our own fate

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46

External locus of control

Chance or outside forces determine fate (Causes less motivation, more anxiety)

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47

Self control

The ability to control impulses and delay gratification

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48

Close relationships

Predict happiness and health

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49

Aerobic exercise

Reduces the risk of heart disease, cancer, dementia, early death

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50

Exercise is a strong predictor of

Life satisfaction; It's as effective as antidepressants with longer lasting effects

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51

Lifestyle modification

Modifying lifestyle led to reduced heart attack rates

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52

Faith communities

Led people to live longer (Relaxed meditation of prayer)

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53

Attribution

A conclusion about the caused of an observed behavior

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54

Attribution Theory

We explain others' behavior with two types of attributions (situational and dispositional)

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55

Fundamental attribution error

When we go too far in assuming that a person's behavior is caused by their personality

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56

Attitude

Feelings, ideas, and beliefs that affect how we react to other people, objects, and events

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57

Foot-in-the-door phenomenon

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

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58

The Effects of Playing a Role

When we play a role, even if we know it is just pretending, we eventually tend to adopt the attitudes that go with the role, and become the role

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59

Cognitive Dissonance

When our actions and attitudes clash

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60

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

We change our attitudes to fix our actions

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61

Conformity

Adjusting our behavior or thinking to go along with a group standard

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62

Social Contagion

Behavior is contagious (Yawning, laughing, etc)

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63

Asch Conformity Studies

About one third of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with the group

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64

Normative Social Influence

Going along with others in pursuit of social approval and to avoid rejection

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65

Informational Social Influence

Going along with others because groups provide information

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66

Milgram's Obedience Study

Participants "teachers" shocked actors "learners" when they said a wrong answer under command from an authority figure, using the foot-in-the-door technique. Over 60% complied fully.

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67

Factors increasing obedience

Authority figures, association with prestigious institution, figures standing close by, victim depersonalization

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68

The Power of Obedience

People may be more obedient after time in war, however, it can also strengthen heroism (risking or sacrificing oneself)

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Social Facilitation

Strengthens performance in presence of others, or strengthens the most likely response

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70

Social loafing

The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when not individually accountable

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71

Deindividuation

Loss of self awareness and self restraint. Group participation makes people aroused and anonymous

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72

Group polarization

Beliefs you bring to a group grow stronger as you discuss with like minded others

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73

Echo chamber of the internet

Fuels extreme views

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74

Prejudice

An unjustified attitude towards a group

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75

Targets of prejudice

Racial, ethnic, gender, LGBTQ

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Just-world phenomenon

"Those who succeed must be good and those who suffer must be bad"

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Ingroup bias

Natural drive to distinguish enemies from friends

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78

Scapegoat theory

Prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

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79

Other-race effect

Greater recognition for own-race faces

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80

Aggression

Behavior with the intent of harming another person

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81

Social scripts

Guide for how to act in situations seen in video, music, TV, and other media

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82

Why do we befriend or fall in love with some people but not others?

Proximity, physical attractiveness, similarity

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83

Key to a long lasting relationship

Positive interactions outnumber negative by 5 to 1

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84

Altruism

Unselfish regard for welfare of other people; helping without need for personal gain

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85

Bystander effect

Fewer people help when others are available

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86

Conflict

A perceived incompatibility in goals, ideas, or actions between people or groups

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87

Peacemaking

The four C's: contact, cooperation, communication, conciliation

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88

Personality

Our characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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89

Freud

"Discovered" the unconscious, named his theory and treatment psychoanalysis

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90

Freud's Personality Iceberg

Repression of unacceptable passions; Personality arises from a conflict between impulse and restraint. Id (pleasure), ego (reality), and superego (moral compass) with ego being the mediator

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91

Psychosexual stages

Childhood stages of development where the id is focused on erogenous zones, and people can be fixated on one stage. Five stages.

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92

Oedipus complex

According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

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93

Projective tests

Ambiguous prompts reveal inner workings of mind

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94

Rorschach inkblot test

A projective test through looking at inkblots. The problem is that results have low validity and low reliability.

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95

Critiques to Freud

Development is lifelong, underestimation of peer influence, dreams don't reveal unconscious wishes, traumatic memories are NOT repressed, low testability

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96

Abraham Maslow

People are motivated to keep moving up a hierarchy of needs

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97

Humanistic Theories of Personality

Abraham Maslow (Self Actualizing Person) and Carl Rogers (Person Centered Perspective)

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98

Carl Rogers

Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy are the three conditions facilitating growth and fulfillment

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99

Trait

A characteristic pattern of a behavior or predisposition to feel and act a certain way

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100

Trait theory of personality

We are made up of a collection of traits that can be identified and measured; traits differ from person to person

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