READPHI MODULE 1-2

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112 Terms

1

History

The study and writing of history can be traced back from the Greek tradition

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2

Historia

English word “history” derived from Greek word noun – “_____” meaning “learning” or knowing by inquiry

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3

Herodotus

father of history

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Aristotle

For ________ - history meant a systematic account of a set of natural phenomena

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5

scientia

Latin word “______” or science came to be used more regularly to designate non-chronological systematic accounts of natural phenomena;

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mankind

Now a common definition – “History” as “the past of ____”

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7

Fortiori

“_____” – the experience of generation long dead, most of whom left no records or whose records, if they exist, have never been disturbed, is beyond the possibility of total recollection

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T

T OR F

The reconstruction of the total past of mankind for the historians is totally unattainable.

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9

Fortiori

A ____ in Latin literally means “from the stronger (argument)”. The term is used when drawing a conclusion that’s even more obvious or convincing than the one just drawn.

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10

F - more challenging

T OR F

Thus, if teaching English grammar to native speakers is difficult, then, a fortiori, teaching English grammar to nonnative speakers will not be challenging

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11

Worldviews

_______ are often taken to operate at a conscious level, directly accessible to articulation and discussion, as opposed to existing at a deeper, pre-conscious level

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12

F - written

T OR F

History from Greek, historia, meaning (inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation) is the past as it is described by oral documents, and the study thereof

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13

Prehistory

Events occurring before written records

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14

History

umbrella term that related to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events

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15

F - academic

T OR F

History also includes the scientific discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyze a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them

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16

T

T OR F

Sometimes objects like ruins and other artifacts survive from the past, otherwise, the facts of history are derived from testimony and therefore are facts of meaning

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17

Subjective

They exist only in observer’s or historian’s mind

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18

inferior

There is a prejudice against “subjective” knowledge as _____ to “objective” knowledge, largely because the word “subjective” has also come to mean “illusory” or “based upon personal considerations”, hence either “untrue” or “biased

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19

objective

To become ______, an object or thing must have an independent existence outside of the human mind

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Recollections

______, however, do not have existence outside the human mind; and most of history is based upon recollections - that is, written or spoken testimony

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21

Artifacts

Results of events

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22

Written Documents

Results of the records of events

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23

interpretative, descriptive

The historian aims at being ______ (explaining why and how things happened and were interrelated) as well as ______ (telling what happened, when and where, and who took part).

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24

T

T OR F

A historian tries to get as close an approximation to the truth about the past as constant correction of his mental images will allow, at the same time, recognizing that the truth has in fact eluded him forever

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25

verisimilar

The historian’s responsibility shifts to that of re-creating a _____ image of as much of the past as the evidence makes recoverable

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26

F - cannot

T OR F

There’s a recognition that in a sense, history can be reconstructed.

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27

history-as-actuality

The historian can grasp of the ______, no matter how real it may have seemed while it was happening, can be nothing more than a mental image or a series of mental images based upon an application of his own experience

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dynamic, static

The historian deals with the _____ (the becoming) as well as the _____ (the being or the become)

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29

Historical method

the process of critically examining and analyzing the records and survivals of the past.

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Historiography

the imaginative reconstruction of the past from the data derived by that process

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T

T OR F

Both historical method and historiography helps historians to reconstruct as much of the past of mankind as they can

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32

T

T OR F

The historian must be sure that his records really come from the past and that his imagination is directed toward re-creation and not creation. These limits distinguish history from fiction, poetry, drama and fantasy

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33

primary, secondary

Written and oral sources are divided into two kinds: ___ and ____

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34

Primary Source

 testimony of an eyewitness, or of a witness by any other of the senses, or of a mechanical device

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F - does not

T OR F

A primary source needs to be original

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Secondary Source

 testimony of anyone who is not an eyewitness – that is, of one who was not present at the events of which he tells

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37

Primary Source

Main text or work that you are discussing, actual data or research results, or historical documents; first-hand testimony

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38

Secondary Source

Records generated by an event but written by non-participants in the event. Based on/derived from primary sources- but they have been interpreted or analyzed.

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39

Original

a word of so many different meanings that it would have been better to avoid it in precise historical discourse; it can be, and frequently is, used to denote five different conditions of a document, all of which are important to the historian

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40

a. fresh and creative ideas

b. not translated

c. earliest, unpolished stage

d. unmodified and untampered with

e. earliest available source

A document may be called “original”

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41

T

T OR F

It should be remembered that the historian when analyzing sources is interested chiefly in particulars and that he asks particularly whether it is based on first-hand or second-hand testimony.

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42

Document

It is sometimes used to mean a written source of historical information as contrasted with oral testimony or with artifacts, pictorial survivals, and archaeological remains

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43

Documentation

signifies any process of proof based upon any kind of source whether written, oral, pictorial or archaeological

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44

Human document

defined as “account of individual experience which reveals the individual’s actions as a human agent and as a participant in social life

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45

Personal Document

defined as “any self-revealing record that intentionally or unintentionally yields information regarding the structure, dynamics and functioning of the author’s mental life”

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46

Narrative or story

account of a series of related events, experiences, or the like, whether true (episode, vignette, travelogue, memoir, autobiography, biography) or fictitious (fairy tale, fable, story, epic, legend, novel)

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47

Narrative

found in all forms of human creativity, art, and entertainment, including speech, literature, theatre, music and song, comics, journalism, film, television and video, video games, radio, game-play, unstructured recreation, and performance in general, as well as some painting, sculpture, drawing, photography, and other visual arts, as long as sequence of events is presented

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48

Metanarrative

a narrative about narratives of historical meaning, experience, or knowledge, which offers a society legitimation through the anticipated completion of a (as yet unrealized) master idea

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49

Worldview, world-view

fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual’s or society’s knowledge and point of view

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50

Laguna Copperplate Inscription

legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 CE, is the earliest known calendar-dated document found in the Philippines

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51

Balitung

The date of the inscription would make it contemporary to the _____ kingdom of Central Java, although it necessarily did not originate from that area

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52

Antoon Postma

The inscription, written in a mix of the Old Malay language using the Old Kawi script, was first deciphered by Dutch anthropologist and Hanuno’o script expert ____ ____ in 1992

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53

Pasig River

The LCI documents the existence of several early Philippine polities was early as AD 900, most notably the ___ ____ delta polity (meaning: an organized society; a state as a political entity) of Tondo

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54

Medang

Scholars believe that it also indicates trade, cultural, and possibly political ties between these polities and at least one contemporaneous Asian civilization - the _____ Kingdom of the island of Java

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55

Kawi Script

The inscription was written in ___ ____- a writing system developed in Java, and using a mixture of languages including Sanskrit, Old Javanese, and Old Malay. This was a rare trace of Javanese influence, which suggests the extent of interinsular (existing or occurring between islands) exchanges of that time

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56

April 21 900

It records the date as the year 822 of the Saka era, the month of Waisaka, and the fourth day of the waning moon, which corresponds to Monday, ___ ___ _____ on the Julian calendar

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57

Sanskrit Words

used for technical terms

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58

Javanese Words

used for forms of address

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59

Old Malay

uses differs from examples found in Java and Sumatra

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60

Namwaran

The document states that it releases its bearers, the children of _______, from a debt in gold amounting to 1 kati and 8 suwarnas (865 grams; 27.8 troy ounces)

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61

UST Baybayin documents

Two 17th century land deeds written in baybayin, an ancient Philippine Syllabary; Involvement of women in buying and selling of lands

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62

UST Baybayin documents

Oldest Paper Document in the Philippines; This is an evidence that Filipinos are already using paper prior to the coming of Magellan and the Spaniards

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63

Manunggul Jar

Secondary burial jar excavated from the neolithic burial site in the Manunggul cave of the Tabon cave

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64

Manunggul Jar

Two prominent figures at the top handle of its cover represent the journey of the soul to the afterlife

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65

Glenn May

He doubted this: ‘inventing a hero: the posthumous re-creation of Andres Bonifacio’

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66

Laypagasa

Andres Bonifacio’s code name

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67

Sociopolitical History

What kind of history is concentrated in the PH History?

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68

Parisian Life

obra maestra ni Juan Luna na nagpapakita ng isang babaeng pranses habang pinag-uusapan ng tatlong lalaki sa loob ng isang kapihan sa Paris

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69

The Maid

Kilala ito sa tawag na ‘____’

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70

Marcelo H. Del Pilar

first choice to be national hero, but he died of TB (not as “dramatic” as Jose Rizal’s death)

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71

Authentic

Everything must be original (all elements being all original); wholly original

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72

Multinational

specific headquarters in a region

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73

Transnational

no headquarters in a region in which they operate; operates through a distributor

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74
  1. Photographs

  2. Old Sketches and Drawings

  3. Old Maps

  4. Cartoons

  5. Material Evidence

  6. Statistical tables

  7. Oral history

  8. Primary document/s

Eight examples of primary sources

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75
  1. Date

  2. Localization

  3. Authorship

  4. Analysis

  5. Integrity

  6. Credibility

Garraghan (1950) identified six points of inquiries regarding the authenticity of a primary source:

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76

Maragtas

The story of Datu Kalantiaw is often assumed to be just one of the legends contained in an ancient and mysterious document called the ______

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77

Pedro Montecarlo

However, the Maragtas was actually just a book written in 1907 by ____ _____ in which he compiled the local legends of the Visayas from mainly oral tradition and a few written documents that were fairly modern in their origins

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78

Jose Marco

Who really wrote the Code of Kalantiaw?

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79

Kalantiaw

20th century filipino students were taught about the vicious and bizarre laws that were said to have been enacted by one Datu _____ in the year 1433 on the island of Panay

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80

Forged Documents

Forgeries of documents in whole or in part without being usual, are common enough to keep the careful historian constantly in guard

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81

Historical Documents are fabricated

  • Bolster a false claim or title

  • Less mercenary considerations (political propaganda)

  • Sometimes quite genuine document are intended to mislead certain contemporaries and hence, have misled subsequent historians

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82

Oswald Iten

The scandal broke after Swiss journalist ____ ____ revisited the Tasaday in 1986 and found the tribe living in houses and wearing regular clothes.

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83

The Gentle Tasaday

“He forced us to live in caves”; an orchestration to distract the people from the martial law

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84

Manuel Elizalde Jr.

Members of the clan alleged to Iten that they had been bribed into wearing leaves and living in caves by the very man appointed to protect them- Marcos crony and aspiring politician ___ ___ ___

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85

Test of Authenticity

To distinguish a hoax or a misrepresentation from a genuine document, the historian has to use the test that is common also in police or legal detection

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86

T

T OR F

Historians examine the materials to see whether they are not anachronistic (belonging to a period other than that being portrayed)

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87

Anachronism

a person, thing, or idea that exists out of its time in history, especially one that happened or existed later than the period being shown, discussed, etc.

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88

Anachronistic

______ style (idiom, orthography, or punctuation) can be detected by specialists who are familiar with contemporary writing

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89

F - uncovers fraud

T OR F

Anachronistic references to events - too early or too late or too remote; or dating of a document at a time when the alleged writer could not possibly have been at the place designated (the alibi) does not uncover fraud

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90

Garbled Documents

  • A document that in its entirety or in large part is the result of a deliberate effort to deceive may often be hard to evaluate, but it sometimes causes less trouble than does the document that is unauthentic only in a small part.

For such parts are usually the result, not of studied falsehood, but of unintentional error.

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91

F - Garbled

T OR F

Forged Documents occur most frequently in copies of documents whose originals have disappeared, and are generally due to that kind of error of omission, repetition, or addition with which anyone who has ever made copies soon becomes familiar

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92

T

T OR F

Sometimes, garbed documents are the result, however, not of carelessness but deliberate intention to modify, supplement, or continue the original

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93

Textual Criticism

The historians borrowed the technique of ____ ___ from the philologists and Bible critics.

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94

The Restoration of Texts

The technique is complicated but can be briefly described; the first task is to collect as many copies of the dubious text as diligent search will reveal. Then they are compared

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95

T

T OR F

When the style and contents of passages under discussion may be attributed to the author, it is safe to assume that they were parts of his original manuscript but were omitted by later copyists; and when they cannot be attributed to the author, it is safe to assume that they were not parts of his original manuscript

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96

F - external

Identification of Author and of Date

  • Some guesses of the approximate date of the document and some identification of its supposed author obviously form an essential part of internal criticism

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97

Internal Criticism

Having established an authentic text and discovered what the author really intended to say, the historian has only established what the witness’ testimony is. He has yet to determine whether that testimony is at all credible, and if so, to what extent. That is the problem of ____ ____.

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98

Historical Fact

The problem of credibility is not what actually happened, but that is close to what actually happened as we can learn from a critical examination of the best available sources

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99

Subject to Proof

The elementary data of history is ___ ___ ____

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100

Historical Fact

They are easily observed, recorded, involve no judgment of value, contradict no other knowledge available to us, seem otherwise logically acceptable, and avoid generalization, deal with single instances

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