GA II - Block #1 (Week 3)

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Dorsal border of the pelvic inlet:

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1

Dorsal border of the pelvic inlet:

promontory of sacrum

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2

Lateral boundary of the pelvic inlet:

arcuate line of the ilium

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3

Ventral boundary of pelvic inlet:

pecten of the pubis

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4

Dorsal border of the pelvic outlet:

first caudal vertebra

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5

Lateral boundary of the pelvic outlet:

sacrotuberous ligament

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6

Ventral border of the pelvic outlet:

ischiatic arch

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7

The pelvic canal is clinically relevant for ____________

parturition

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8

pubic vs pelvic symphysis

pubic is just pubic bones and pelvic is pubis and ischium

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9

the coxofemoral joint is a ___________ joint

spheroidal

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10

What joint is a spheroidal joint?

coxofemoral joint

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11

The femur is held in place by the __________ and __________

ligament of the femoral head and transverse acetabular ligament

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12

What would happen if the ligaments holding the femur in place were not there?

hip luxation

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13

If there is pain upon forced abduction and extension of the limb, what would have occured?

femoral head necrosis

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14

femoral head necrosis can occur with what kinds of dogs usually?

small breed dogs

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15

What is one of the most common orthopedic disease in large breed dogs?

hip dysplasia

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16

What is the pelvic girdle in the dog?

right and left os coxae

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17

What is the hip joint called in the dog?

coxofemoral joint

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18

What is the thigh called in the dog?

femur

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19

What is the stifle joint called?

femorotibial joint

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20

What is the tibia and fibula called?

crus

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21

What is the hindpaw called?

pes

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22

What are the parts of the pes?

tarsus

metatarsus

digits (phalanges and sesamoids)

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23

What supports the incongruent surfaces of the femoroticial joint?

menisci

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24

The patella is a _______ bone

sesamoid

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25

The joints of the stifle share a common ______________. How many are there?

synovial capsule; 3 sacs

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26

Where are the 3 stifle sacs loacted?

2 between femoral and tibial condyles and 1 beneath patella

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27

How many menisci are there? What shape are they?

2 fibrocartilaginous; semilunar

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28

What is attached to the medial collateral ligament?

medial meniscus

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29

The medial meniscus is attached to what?

medial collateral ligament

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30

Where is the medial collateral ligament located?

between the femoral epicondyle and proximal tibia

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31

Where is the lateral collateral ligament located?

between femoral epicondyle and fibular head

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32

What prevents abduction, adduction and rotation of the stifle?

medial and lateral collateral ligaments

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33

What do the medial and lateral collateral ligaments prevent?

abduction, adduction and rotation of stifle

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34

Which meniscus is more likely to be torn?

medial

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35

Where is the cranial cruciate ligament placed?

lateral condyle of femur to cranial aspect of tibia

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36

Where is the caudal cruciate ligament placed?

medial condyle of of femur to caudal aspect of tibia

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37

What does the cranial cruciate prevent?

cranial movement of tibia relative to femur

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38

What does the caudal cruciate ligament prevent?

caudal movements of the tibia relative to the femur

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39

Collateral and cruciate ligaments work together to limit ___________ of what?

medial rotation of tibia on the femur

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40

What is the most common cause of rear limb lameness in the dog?

cranial cruciate tear

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41

What causes a cranial cruciate tear?

sudden rotation of limb when joint is flexed (e.g. limb is weight bearing and dog catches foot in hole)

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42

The patella is interposed within what?

tendon of quadriceps

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43

There is a large quantity of fat located between the what in the patella?

patellar ligament and synovial membrane of joint capsule

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44

The patella is mainly held in the trochlea by what things?

femoral fascia, medial and lateral femoropatellar ligaments

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45

Where does the patellar ligament extend from and insert?

extends from patella to tibial tuberosity

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46

What is happening if a patient has a luxating patella?

patella is moving in and out of trochlear groove

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47

Proximal row of tarsal bones:

talus and calcaneus

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48

Middle row of tarsal bones:

central tarsal bone

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49

Distal row of tarsal bones:

1-4 tarsal bones

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50

What provides the most movement of the hock?

tarsocrural joint (cochlea of tibia and trochlea of talus)

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51

Medial and lateral collateral ligaments from the tibia/fibula go to the _______ bones

metatarsal

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52

Review flexor manica, plantar annular lig., DDF and proximal and distal annual ligaments

Review :)

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53

The ________ fascia is continued as the deep gluteal fascia. It covers the muscles of the ______

thoracolumbar; pelvis

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54

Distall, the deep gluteal fascia blends with the fascia of the _________

thigh

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55

Name the fascias of the pelvic limb:

deep gluteal fascia

femoral fascia

lateral femoral fascia (fascia lata)

deep crural fascia

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56

Lateral mm. of the pelvis

tensor fascia latae m.

superifical gluteal m.

middle gluteal m.

deep gluteal m.

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57

What is the action of the tensor fascia latae m.?

flex hip

extend stifle

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58

Caudal hip mm:

internal obturator m.

gemelli m.

quadratus femoris m.

external obturator m.

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59

Medial mm. of the thigh:

adductor

gracilis

sartorius

pectineus

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60

Femoral triangle is used for what?

feeling arterial pulse (femoral a.)

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61

Base of femoral triangle:

abdominal wall and inguinal lig.

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62

Cranial border of femoral triangle:

caudal belly of sartorius m.

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63

Caudal border of femoral triangle:

pectineus m.

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64

cranial mm. of thigh:

quadriceps femoris m.

iliopsoas m.

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65

Caudal mm of thigh:

biceps femoris m.

semitendinosus m.

semimembranosus m.

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66

What holds down the craniolateral mm. of the crus?

crural and tarsal extensor retinaculum

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67

What are the craniolateral mm. of the crus?

fibularis longus m.

cranial tibial m.

long digitial extensor m.

lateral digital extensor

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68

Why are the caudal mm. of the crus radiographically significant?

sesamoid bones located in tendons of origin (gastrocnemius and popliteus)

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69

Caudal mm. of the crus:

Gastrocnemius m.

Superficial digital flexor m.

Deep digital flexor m.

Popliteus m.

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70

The common calcanean tendon is made up of the tendons of what muscles?

Gastrocnemius

SDF

Biceps femoris

semitendinosus

gracilis

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71

The tendon of the gastrocnemius is crossed medially by __________

tendon of SDF

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72

The tendon of the gastrocnemius is crossed ______ by the tendon of the SDF

medially

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73

What tendon can be susceptible to tear or rupture (partial or complete)?

common calcanean tendon

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74

What would you likely see if a patient had a partial tear of the common calcanean tendon?

dropped hock and curled toe (hyperflexion)

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75

What would you most likely see in a patient that has complete rupture of the common calcanean tendon?

plantigrade (hock on ground)

all tendons ruptured

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76

How is the pelvic girdle attached to the trunk dorsally?

sacroiliac joints

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77

How is the pelvic girdle attached tot he trunk ventrally?

pelvic symphysis

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78

Largest, paired branch off aorta:

external iliac a.

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79

External iliac a. runs in what direction?

caudoventrally

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80

What is the only branch off the external iliac a.?

deep femoral a.

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81

The external iliac a. becomes what artery? When?

femoral a. after vascular vacuna

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82

deep femoral a. gives off ___________

pudendoepigastric trunk

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83

pudendoepigastric trunk branches:

external pudendal a. and caudal epigastric a.

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84

Deep femoral a. continues as ____________

medial circumflex femoral a.

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85

Where does the medial circumflex femoral a. arborize?

adductor and semimembranosus mm.

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86

Where is the vascular lacuna located?

between inguinal lig. and pelvis

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87

What is found in the femoral triangle?

femoral a., femoral v. and saphenous n.

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88

Branches of the femoral a:

  • superficial circumflex iliac a.

  • lateral circumflex femoral a.

  • proximal caudal femoral a.

  • saphenous a.

  • descending genicular a.

  • middle caudal femoral a.

  • distal caudal femoral a.

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89

After the distal caudal femoral a., the femoral a. continues as what artery?

popliteal a.

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90

Popliteal a. terminates as:

cranial and caudal tibial aa.

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91

Cranial tibial a. transitions to the ________ a. at the level of ___________

dorsal pedal a.; talocrural joint

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92

What artery can be used for pulse detection and for arterial draws while the animal is under anesthesia?

dorsal pedal a.

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93

What drains into the distal caudal femoral vein?

lateral saphenous v.

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94

What is often used for venipuncture in dogs?

cranial branch of the lateral saphenous v.

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95

What is often used for venipuncture in cats?

medial saphenous v.

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96

Where does the medial saphenous v. drain into?

femoral v.

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97

Where does the lateral saphenous v. drain into?

distal caudal femoral v.

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98

What supplies innervation to the pelvic limb?

lumbosacral plexus

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99

What does the obturator n. supply?

  • external obturator m.

  • pectineus m.

  • gracilis m.

  • adductor m.

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100

The femoral n. gives off the __________ n.

saphenous

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