Lecture Exam #4

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parts of the retina

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parts of the retina

macula, fovea, optic nerve, photoreceptors

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<p>macula</p>
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<p>macula</p>

macula

Dark yellow-orange area with indistinct edges in the retina. It contains the fovea.

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<p>fovea</p>
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<p>fovea</p>

fovea

the center of the retina, where cones are densely packed

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<p>optic disc</p>
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<p>optic disc</p>

optic disc

Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light.

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rods and cones

photoreceptors in retina

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parts of spinal cord

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral,

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<p>cervical</p>
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<p>cervical</p>

cervical

neck region

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<p>thoracic</p>
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<p>thoracic</p>

thoracic

chest region with ribs

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<p>lumbar</p>
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<p>lumbar</p>

lumbar

lower back

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<p>sacral</p>
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<p>sacral</p>

sacral

area between hips

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<p>Structural classification of neurons</p>
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<p>Structural classification of neurons</p>

Structural classification of neurons

multipolar, bipolar, unipolar, anaxonic

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<p>multipolar neurons</p>
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<p>multipolar neurons</p>

multipolar neurons

many dendrites, one axon (most common type)

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<p>Bipolar Neurons</p>
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<p>Bipolar Neurons</p>

Bipolar Neurons

one dendrite and one axon

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<p>Unipolar neurons</p>
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<p>Unipolar neurons</p>

Unipolar neurons

one process extends from cell body

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<p>anaxonic neuron</p>
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<p>anaxonic neuron</p>

anaxonic neuron

have dendrites but no axons

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Functional classifications of neurons

sensory, motor, interneurons

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<p>Sensory neurons</p>
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<p>Sensory neurons</p>

Sensory neurons

  • Conduct input from somatic and visceral receptors to CNS

  • Most are unipolar (a few bipolar)

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<p>Motor neurons</p>
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<p>Motor neurons</p>

Motor neurons

  • Conduct output from CNS to somatic and visceral effectors

  • All are multipolar

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interneurons

  • Receive, process, and integrate information from many other neurons

  • Generally are multipolar

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different parts of a neuron

cell body (soma), dendrites, axon, cytoskeleton

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Cell body (soma)

contains nucleus

<p>contains nucleus</p>
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Dendrites

Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.

<p>Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.</p>
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Axon

Long process emanating from cell body

  • Makes contact with other neurons, muscle cells, or glands

<p>Long process emanating from cell body</p><ul><li><p>Makes contact with other neurons, muscle cells, or glands</p></li></ul>
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Cytoskeleton

Composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules

<p>Composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules</p>
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Types of glial cells in Central Nervous System:

astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes

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Astrocytes (star-shaped cells) (CNS)

  • Help form blood-brain barrier

  • regulate tissue fluid composition

  • form structural support, assist neuronal development

  • alter synaptic activity (add, eliminate, influence)

  • Occupy the space of dying neurons

<ul><li><p>Help form blood-brain barrier</p></li><li><p>regulate tissue fluid composition</p></li><li><p>form structural support, assist neuronal development</p></li><li><p>alter synaptic activity (add, eliminate, influence)</p></li><li><p>Occupy the space of dying neurons</p></li></ul>
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Ependymal cells (CNS)

  • line cavities in brain and spinal cord

  • part of choroid plexus which produces cerebrospinal

<ul><li><p>line cavities in brain and spinal cord</p></li><li><p>part of choroid plexus which produces cerebrospinal</p></li></ul>
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Microglia (CNS)

  • Small cells that wander central nervous system and replicate in infection

  • engulf infectious agents and remove debris

<ul><li><p>Small cells that wander central nervous system and replicate in infection</p></li><li><p>engulf infectious agents and remove debris</p></li></ul>
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Oligodendrocytes (CNS)

Extensions wrap around axons of neurons forming myelin sheath

<p>Extensions wrap around axons of neurons forming myelin sheath</p>
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Glial Cells of the Peripheral Nervous System

satellite cells and neurolemmocytes cells (schwann)

<p>satellite cells and neurolemmocytes cells (schwann)</p>
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Satellite Cells (PNS)

Electrically insulate and regulate the exchange of nutrients and wastes

<p>Electrically insulate and regulate the exchange of nutrients and wastes</p>
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Neurolemmocytes (Schwann cells) (PNS)

allows for faster action potential propagation

<p>allows for faster action potential propagation</p>
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Lobes of the brain

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula

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frontal lobe function

Motor control, concentration, verbal communication, decision making, planning, personality

<p>Motor control, concentration, verbal communication, decision making, planning, personality</p>
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parietal lobe function

sensory (sensation)

<p>sensory (sensation)</p>
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temporal lobe function

hearing and smell

<p>hearing and smell</p>
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occipital lobe

vision and visual memories

<p>vision and visual memories</p>
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Insula

memory and sense of taste

<p>memory and sense of taste</p>
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parts of diencephalon

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

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Epithalamus function

pineal gland: secretes melatonin and helps regulate day-night cycles Habenular Nuclei: Help relay signals from limbic system to midbrain, Involved in visceral and emotional responses to odors

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pineal gland

secretes melatonin

<p>secretes melatonin</p>
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Habenular Nuclei function

Help relay signals from limbic system to midbrain, Involved in visceral and emotional responses to odors

<p>Help relay signals from limbic system to midbrain, Involved in visceral and emotional responses to odors</p>
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thalamus

Receives signals from all conscious senses except olfaction

<p>Receives signals from all conscious senses except olfaction</p>
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Hypothalamus

Control of autonomic nervous system, Control of endocrine system, Regulation of body temperature, Food and Water intake, Sleep-wake rhythms, Emotional behavior

<p>Control of autonomic nervous system, Control of endocrine system, Regulation of body temperature, Food and Water intake, Sleep-wake rhythms, Emotional behavior</p>
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Sclera

white of the eye

<p>white of the eye</p>
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iris

Colored part of the eye

<p>Colored part of the eye</p>
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pupil

opening in the center of the iris (black part)

<p>opening in the center of the iris (black part)</p>
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retina function

receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals on to the brain for visual recognition

<p>receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals on to the brain for visual recognition</p>
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ciliary muscles function

Changes the shape of the lens to focus light into the retina

<p>Changes the shape of the lens to focus light into the retina</p>
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aqueous humor

fluid in front of the eye, found between the cornea and the lens

<p>fluid in front of the eye, found between the cornea and the lens</p>
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vitreous humor

jellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains its shape

<p>jellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains its shape</p>
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sclera function

helps maintain your eyeball's shape and protects it from injury.

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iris function

helps regulate the amount of light entering the eye.

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pupil function

let's light into your eye as the muscles of your iris change its shape.

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retina function

capture light that comes through the eye and change that light into an electrical signal that your brain interprets as an image.

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optic nerve function

sends visual information from the retina to the vision centers of the brain.

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ciliary muscle function

alters the shape of the lens with contraction and relaxation

<p>alters the shape of the lens with contraction and relaxation</p>
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aqueous humor function

Helps the cornea keep its rounded shape, supplies nutrition to the eye

<p>Helps the cornea keep its rounded shape, supplies nutrition to the eye</p>
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vitreous humor function

let's light pass through while helping eye keep its shape and absorb shock

<p>let&apos;s light pass through while helping eye keep its shape and absorb shock</p>
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components of a reflex arc

  1. receptor

  2. sensory neuron

  3. integration center

  4. motor neuron

  5. effector

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5 steps of reflex arc

  1. stimulus activates receptor

  2. Nerve signal is propagated through sensory neuron to the spinal cord

  3. Nerve signal is processed in the integration center by interneurons

  4. Nerve signal is propagated by motor neuron to effector

  5. Effector responds

<ol><li><p>stimulus activates receptor</p></li><li><p>Nerve signal is propagated through sensory neuron to the spinal cord</p></li><li><p>Nerve signal is processed in the integration center by interneurons</p></li><li><p>Nerve signal is propagated by motor neuron to effector</p></li><li><p>Effector responds</p></li></ol>
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brachial plexus

network of interlacing nerves found in the upper arm area

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brachial plexus nerves

axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial

<p>axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial</p>
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cervical plexuses

innervate the neck and sections of the head, chest, and shoulders and the diaphragm

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cervical plexuses nerves

phrenic nerve

<p>phrenic nerve</p>
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Lumbar plexuses nerves

femoral and obturator nerves

<p>femoral and obturator nerves</p>
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how to do a lumbar puncture/spinal tap

  • Needle passes through Skin, back muscles, ligamentum flavum

  • Lie on your side with your knees drawn up to your chest. Then a needle is inserted into your spinal canal — in your lower back — to collect cerebrospinal fluid for testing

<ul><li><p>Needle passes through Skin, back muscles, ligamentum flavum</p></li><li><p>Lie on your side with your knees drawn up to your chest. Then a needle is inserted into your spinal canal — in your lower back — to collect cerebrospinal fluid for testing</p></li></ul>
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difference between saltatory and continuous nerve conduction.

Saltatory conduction is much faster than continuous conduction and myelinated cells use less ATP to maintain resting membrane potential

<p>Saltatory conduction is much faster than continuous conduction and myelinated cells use less ATP to maintain resting membrane potential</p>
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continuous nerve conduction

unmyelinated axons where conduction is slower.

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Saltatory nerve conduction

occurs on myelinated axons

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optic nerve

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

<p>the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain</p>
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step 1 of reflex arc

  1. stimulus activates receptor

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step 2 of reflex arc

  1. Nerve signal is propagated through sensory neuron to the spinal cord

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step 3 of reflex arc

  1. Nerve signal is processed in the integration center by interneurons

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step 4 of reflex arc

  1. Nerve signal is propagated by motor neuron to effector

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step 5 of reflex arc

  1. Effector responds

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cervical plexuses

innervate the neck and sections of the head, chest, and shoulders and the diaphragm

<p>innervate the neck and sections of the head, chest, and shoulders and the diaphragm</p>
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cervical plexuses nerves

phrenic nerve

<p>phrenic nerve</p>
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Lumbar plexuses

Innervates abdominal wall muscles, anterior and medial thigh

<p>Innervates abdominal wall muscles, anterior and medial thigh</p>
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Lumbar plexuses nerves

femoral and obturator nerves

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how to do a lumbar puncture/spinal tap

Needle passes through Skin, back muscles, ligamentum flavum

<p>Needle passes through Skin, back muscles, ligamentum flavum</p>
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difference between saltatory and continuous nerve conduction

Saltatory conduction is much FASTER than continuous conduction and myelinated cells use less ATP to maintain resting membrane potential

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continuous nerve conduction

unmyelinated axons where conduction is slower.

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Saltatory nerve conduction

occurs on myelinated axons

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