Cog Neuro Exam 2

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145 Terms

1

change blindness

time taken to detect change

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2

inattentional blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

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3

attention is like a

spot light. may move from one location to another, may zoom in or out (fine vs coarse). doesn't/can't highlight everything

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4

focus of attention doesn't necessarily mean

eye fixation

ex: highway hypnosis (eyes on road, but attention/focus not)

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5

covert

moving attention by not the eyes/head

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6

overt

moving attention as well as the eyes/head

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7

Importance of cues

initially quicker response to cued location, but relationship flips after long delay

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8

inhibition of return

a slowing of reaction time associated with going back to a previously attended location

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9

endogenous

internally-guided attention, driven by goals/motivation, more top-down

ex: arrow points up in middle of screen, telling to shift attention up

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10

exogenous

externally-guided attention, driven by sudden change in sensory input, bottom-up

ex: top cube flashes and captures attention

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11

attentional blink

during a brief time after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else

first target soaks up attentional resources, leading to subsequent inattentive period

<p>during a brief time after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else</p><p>first target soaks up attentional resources, leading to subsequent inattentive period</p>
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12

hemineglect

inability to perceive one side of the visual world, typically right-hemisphere damage, left side neglect. sensory cortex responds to the info! therefore must be something wrong with attention

<p>inability to perceive one side of the visual world, typically right-hemisphere damage, left side neglect. sensory cortex responds to the info! therefore must be something wrong with attention</p>
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13

neglect vs blindsight

neglect: not restricted to vision, can see in neglected area, egocentric

blindsight: visual only, can move eyes to blind region, retinocentric

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what happens to neglected info?

ventral stream (what) process neglected objects

burning house experiment

<p>ventral stream (what) process neglected objects</p><p>burning house experiment</p>
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15

neglect is also about spatial reference frames

cannot detect differences on left side of an object even when falling into right side of space

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16

spatial attention

lateral superior parietal areas (lateral = external)

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17

nonspatial attention

lateral inferior temporal regions (lateral = external)

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18

internally-guided spatial tasks

medial prefrontal and parietal areas (medial = internal)

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19

attending to emotional states

medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus

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20

bottom up

exogenous

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21

top down

endogenous

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22

biased competition model in attention

bias towards house vs. face

<p>bias towards house vs. face</p>
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23

frontal-parietal attention mechanism

dorsal route: goals + importance

ventral route: circuit breaker, interrupts ongoing activity to redirect attention to some important feature

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24

Conscious awareness is a

hierarchical process from sensory to association cortex

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25

Attention can be seen as

focusing or strengthening sensory activation and pushing it further up the hierarchy

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26

activity in _____ is modulated by attention

V4

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27

Attended has

increased spike rate

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28

ignored stimuli has

decrease spike rate

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29

signal-to-noise ratio

it becomes harder to detect a signal as background noise increases, filter out stuff you want and ignore what you don't want

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30

Selecting and de-selecting stimuli

blue peaks at first because it takes time to process and then allocate attention

<p>blue peaks at first because it takes time to process and then allocate attention</p>
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31

attending to a stimuli increases

change detection accuracy, decrease in noise correlation (population of neurons becomes more synched)

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32

synchronization of neurons

varies widely across cognitive states (lots of spikes = awake, fewer spikes = REM sleep, spikes every now and then = anesthesia, slow long waves = coma)

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33

subliminal messaging example

measure startle response during randomly selected images (negative, neutral, positive)

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34

conditions of consciousness

sentience, awareness of external reality, internal experience, "self"

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35

consciousness is...

constructive! interpret inputs, and experience of reality depends on interpretive framework of the brain

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36

brain areas involved in consciousness

midbrain, reticular formation, and thalamus

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37

reticular formation in consciousness

traffic lights, tells what signals to go and when and projects to thalamus

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38

if you damage your reticular formation

you lose consciousness

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39

sleep

a state of unconsciousness, body's innate circadian rhythm

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40

cave study

light cues influence circadian rhythm, but natural rhythm is around 25 hrs

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41

In deep sleep

The MF (logic /reasoning/planning) is isolated

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42

in light sleep

there are higher synchrony between brain regions

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43

dreams

spontaneous neural activity, brain loves patterns so it tries to create a story

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44

nightmares are remembered because

they are salient

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45

Sleep paralysis

affects REM sleep, body immobile, person partially conscious

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46

lucid dreaming

becoming aware in dream and taking control

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47

anesthesia

reversibly alters consciousness without long-term damage, reduce excitatory and enhave inhibitory signals

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48

coma

deep, prolonged state of unconsciousness , no response, no sleep cycle, abnormal breathing

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49

coma happens with

any damage to brainstem or major damage to the cortex

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50

vegetative states

brainstem intact (breathing, sleep-wake), but no signs of perception, awareness, brain metabolism is permanently decreased

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51

Vegatitive patient conscious?

sometimes. answer yes/no questions by imaging playing tennis (motor cortex) or walking through their house (where - pariental)

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52

dualism

mind and body are totally separate

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53

Functionalism

the brain's specialized processing units underlie different aspects of conscious experience; FFA perceives face; it is a big fragmented

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54

Integrated information theory

informative and

combined info across the brain

• Informative: experience of "red" is not "green" or "blue"

• Integrated: you perceive a face not a combination of shapes/colors/textures

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55

default mode network

a circuit of brain regions that is active during daydreaming/thinking, medial parietal area

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56

animals conscious?

Humans seem particularly intelligent, but non-human

animals possess much of the same neural machinery

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57

Examples of non-human consciousness

self-recognition in mirror, human words with semantic meanings (parrot), complex learning & self-awareness in

octopuses, neural responses in crow that correlate with subjective perception of stimuli

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58

localizationism

every brain area is an island, ex: phrenology and FFA/PPA

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59

types of localizationism

modularity: regional preferences, not hard-separated

domain-specificity: a region does only x, never y or z

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60

globalism

brain works as a whole, modern ex: connectionism (info stored in weighted connections)

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61

functional segregation

Different areas of the brain are specialised for different functions

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62

Functional integration

Networks of interactions among specialized areas

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63

fMRI activations in task

changes in BOLD signal, lots of noise in data, lots of spontaneous activity...

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64

spontaneous BOLD activity

occurs during task and at rest (intrinsic brain activity), resting-state networks (correlation between spontaneous BOLD signals of brain regions known to be related)

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65

functional connectivity

what parts of the brain talk to each other

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66

clustering brain-wide correlations into networks

can be chunked into networks and stay intact across many different tasks

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67

default mode network association

medial prefrontal and lateral parietal lobes, hippocampus and temporal lobe, and they are physically connected with white matter bundle

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68

DMN deactivates when

doing certain high-effort tasks that prevent you from daydreaming

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69

DMN grows

with age

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70

dorsal network

top-down, endogenous, goal driven, IPS, SPL, FEF

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71

Ventral network

temporo-parietal junction, IFG/MFG, bottom up, stimulus driven

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72

frontoparietal control network

executive functioning, control actions/behaviors, in many mental illnesses (depression, OCD, bipolar, schizo)

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73

memory includes

long-term and short-term

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74

long-term memory includes

explicit and implicit

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75

implicit memory

procedural memory, ride bike, tie shoes, etc.

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76

Types of implicit memory

classical and operant conditioning

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77

classical conditioning

conditioned stim (bell) and unconditioned stim (food) become paired to make unconditioned response

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operant conditioning

behavior-outcome association. ex: reinforcement (food when go left), punishment ( shock when go left), changes for wanted outcomes

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79

explicit memory

semantic and episodic

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80

semantic memory

facts

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81

episodic memory

event from your life

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82

HM

removed hippocampus, no new memories

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83

anterograde amnesia

can't form new memories

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84

retrograde amnesia

can't retrieve old memories

temporally-graded (remember more the longer before incident, and less before incident)

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85

amnesiacs have intact

STM (normal digit span), procedural memory, semantic memory... generally intact

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86

weather prediction task

learn rules of a weather prediction game, can't remember what cards they've seen but get more correct with time

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87

amnesiacs have difficulty

imagining future events, loss of episodic

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88

amnesiacs almost always have

episodic memory deficits

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89

What happens in amnesia (recap)?

stm - good

implicit/procedural - good

semantic - might be impaired

episodic - definitely impaired

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90

Special role of hippocampus

overcoming interference, birds with overlapping features and penguin

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91

hippocampus does

pattern separation and completion

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92

pattern separation

taking similar inputs and splitting into distinct representations

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93

pattern completion

taking similar inputs and generalizing to a shared representation

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94

working memory

keeping info actively in mind and manipulating it

timescale: tens of seconds

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95

manipulating information

central executive, prefrontal

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96

ST stores

visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, phonological loop, parietal and lateral temporal

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97

LT stores

visual semantics, episodic LTM, language, hippocampus/MTL/anterior temporal

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98

ways to measure WM

digit-span task (finding limit of number of digits you can remember)

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99

WM has

limited capacity, differs person to person, 7 plus or minus 2

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100

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units that lets you get more in WM

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