BIOLOGY NMAT (Part 1)

studied byStudied by 10 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Characteristic of Life

1 / 148

Tags and Description

Biology

High School Biology_Core Concept Master Cheat Sheet

149 Terms

1

Characteristic of Life

All lives are well organized

New cards
2

Energy Use

All lives need energy to support

New cards
3

Reproduction

All lives should be able to reproduce itself

New cards
4

Growth

All lives grow and develop

New cards
5

Response to Stimuli

All lives can respond to internal or external stimuli

New cards
6

Homeostasis

All lives have the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment — self-regulation

New cards
7

Cell Theory

  • Cell is the building unit of all living organisms.

  • All cells come from pre-existing cells.

  • All metabolism occurs in body cells; cells are the functional unit for all lives.

New cards
8

Gene Theory

  • All genetic information is stored in DNA – genes

  • Genes control most, if not every, aspect of an organism.

  • The DNA language can be transcribed into RNA language and then translated into protein language for its final function

New cards
9

Purpose of Homeostasis

to ensure proper function of the body

New cards
10

Atom

consists of a central nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons.

New cards
11

3 Components of Atoms

electrons, neutrons, and protons

New cards
12

Electrons

a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids; both energy and substance particles

New cards
13

Neutrons

A subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without an electric charge is present in all atomic nuclei except those of ordinary hydrogen.

New cards
14

Protons

A stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, with a positive electric charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron, but of opposite sign.

New cards
15

Molecules

  • Formed by atoms

  • Joined by chemical bonds

  • molecular formula and structure formula

New cards
16

Ion Bond

forms when atoms lose or gain electrons

New cards
17

Covalent Bond

form when atoms share electrons, and very strong bonds. The major organ in organic chemicals.

New cards
18

Hydrogen Bond

 Weak electrical attraction between the positive end of one molecule and the negative end of another.

New cards
19

Buffers

 Solutions that resist change in pH solutions upon adding small amounts of acid or base.

New cards
20

pH

Represents the concentration of hydrogen ions [H+] in solution.

New cards
21

Nucleus

  • the control center

  • Holds all of the cell’s genetic information

  • Makes decisions about cell needs

New cards
22

Ribosome

  • the factory

  • Synthesizes proteins

New cards
23

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Edits and finalizes proteins made by ribosomes.

New cards
24

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Synthesizes carbohydrates and lipids.

New cards
25

Golgi Apparatus

  • The post office

  • Tags and ships packages to their destinations

New cards
26

Mitochondria

  • the powerhouse

  • Produces ATP for the cell’s activities

New cards
27

Lysosome

  • the recycling center

  • Recycles waste and foreign bacteria

New cards
28

Cell Membrane

  •  lipid bilayer which envelops the cell.

  • For Protection, Communication, and Selective Exchange

New cards
29

Passive Transport

  • Does not use energy

  • Osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion

  • Natural movement from high concentration to low concentration

New cards
30

Active Transport

  • uses energy

  • Movement from against natural diffusion

New cards
31

Prokaryotes

  • Examples: bacteria, microscopic organisms

  • Structure: DNA, ribosomes, and cell membranes.

  • Except for ribosomes, prokaryotes DO NOT have organelles

New cards
32

Eukaryotes

  • Animals: with organelles and cell membranes

  • Plants: with organelles and cell membranes like animal cells, but also have chloroplasts and cell walls.

New cards
33

Glycolysis in aerobic Respiration:

  • Glucose is broken down into pyruvate.

  • 2 ATP produced

New cards
34

Krebs Cycle

  • Acetyl CoA (made from pyruvate) runs a cycle of reactions, regenerating at the end of each cycle.

  • All of the electrons are passed to NADH and FADH2 (electron carriers).

  • 2 ATP produced.

New cards
35

Oxidative Phosphorylation

  • 32 ATP produced

New cards
36

Glycolysis in Anaerobic Respiration

  • Glucose is broken down into pyruvate;

  • 2 ATP produced.

New cards
37

Fermentation

  • Pyruvate is broken down into ethanol or lactic acid.

  • Glycolysis intermediates are produced to allow glycolysis to begin again immediately.

New cards
38

Chloroplasts

An organelle in plant cells where photosynthesis occur.

New cards
39

Photophosphorylation

 a process that ATP is generated via light reactions in photosynthesis.

New cards
40

Light Reaction

The first phase of photosynthesis which light is harvested and the electron transfer occurs, ATP, NADPH and oxygen is generated.

New cards
41

Dark Reaction

The second phase of photosynthesis where carbon dioxide is fixed and carbohydrates are generated by consuming ATP and NADPH.

New cards
42

Chloroplasts

These are organelles which allow the organism to perform photosynthesis, obtaining energy from sunlight.

New cards
43

Chlorophyll

Proteins found in chloroplasts which have the ability to absorb sunlight for photosynthesis.

New cards
44

Prophase

  • Chromosomes condense and become visible.

  • Nuclear envelope breaks down.

  • Centrioles take positions on opposite sides of nucleus.

<ul><li><p>Chromosomes condense and become visible. </p></li><li><p>Nuclear envelope breaks down. </p></li><li><p>Centrioles take positions on opposite sides of nucleus.</p></li></ul>
New cards
45

Metaphase

  • Chromosomes line up single-file in the middle of the cell.

  • Spindle fibers from the centrioles attach to each side of the centromeres of the chromosomes.

<ul><li><p>Chromosomes line up single-file in the middle of the cell. </p></li><li><p>Spindle fibers from the centrioles attach to each side of the centromeres of the chromosomes.</p></li></ul>
New cards
46

Anaphase

  • Sister chromatids are pulled apart to become individual chromosomes.

  • Chromosomes move until they reach centrioles on opposite sides of the cell.

<ul><li><p>Sister chromatids are pulled apart to become individual chromosomes. </p></li><li><p>Chromosomes move until they reach centrioles on opposite sides of the cell.</p></li></ul>
New cards
47

Telophase

  • Chromosomes dissolve.

  • Nuclear envelopes re-form around both sets of chromosomes.

<ul><li><p>Chromosomes dissolve. </p></li><li><p>Nuclear envelopes re-form around both sets of chromosomes.</p></li></ul>
New cards
48

Ecology

The study of organisms and environment

New cards
49

Biosphere

  • The entire portion of the earth is inhabited by life.

  • The sum of all the planet’s ecosystems.

New cards
50

Biomes

The world’s major communities classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment.

New cards
51

Community

A group of populations living in the same area.

New cards
52

Population

 A group of individuals in a particular geographic area that belong the same species.

New cards
53

Producers

They are primarily green plants that bring energy into the system by capturing sunlight.

New cards
54

Consumers

An organism in an eco system that lives by eating other organisms.

New cards
55

Food Web

A complex interaction of feeding relationships.

New cards
56

Chemical Cycling

Nature’s way of allowing life on Earth access to limited resources by continually transferring the energy from one form to the next.

New cards
57

Primary Succession

An event in which life begins to exist where no life existed previously.

New cards
58

Secondary Succession

The change in composition of the species which live in an area.

New cards
59

Aquatic Ecosystems

 Most of life on Earth lives in the oceans, a poorly understand system of oceans, lakes, streams, rivers, and estuaries.

New cards
60

Terrestrial Biomes

The group of ecosystems which share the same climate, flora, and fauna.

New cards
61

Population Density

 Individuals per unit area or volume.

New cards
62

Dispersion

 The pattern of spacing for individuals within the boundaries of the population.

New cards
63

Reforestation

It is the development of a forest in a deforested area to ensure a sustained yield.

New cards
64

Conservation

 It is the safeguarding, maintaining or protecting and wise management of natural resources.

New cards
65

Resources

Materials which satisfy human needs and want in a given space and time, and serve to attain individual as well as social welfare.

New cards
66

Non Renewable Resources

 There is no known process by which they can be renewed quickly. They are available in fixed quantities and too much exploitation would mean their end. Ex: Minerals, ground water.

New cards
67

Chromosome

where the cell nucleus pack its long stretch of DNA molecule into, it is the functional unit for heredity

New cards
68

Meiosis

  • A reproductive process which produces two unique haploid cells from one cell.

  • These unique haploid cells are gametes, sex cells for reproduction.

New cards
69

Haploid

Descibing a cell which has one entire set of the oganism’s chromosomes.

<p>Descibing a cell which has one entire set of the oganism’s chromosomes.</p>
New cards
70

Diploid

 Describing a cell which has two entire sets of the organism’s chromosomes.

<p>&nbsp;Describing a cell which has two entire sets of the organism’s chromosomes.</p>
New cards
71

Cross

The parents which reproduce together.

New cards
72

Dominant/Recessive

If present, the dominant allele appears in the phenotype

New cards
73

Co-Dominance

Both dominant alleles show up in the phenotype

New cards
74

Incomplete Dominance

The phenotype is the middle of the two alleles.

New cards
75

Polygenic Traits

Many genes (with 2 alleles each) combine to create one physical trait.

New cards
76

DNA

  • Is the cellular genetic material

  • It contains two strands based on base pairing between A and T, C and G.

  • The two strands are anti-parallel and form double-helix structure

New cards
77

mRNA

Copies information from DNA through base paring mechanism

New cards
78

tRNA

carries amino acids to protein synthesis sites

New cards
79

rRNA

component for ribosome

New cards
80

ncRNA

regulate cellular processes

New cards
81

The Central Dogma

DNA → RNA → Protein

<p>DNA → RNA → Protein</p>
New cards
82

Transcription

  •  RNA polymerase reads DNA and produces pre-mRNA.

  • The pre-mRNA is edited via splicing of exons together to form the mature mRNA which leaves the nucleus to enter the cytoplasm.

New cards
83

Translation

Ribosomes read the mRNA script and tRNA’s bring amino acids in order to produce the final gene product, proteins.

New cards
84

Causes of Mutation

  • Errors during DNA replication

  • DNA damage

  • Chromosome errors

New cards
85

Autosomal Chromosomes

Chromosomes that code for the regular human traits.

New cards
86

Sex chromosomes

It determines biological sex by triggering the development of male or female sex characteristics.

New cards
87

Genetic Disorder

A disease or sickness caused by DNA at birth.

New cards
88

Heritable Adaptation

Any inherited trait that ultimately leads to a reproductive advantage of a species.

New cards
89

Punctuated Equilibrium

Evolutionary changes occur relatively quickly followed by long periods of stabilization.

New cards
90

Natural Selection

  • is a result of a species interaction with the environment, with “selection” being determined by whichever species lives long enough to propagate and thereby be successful.

  • Survival of the “Fittest”.

  • Fit refers to best fit to environment.

New cards
91

Precambrian Time

  • 99% of Earth’s History

  • All of the life history events above happened during this time.

  • Oxygenation of the atmosphere, the first life forms, etc. All life was aquatic

New cards
92

Paleozoic Era

  • The first invertebrates and vertebrates.

  • Insects, plants, and reptiles appeared.

  • First movement of organisms onto land.

New cards
93

Mesozoic Era

  • “The Age of Reptiles.”

  • Reptiles became dominant.

  • Mammals appeared.

  • Dinosaurs became extinct.

New cards
94

Cenozoic Era

  • “The Age of Mammals.”

  • Mammals became dominant.

  • Glaciers melted.

  • The climate warmed.

  • Humans appeared

New cards
95

Taxonomy

The discipline of studying and classifying organisms.

New cards
96

Animalia

A kingdom that includes heterotrophic consumers

  • herbivores → eat only plants

  • carnivores → eat only animals

  • omnivores → eat only plants and animals

  • detritivores → eat dead and decaying organic matter

New cards
97

Binomial Nomenclature

A standard way to refer to the scientific name of an organism by using the genus and species.

New cards
98

Phylogeny

The process of classifying and organizing organisms based on evolutionary relationships

New cards
99

Bacteria

smallest and simplest organisms, scientifically called prokaryotes.

New cards
100

Binary Fission

Asexual reproduction of prokaryotes.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard208 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard153 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard77 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 307 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)