BIOLOGY NMAT (Part 1)

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Characteristic of Life

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High School Biology_Core Concept Master Cheat Sheet

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149 Terms
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Characteristic of Life

All lives are well organized

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Energy Use

All lives need energy to support

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Reproduction

All lives should be able to reproduce itself

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Growth

All lives grow and develop

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Response to Stimuli

All lives can respond to internal or external stimuli

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Homeostasis

All lives have the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment — self-regulation

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Cell Theory

  • Cell is the building unit of all living organisms.

  • All cells come from pre-existing cells.

  • All metabolism occurs in body cells; cells are the functional unit for all lives.

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Gene Theory

  • All genetic information is stored in DNA – genes

  • Genes control most, if not every, aspect of an organism.

  • The DNA language can be transcribed into RNA language and then translated into protein language for its final function

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Purpose of Homeostasis

to ensure proper function of the body

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Atom

consists of a central nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons.

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3 Components of Atoms

electrons, neutrons, and protons

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Electrons

a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids; both energy and substance particles

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Neutrons

A subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without an electric charge is present in all atomic nuclei except those of ordinary hydrogen.

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Protons

A stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, with a positive electric charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron, but of opposite sign.

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Molecules

  • Formed by atoms

  • Joined by chemical bonds

  • molecular formula and structure formula

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Ion Bond

forms when atoms lose or gain electrons

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Covalent Bond

form when atoms share electrons, and very strong bonds. The major organ in organic chemicals.

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Hydrogen Bond

 Weak electrical attraction between the positive end of one molecule and the negative end of another.

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Buffers

 Solutions that resist change in pH solutions upon adding small amounts of acid or base.

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pH

Represents the concentration of hydrogen ions [H+] in solution.

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Nucleus

  • the control center

  • Holds all of the cell’s genetic information

  • Makes decisions about cell needs

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Ribosome

  • the factory

  • Synthesizes proteins

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Edits and finalizes proteins made by ribosomes.

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Synthesizes carbohydrates and lipids.

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Golgi Apparatus

  • The post office

  • Tags and ships packages to their destinations

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Mitochondria

  • the powerhouse

  • Produces ATP for the cell’s activities

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Lysosome

  • the recycling center

  • Recycles waste and foreign bacteria

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Cell Membrane

  •  lipid bilayer which envelops the cell.

  • For Protection, Communication, and Selective Exchange

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Passive Transport

  • Does not use energy

  • Osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion

  • Natural movement from high concentration to low concentration

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Active Transport

  • uses energy

  • Movement from against natural diffusion

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Prokaryotes

  • Examples: bacteria, microscopic organisms

  • Structure: DNA, ribosomes, and cell membranes.

  • Except for ribosomes, prokaryotes DO NOT have organelles

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Eukaryotes

  • Animals: with organelles and cell membranes

  • Plants: with organelles and cell membranes like animal cells, but also have chloroplasts and cell walls.

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Glycolysis in aerobic Respiration:

  • Glucose is broken down into pyruvate.

  • 2 ATP produced

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Krebs Cycle

  • Acetyl CoA (made from pyruvate) runs a cycle of reactions, regenerating at the end of each cycle.

  • All of the electrons are passed to NADH and FADH2 (electron carriers).

  • 2 ATP produced.

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Oxidative Phosphorylation

  • 32 ATP produced

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Glycolysis in Anaerobic Respiration

  • Glucose is broken down into pyruvate;

  • 2 ATP produced.

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Fermentation

  • Pyruvate is broken down into ethanol or lactic acid.

  • Glycolysis intermediates are produced to allow glycolysis to begin again immediately.

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Chloroplasts

An organelle in plant cells where photosynthesis occur.

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Photophosphorylation

 a process that ATP is generated via light reactions in photosynthesis.

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Light Reaction

The first phase of photosynthesis which light is harvested and the electron transfer occurs, ATP, NADPH and oxygen is generated.

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Dark Reaction

The second phase of photosynthesis where carbon dioxide is fixed and carbohydrates are generated by consuming ATP and NADPH.

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Chloroplasts

These are organelles which allow the organism to perform photosynthesis, obtaining energy from sunlight.

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Chlorophyll

Proteins found in chloroplasts which have the ability to absorb sunlight for photosynthesis.

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Prophase

  • Chromosomes condense and become visible.

  • Nuclear envelope breaks down.

  • Centrioles take positions on opposite sides of nucleus.

<ul><li><p>Chromosomes condense and become visible. </p></li><li><p>Nuclear envelope breaks down. </p></li><li><p>Centrioles take positions on opposite sides of nucleus.</p></li></ul>
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Metaphase

  • Chromosomes line up single-file in the middle of the cell.

  • Spindle fibers from the centrioles attach to each side of the centromeres of the chromosomes.

<ul><li><p>Chromosomes line up single-file in the middle of the cell. </p></li><li><p>Spindle fibers from the centrioles attach to each side of the centromeres of the chromosomes.</p></li></ul>
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Anaphase

  • Sister chromatids are pulled apart to become individual chromosomes.

  • Chromosomes move until they reach centrioles on opposite sides of the cell.

<ul><li><p>Sister chromatids are pulled apart to become individual chromosomes. </p></li><li><p>Chromosomes move until they reach centrioles on opposite sides of the cell.</p></li></ul>
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Telophase

  • Chromosomes dissolve.

  • Nuclear envelopes re-form around both sets of chromosomes.

<ul><li><p>Chromosomes dissolve. </p></li><li><p>Nuclear envelopes re-form around both sets of chromosomes.</p></li></ul>
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Ecology

The study of organisms and environment

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Biosphere

  • The entire portion of the earth is inhabited by life.

  • The sum of all the planet’s ecosystems.

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Biomes

The world’s major communities classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment.

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Community

A group of populations living in the same area.

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Population

 A group of individuals in a particular geographic area that belong the same species.

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Producers

They are primarily green plants that bring energy into the system by capturing sunlight.

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Consumers

An organism in an eco system that lives by eating other organisms.

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Food Web

A complex interaction of feeding relationships.

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Chemical Cycling

Nature’s way of allowing life on Earth access to limited resources by continually transferring the energy from one form to the next.

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Primary Succession

An event in which life begins to exist where no life existed previously.

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Secondary Succession

The change in composition of the species which live in an area.

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Aquatic Ecosystems

 Most of life on Earth lives in the oceans, a poorly understand system of oceans, lakes, streams, rivers, and estuaries.

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Terrestrial Biomes

The group of ecosystems which share the same climate, flora, and fauna.

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Population Density

 Individuals per unit area or volume.

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Dispersion

 The pattern of spacing for individuals within the boundaries of the population.

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Reforestation

It is the development of a forest in a deforested area to ensure a sustained yield.

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Conservation

 It is the safeguarding, maintaining or protecting and wise management of natural resources.

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Resources

Materials which satisfy human needs and want in a given space and time, and serve to attain individual as well as social welfare.

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Non Renewable Resources

 There is no known process by which they can be renewed quickly. They are available in fixed quantities and too much exploitation would mean their end. Ex: Minerals, ground water.

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Chromosome

where the cell nucleus pack its long stretch of DNA molecule into, it is the functional unit for heredity

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Meiosis

  • A reproductive process which produces two unique haploid cells from one cell.

  • These unique haploid cells are gametes, sex cells for reproduction.

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Haploid

Descibing a cell which has one entire set of the oganism’s chromosomes.

<p>Descibing a cell which has one entire set of the oganism’s chromosomes.</p>
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Diploid

 Describing a cell which has two entire sets of the organism’s chromosomes.

<p>&nbsp;Describing a cell which has two entire sets of the organism’s chromosomes.</p>
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Cross

The parents which reproduce together.

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Dominant/Recessive

If present, the dominant allele appears in the phenotype

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Co-Dominance

Both dominant alleles show up in the phenotype

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Incomplete Dominance

The phenotype is the middle of the two alleles.

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Polygenic Traits

Many genes (with 2 alleles each) combine to create one physical trait.

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DNA

  • Is the cellular genetic material

  • It contains two strands based on base pairing between A and T, C and G.

  • The two strands are anti-parallel and form double-helix structure

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mRNA

Copies information from DNA through base paring mechanism

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tRNA

carries amino acids to protein synthesis sites

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rRNA

component for ribosome

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ncRNA

regulate cellular processes

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The Central Dogma

DNA → RNA → Protein

<p>DNA → RNA → Protein</p>
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Transcription

  •  RNA polymerase reads DNA and produces pre-mRNA.

  • The pre-mRNA is edited via splicing of exons together to form the mature mRNA which leaves the nucleus to enter the cytoplasm.

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Translation

Ribosomes read the mRNA script and tRNA’s bring amino acids in order to produce the final gene product, proteins.

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Causes of Mutation

  • Errors during DNA replication

  • DNA damage

  • Chromosome errors

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