Plant Structure and Function - Exam 1 - All sets

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Engineering Plants

1 / 113

Tags and Description

114 Terms

1

Engineering Plants

Involves changing expressions of genes

New cards
2

the OG plant model organism

Arabidopsis thaliana

New cards
3

Model ogranism

-knowledge of it can be extended to other plants -fast life cycle -easy to grow -transformable

New cards
4

Arabidopsis thaliana

1st plant to have genome fully sequenced

New cards
5

phenotype

Genotype + epigenetic interactions + environment = ________

New cards
6

False

True or False Every gene codes for a protein

New cards
7

True

True or False Not all DNA is the form of a gene

New cards
8

True

True or False Some genes code for other important things like ribosomal RNAs and transfer RNAs

New cards
9

RNA polymerase

MVP of transcription -transcribes all protein-coding genes and many noncoding RNAs in eukaryotic genomes

New cards
10

Template/Antisense/Non-coding/Negative/Watson strand

What are other names for the strand of DNA that RNA polymerase moves down?

New cards
11

False

True or False There is only one way to transcribe a gene

New cards
12

Promoters

Embedded in code of DNA are sequences for ______ that are needed to start transcription.

New cards
13

3 dimensions

Transcription happens in how many dimensions?

New cards
14

Epigenetic control

Configuration of the genomic DNA to allow or block access to original template

New cards
15

Transcriptional regulation

control of transcription, initiation, maintenance of transcription, and termination

New cards
16

Post-transcriptional regulation

control of mRNA stability, translation efficiency, and degradation

New cards
17

Protein stability

determines activity/efficiency of the product

New cards
18

Cis-acting control elements

adjacent to the transcription unit, tell RNA polymerase where to start

New cards
19

Trans-acting factors

encode transcription factors/proteins encoded elsewhere in the genome

New cards
20

Core Regulartory

What are the 2 parts to the promoter

New cards
21

Promoter

tells RNA polymerase where to start transcribing

New cards
22

Phytomer

-basic model of a plant -consist of an internode, a node, a leaf, and axillary meristem -iterations of this unit, make up the whole plant

New cards
23

Axillary meristem

where vegetative and inflorescence branches and floral primordial (give rise to flowers) come from

New cards
24

Apical Dominance

growth habit described by weakly-branched plants, with a strong branching response to decapitation

New cards
25

Environment and hormones

Apical dominance is largely controlled by what two factors

New cards
26

Auxin

What plant hormone plays a large role in apical dominance

New cards
27

Root system architecture

Describes the geometric arrangement of individual roots within the plant’s root system

New cards
28

False

True or False Every plant root is the same

New cards
29

True

True or False Plants can change root type and architecture

New cards
30

No

Do all plants in the same habitat grow the same root structures?

New cards
31

Monocot Roots

Have both seminal roots and crown roots

New cards
32

Seminal roots

adventitious roots that branch from the hypocotyl

New cards
33

Crown roots

adventitious roots that grow from the stem after the plant has developed beyond the embryo stage

New cards
34

Dicot roots

Tap root system branch root basil root

New cards
35

-Causes change in root morphology -longer, denser root hairs -shorter roots -shallower root system

What are some characteristics of roots in soils that are phosphorus deficient?

New cards
36

Wet soils

What characteristic of soils typically make them deficient in phosphorus?

New cards
37

“topsoil foraging”

What is the term used to describe, the short/shallow root system of plants in phosphorus deficient soils?

New cards
38

True

True or False All plant cells start out in the same organization

New cards
39

Plasma membrane

What is the official outer part of the cell?

New cards
40

Fluid-mosaic model

the common molecular lipid-protein structure for biological membranes

New cards
41

Plasma membrane

considered the “gatekeeper” of the cell

New cards
42

Phospholipid bilayer

the plasma membrane is made up of a __________ bilayer

New cards
43

Integral Peripheral Anchored

3 proteins of the plasma membrane

New cards
44

Hydrophllic

the head of the phospholipid bilayer is (hydrophilic or hydrophobic)

New cards
45

Hydrophobic

the tails of the phospholipid bilayer are (hydrophilic or hydrophobic)

New cards
46

Endomembrane system

These are all part of the ______ system Plasma membrane endoplasmic reticulum nuclear envelope Golgi apparatus vacuole endosomes

New cards
47

Semiautonomous organelles

These are considered _______ organelles Plastids Mitochondria

New cards
48

independently dividing

What does semiautonomous mean?

New cards
49

Vacuole

What organelle is being described? -can be used for storage -plays a large role in keeping cells turgid -can occupy up to 90% of cell space in mature plant cells

New cards
50

Mitochondria

What organelle is being described? -where respiration happens -synthesis of ATP

New cards
51

Chloroplasts

What organelle is being described? -a plastid -stroma is where RuBisCO is located

New cards
52

Cytoskeleton

What organelle is being described? -acts to provide structure for the cell -helps with mitosis and meiosis -composed of microtubules and microfilaments

New cards
53

Meristems

localized regions of ongoing cell division that enable growth during post-embryonic development

New cards
54

Shoot apical meristem Root apical meristem

What are the two types of apical meristems?

New cards
55

root cap

what helps protect the root apical meristem?

New cards
56

Primary growth

the phase of plant development that gives rise to new organs and basic plant form

New cards
57

Primary plant body

the part of the plant derived from the SAM, RAM and primary meristem

New cards
58

Secondary growth

the increase in width or diameter of shoots and roots that happens to a plant as it grows

New cards
59

Cambium

meristematic tissue gives rise to secondary growth

New cards
60

vascular cambium

cambial layer that produces wood -arises in the vascular system between xylem and phloem of the primary plant body

New cards
61

cork cambium

also known as phellogen -cambial layer that produces the protective periderm on the outside of woody plants

New cards
62

secondary xylem

-inside conducts water and nutrients from the soil upward to other plant organs and is characterized by thick secondary walls.

New cards
63

secondary phloem

-outside conducts the products of photosynthesis either downward from the leaves to other organs of the plant, or upward from the leaves to reproductive structures. The cells of the vascular cambium

New cards
64

True

True or False Plants can’t move

New cards
65

the sun

Where do plants make their food and energy from?

New cards
66

False

True or False Plants can’t regenerate

New cards
67

Chlorophyll

Chloroplasts contain the pigment ________.

New cards
68

Seed plants

Angiosperms and gymnosperms are _____ plants.

New cards
69

Flowering Plants

What is another term used to refer to angiosperms?

New cards
70

Flowering plants

What type of plants dominate today?

New cards
71

250,000

There are over _______ species of angiosperms

New cards
72

Mitosis

Plant haploid gametophytes produce gametes by (mitosis or meiosis)

New cards
73

Meiosis

Animal haploid gametes are produced by (mitosis or meiosis)

New cards
74

True

True or False One the haploid gametophytes fuse in fertilization the 2N zygote is created and the life cycles of plant and animals are similar

New cards
75

Alteration of generations

What is it called when plants alternate between two types of generations?

New cards
76

Diploid

The sporophyte cells that produce spores are (haploid or diploid)

New cards
77

Haploid

The gametophyte cells the produce gametes are (haploid or diploid)

New cards
78

Outer nuclear envelope

What surrounds the nucleus?

New cards
79

Nuclear pores

selective channels made up of nucleoporin proteins -the nucleus is dotted with them

New cards
80

Chromosomes

DNA and associated proteins

New cards
81

Nucleosomes

DNA winds around histones forming ______

New cards
82

Lignified cell

Dead trees are just ______ cells.

New cards
83

fortresses

Plants = _______

New cards
84

cell wall

What makes plants so tough?

New cards
85

In the cell wall

Plants store carbon, where is a lot of this carbon stored?

New cards
86

Functions of the cell wall

What are these? Connect to adjacent cells Act as an exoskeleton Determine plant shape Act as diffusion barriers Provide anchor point for sensory proteins Act as a barrier to pathogens, parasites, and herbivores Provide strength for the xylem

New cards
87

Through adhesion

how do cell walls connect to adjacent cells?

New cards
88

False

True or False The composition of cell wall stays the same over time

New cards
89

True

True or False New and old cells have different needs

New cards
90

Primary cell walls

_______ cell walls are usually characteristic of younger cells

New cards
91

Secondary cell walls

_______ cell walls are thicker and stronger and are fortified after the cell has stopped expanding

New cards
92

cements the walls of neighboring cell together

What is the function of the middle lamella?

New cards
93

True

True or False Cells walls are made of sugar

New cards
94

Polysaccharides

What are the sugar backbones of the cell walls?

New cards
95

Cellulose

What component of the cell wall is being described? -most abundant macromolecule -give primary cell walls tensile strength -______ microfibril deposition determines the direction of cell expansion

New cards
96

Cellulose microfibril deposition

What determines the direction of cell expansion?

New cards
97

Hemicellulose

What component of the cell wall is being described? -matrix polysaccharide -synthesized in the golgi -moved with secretory vesicls -xyloglucan → most dominant _______ -heterogeneous group of polysaccharides with linked backbones

New cards
98

Xyloglucan

what is the most dominant hemicellulose?

New cards
99

Pectin

What component of the cell wall is being described? -matrix polysaccharide -synthesized in the golgi -moved with secretory vesicles -solidifying agent in jelly -most abundant component of primary cell walls -soft structure in cell wall

New cards
100

Pectin

What is the most abundant component of primary cell walls?

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 34 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 69 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6582 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(30)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard440 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 48 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard146 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)