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Involves changing expressions of genes
the OG plant model organism
-knowledge of it can be extended to other plants -fast life cycle -easy to grow -transformable
1st plant to have genome fully sequenced
Genotype + epigenetic interactions + environment = ________
True or False Every gene codes for a protein
True or False Not all DNA is the form of a gene
True or False Some genes code for other important things like ribosomal RNAs and transfer RNAs
MVP of transcription -transcribes all protein-coding genes and many noncoding RNAs in eukaryotic genomes
What are other names for the strand of DNA that RNA polymerase moves down?
True or False There is only one way to transcribe a gene
Embedded in code of DNA are sequences for ______ that are needed to start transcription.
Transcription happens in how many dimensions?
Configuration of the genomic DNA to allow or block access to original template
control of transcription, initiation, maintenance of transcription, and termination
control of mRNA stability, translation efficiency, and degradation
determines activity/efficiency of the product
Cis-acting control elements
adjacent to the transcription unit, tell RNA polymerase where to start
encode transcription factors/proteins encoded elsewhere in the genome
What are the 2 parts to the promoter
tells RNA polymerase where to start transcribing
-basic model of a plant -consist of an internode, a node, a leaf, and axillary meristem -iterations of this unit, make up the whole plant
where vegetative and inflorescence branches and floral primordial (give rise to flowers) come from
growth habit described by weakly-branched plants, with a strong branching response to decapitation
Environment and hormones
Apical dominance is largely controlled by what two factors
What plant hormone plays a large role in apical dominance
Root system architecture
Describes the geometric arrangement of individual roots within the plant’s root system
True or False Every plant root is the same
True or False Plants can change root type and architecture
Do all plants in the same habitat grow the same root structures?
Have both seminal roots and crown roots
adventitious roots that branch from the hypocotyl
adventitious roots that grow from the stem after the plant has developed beyond the embryo stage
Tap root system branch root basil root
-Causes change in root morphology -longer, denser root hairs -shorter roots -shallower root system
What are some characteristics of roots in soils that are phosphorus deficient?
What characteristic of soils typically make them deficient in phosphorus?
What is the term used to describe, the short/shallow root system of plants in phosphorus deficient soils?
True or False All plant cells start out in the same organization
What is the official outer part of the cell?
the common molecular lipid-protein structure for biological membranes
considered the “gatekeeper” of the cell
the plasma membrane is made up of a __________ bilayer
Integral Peripheral Anchored
3 proteins of the plasma membrane
the head of the phospholipid bilayer is (hydrophilic or hydrophobic)
the tails of the phospholipid bilayer are (hydrophilic or hydrophobic)
These are all part of the ______ system Plasma membrane endoplasmic reticulum nuclear envelope Golgi apparatus vacuole endosomes
These are considered _______ organelles Plastids Mitochondria
What does semiautonomous mean?
What organelle is being described? -can be used for storage -plays a large role in keeping cells turgid -can occupy up to 90% of cell space in mature plant cells
What organelle is being described? -where respiration happens -synthesis of ATP
What organelle is being described? -a plastid -stroma is where RuBisCO is located
What organelle is being described? -acts to provide structure for the cell -helps with mitosis and meiosis -composed of microtubules and microfilaments
localized regions of ongoing cell division that enable growth during post-embryonic development
Shoot apical meristem Root apical meristem
What are the two types of apical meristems?
what helps protect the root apical meristem?
the phase of plant development that gives rise to new organs and basic plant form
Primary plant body
the part of the plant derived from the SAM, RAM and primary meristem
the increase in width or diameter of shoots and roots that happens to a plant as it grows
meristematic tissue gives rise to secondary growth
cambial layer that produces wood -arises in the vascular system between xylem and phloem of the primary plant body
also known as phellogen -cambial layer that produces the protective periderm on the outside of woody plants
-inside conducts water and nutrients from the soil upward to other plant organs and is characterized by thick secondary walls.
-outside conducts the products of photosynthesis either downward from the leaves to other organs of the plant, or upward from the leaves to reproductive structures. The cells of the vascular cambium
True or False Plants can’t move
Where do plants make their food and energy from?
True or False Plants can’t regenerate
Chloroplasts contain the pigment ________.
Angiosperms and gymnosperms are _____ plants.
What is another term used to refer to angiosperms?
What type of plants dominate today?
There are over _______ species of angiosperms
Plant haploid gametophytes produce gametes by (mitosis or meiosis)
Animal haploid gametes are produced by (mitosis or meiosis)
True or False One the haploid gametophytes fuse in fertilization the 2N zygote is created and the life cycles of plant and animals are similar
Alteration of generations
What is it called when plants alternate between two types of generations?
The sporophyte cells that produce spores are (haploid or diploid)
The gametophyte cells the produce gametes are (haploid or diploid)
Outer nuclear envelope
What surrounds the nucleus?
selective channels made up of nucleoporin proteins -the nucleus is dotted with them
DNA and associated proteins
DNA winds around histones forming ______
Dead trees are just ______ cells.
Plants = _______
What makes plants so tough?