history midterm prep

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Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain? What were the key factors?

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Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain? What were the key factors?

began 18th century, ready supply of money for machines and factories, abundance of natural resources (coal and iron ore), rivers for water power and transportation

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Enclosure Movement

Parliament passed the laws which made landowners fence off common land

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3

What sparked the transition from cottage industries to factories?

more efficient to bring workers to the new machines and have them work in factories, new streams and rivers, which were used to power many of these early machines

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Why were coal and iron so critical to the Industrial Revolution?

machines depended on coal for fuel, iron was used to make machines and trains

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What was the social impact of industrialization in Europe?

middle and working classes emerged, middle class were the factory owners

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industrial capitalism

an economic system based on industrial production

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capital

money available for investment

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entrepreneur

a person who finds new business opportunities and new ways to make profits

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cottage industry

a method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes

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puddling

the process in which coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high-quality iron

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socialism

a system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production

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12

What role did the French Social Structure play in the lead-up to the French Revolution?

The First and Second Estates didn’t have to pay the taille (France’s chief tax), but the Third Estate did

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What role did Enlightenment Ideas play in the lead-up to the French Revolution?

introduced ideas of questioning authority and religion and comparing people’s needs with the Republic’s needs

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14

What role did Economic Issues play in the lead-up to the French Revolution?

food shortages, delays in manufacturing, unemployment, and rising prices for food

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15

Why did the Third Estate declare itself the National Assembly, and what did deputies hope to achieve?

Only Third Estate had to pay taxes, wanted to achieve equality and make sure that the First and Second Estates would have to pay taxes too

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16

What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and why was it significant?

proclaimed that all men were free and equal before the law, that appointment to public office should be based on talent, and that no group should be exempt from taxation, Freedom of speech and of the press were affirmed, people agreed that women should be included

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estate

one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (First Estate), the nobles (Second Estate), and the townspeople (Third Estate)

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taille

an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy

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bourgeoisie

the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people

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Tennis Court Oath

an oath that the Third Estate took at an indoor tennis court swearing that they would continue their meeting until they had a new constitution

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Civil Constitution of the Clergy

said that bishops and priests were to be elected by the people, not appointed by the pope and the Church; it also said that the state would pay the salaries of the bishops and priests

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The Great Fear

Peasant rebellions about hatred of the entire landholding system, with its fees and obligations

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Storming of the Bastille

Louis XVI used force against the Third Estate, and on July 14th, 1789, about 900 Parisians gathered and demolished this building

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Five Pillars of Islam

Belief - Muslims only believe in the one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is his messenger. Prayer - They have to perform five prescribed prayers each day. Charity - They have to give part of their wealth to charity. Fasting - During Ramadan, Muslims must not eat or drink from dawn to sunset. Pilgrimage - Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage to Makkah at least once in their lifetime.

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Hajj

a pilgrimage to Makkah, one of the requirements of the Five Pillars of Islam

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Hijrah

the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah in 622, which became year 1 of the official calendar of Islam

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Islam

monotheistic religion that emerged in the Arabian Peninsula during the seventh century

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quran

the holy scriptures of the religion of Islam

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kaaba

Located in Makkah, the holiest shrine of the Islamic faith

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allah

Arabic for God, the supreme god of Islam

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martyrs

people who suffer or die for their beliefs

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parables

short stories that taught simple moral lessons

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messiah

one anointed by God

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Gospels

the teaching or revelation of Christ

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torah

the sacred book where their early history and the moral and religious laws of God are recorded

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monotheistic

belief in only one God

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diaspora

The scattering of Jews throughout the world

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king solomon

King David’s son, he was wise, and his reign was marked with peace. He made the city of Jerusalem into a magnificent capital

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king david

King David was a skilled general, and he unified Israel and made it a threat in the Middle East

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covenant

an agreement

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moses

helped the Hebrews escape from Egypt, and led them to the Sinai Peninsula

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42

What were the main religious beliefs of the ancient Hebrews?

The Ten Commandments (religious and ethical laws), although slavery was accepted everywhere at the time, the Torah told the Hebrews to treat slaves with kindness

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43

How did Judaism influence Christianity?

Jesus, the leader of Christianity, was born in Palestine and studied with Jewish scholars and teachers. Christianity grew out of Jewish traditions.

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44

What ideas did Jesus emphasize?

believing in one God and upholding the Ten Commandment of the Hebrews, taught that everyone was equal, said that people who were humble, merciful, and unselfish would be rewarded with eternal life

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45

Why did Christianity gain so many followers?

suddenly grew once people were being persecuted

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what attracted people to Christianity?

offered hope of salvation and eternal life for both rich and poor people

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47

Describe life for Arabs living in the Arabian Peninsula in the years before Muhammad

quite different in the years before Muhammad. Religions that were accepted included Iranian, Christian, and Jewish

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48

why was 622 CE so significant in the history of Islam?

Muhammad and his 30 followers left Makkah and went to Madinah, journey is known as the Hijrah and became year 1 of the official calendar of Islam

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why was 630 CE so significant in the history of Islam?

Muhammad returned to Makkah with 100,00 men, Makkah quickly surrendered and most people converted to Islam

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50

What are the key tenets of Islam and how do they shape the daily lives of Muslims?

expected to follow Five Pillars of Islam, practice honesty, and justice in dealing with others, forbidden to gamble, eat pork, drink alcoholic beverages, or engage in dishonest behavior, family life is based on marriage.

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social contract

entire society agrees to be governed by its general will, all individuals should be forced to abide by it since it represents what is best for the entire community

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laissez-faire

the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone

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deism

an eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law

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separation of powers

a form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances

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philosophe

French for “philosopher”; applied to all intellectuals during the Enlightenment

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Mary Wollstonecraft

English writer and had advanced the strongest statement for the rights of women, declared that women should have equal rights in education, economic, and political life

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Baron de Montesquieu

French Noble, wrote The Spirit of Laws in 1748, stated that England’s government had three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial

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inductive reasoning

making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypotheses or theories, a process that will lead to correct general principals

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scientific method

a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world

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rationalism

a system of thought expounded by René Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge

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universal law of gravitation

one of Newton’s three laws of motion; it explains that planetary bodies continue in elliptical orbits around the sun because every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity

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heliocentric

sun-centered

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geocentric

earth-centered

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what is Copernicus' view of the universe?

said that universe was heliocentric, correct one

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what is the Ptolemaic system?

said that universe was geocentric, wrong one

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What were Kepler's key contributions to the Scientific Revolution?

proved that the sun was at the center of the universe, showed that the orbits of the planets around the sun were elliptical, with the sun toward the end of the ellipse instead of at the center

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What were Galileo's key discoveries?

proved that the “orbs of light” from the Ptolemaic system were actually composed of pure substance, there were moons revolving around Jupiter, sunspots, and mountains on Earth’s moon

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how did the church respond to Galileo's discoveries?

didn't believe him because the bible doesn't say anything like that

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69

Why is Isaac Newton considered the “greatest genius of the Scientific Revolution”?

defined three laws of motion that govern the planetary bodies and help explain all the motion in the universe

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Maria Winkelmann

made some original contributions to astronomy, including the discovery of a comet

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Margaret Cavendish

as a philosopher, her contribution to philosophy is widely recognized today

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Blaise Pascal

experimented with how liquids were under pressure, this led to the principle known as Pascal’s law

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Robert Boyle

work on the properties of gasses led to his own law, which states that the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it

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Galen

a Greek physician, was wrong about using animal anatomy to find out about human anatomy, he thought that the liver was the beginning point for the circulation of blood

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Harvey

showed that the heart was the beginning point for the circulation of blood by dissecting human bodies, proved that the same blood flows through the veins and arteries and makes a complete circuit

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Committee of Public Safety/Robespierre

led by the radical... For about a year, took control of the government; they tried to protect France from domestic threats and adopted certain policies that became known as the Reign of Terror.

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republic of virtue

a democratic republic composed of good citizens

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coup d'etat

a sudden overthrow of the government

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What was the Directory and why did it only last from 1795-1799?

mainly known for corruption, overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Coup of 18 Brumaire and replaced by the Consulate.

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80

How did the National Convention try to de-Christianize France and how did the French people respond?

priests were encouraged to marry, the word “saint” was removed from street signs, churches were looted and closed by revolutionary armies, efforts didn't work at all

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What was the Reign of Terror and what impact did it have on France?

revolutionary courts were set up to prosecute traitors. Almost 40,000 people were killed, Revolutionary armies were set up to bring rebellious cities under the control of the Convention

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82

What radical steps did the National Convention take and how did European nations respond?

wanted to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic in its place, Mountain club convinced the Convention to pass a decree that condemned Louis XVI to death, in 1793: it seemed like the revolution would be destroyed; the old regime would be reestablished.

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The Dharma

divine law

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nirvana

ultimate salvation, when one’s soul passes through the reincarnation cycle of human suffering

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the eightfold path

  1. Right view

  2. Right intention

  3. Right speech

  4. Right action

  5. Right livelihood

  6. Right effort

  7. Right mindfulness

  8. Right concentration

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the middle way

a path of moderation to enlightenment (not as extreme as the method the buddha tried for six years)

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four noble truths

life is full of suffering suffering is caused by our desires the way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals/see others as extensions of ourselves. the way to end desire is to follow the middle path

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bodhisattva

buddhas (people who have reached enlightenment) and choose to delay it so they can help humanity

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Why has the Dalai Lama chosen to delay ultimate nirvana?

to help other human beings get closer to nirvana

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90

What did the Buddha come to realize about the meaning of life?

one can only be enlightened through meditation

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What were some specific teachings of Siddhartha Gautama that rejected several key Hindu beliefs?

no gods, no castes, women can be monks

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92

Why did Siddhartha Gautama leave a life of luxury and how did he attempt to find a way to eliminate human suffering?

he went out into the city multiple times and each time he was shocked by old age, poverty, and sickness

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93

Mohandas Gandhi

Born in 1869, in Gujrat, studied in London and became a lawyer. Became active in the independence movement and created one based on nonviolent resistance, aim of this was to force the British to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India. This actually led to Indian independence

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Muslim League

Established in 1906, Muslim politicians had goal of securing Muslim interests on the Indian subcontinent

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Indian National Congress

Created in 1885, a small group of Indians that called for a share in the governing process; had difficulties because of religious differences

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viceroy

a government who ruled as a representative of a monarch

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sepoy

an Indian soldier hired by the British East India Company to protect the company’s interests in the region

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benefits of British rule on India

Brought order and stability to a society badly divided into many states with different, sometimes opposing, political systems Led to a fairly honest, efficient government

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bad parts of British rule on India

Indians got hired by British go build roads, canals, universities, and medical centers British entrepreneurs and a small number of Indians reaped financial benefits from British rule, but it brought hardship to millions of others in both the cities and the countryside British manufactured goods destroyed local industries British zamindars to collect taxes, but zamindars took advantage of this authority, and the less fortunate peasants lost their land The British encouraged farmers to switch from growing food to growing cotton. This meant more people died from starvation because there wasn’t enough food supply Led to rise of Indian nationalist movement

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100

What were the causes of the Sepoy Rebellion (1857)?

Some sepoys refused to load their guns because of a rumor that the troops’ new rifle cartridges were greased with cow and pig fat, so the British charged them with mutiny, enraged the sepoy troops; they went on a rampage

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