blood exam 1

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What type of tissue is blood?

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What type of tissue is blood?

Connective Tissue (mesenchyme)

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What is the pH range for blood?

7.35 - 7.45

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What are the functions of blood?

  1. Distribution: Gas transport, waste transport, nutrient movement

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  1. Regulation: Keeps blood pH constant, regulates heat, and fluid amount.

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  1. Protection: Blood clots (prevents excess blood loss), immune system

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What are the 2 major components of blood?

  1. Plasma - nonliving fluid matrix

  2. Formed elements - cells

    1. -Erythrocytes (RBC)

    2. -Leukocytes (WBC)

    3. platelets

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Name the 3 plasma proteins and their function.

  1. Albumin (60%) - Regulation

  2. Globulin (36%) - Regulation and Distribution

  3. Fibrinogen (4%) - Protection

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True or False: A Leukocyte is an incomplete cell.

False, A leukocyte is a complete cell as it has all organelles.

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The ability of the leukocyte to leave the bloodstream and squeeze between cells in the blood vessels is referred to as what?

Diapedesis

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What are the two categories of leukocytes?

  1. Granulocytes - Neutrophil, Eosinophile, and Basophil

  2. Agranulocyte - Lymphocyte and Monocytes

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Which leukocyte is most abundant, and which is least abundant?

Most - Neutrophil

Least - Basophil

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Function of Granulocytes?

Phagocytic - engulf other cells

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Function of Eosinophils?

Allergies, Asthma, and general immune response

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Function of Basophils?

Release Histamines (vasodilator) in response to foreign bodies.

Histamines change diameter of blood vessels, dilate to get bigger, faster flow of blood to infected site.

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Which leukocyte releases a histamine. What type of leukocyte is it?

Basophil - Granulocyte

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Name the two types of lymphocytes and their function.

  1. T lymphocytes (T cells) - fight against virus infected cells and tumor cells

  2. B - lymphocytes (B cells) - antibody producing cells

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Function of Monocytes?

  • Leave circulation and enter tissue

  • Macrophages (big eaters)

  • Phagocytic

  • Activate lymphocytes

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All leukocytes are made from which stem cell?

Hemapoietic Stem Cell

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Cytoplasmic fragments of megakarocytes...

Platelets

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What are the granules within platelets?

  1. Seratonin

  2. Calcium

  3. Enzymes

  4. ADP

  5. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)

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Thrombopoietin's function is...

Regulation of the formation of platelets

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Hemoglobin binds _____________ and _____________

O2 and CO2

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Structure of Hemoglobin

  • Central iron (4 on each) --> O2

  • Oxyhemoglobin (lungs)

  • Globin chains (amino acids) --> CO2

  • Deoxyhemoglobin (lungs)

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Where are RBC made?

Bone marrow

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Anemia is known as a _____________

Low hematocrit

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Erythropoiesis is synonymous to?

Hematopoiesis

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Too few RBC causes?

Tissue Hypoxia

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Increased blood viscosity is a result of?

Too many RBC

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What could cause a strain on the heart?

-Increased blood viscosity

-Tissue hypoxia

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What is EPO?

Erythropoietin - Hormone involved in controlling erythropoiesis. Stimulates RBC production.

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EPO is released from the _____________.

Kidneys

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Why do males have a higher RBC count?

Males have higher testosterone levels.

Testosterone is a stimulus for the production of EPO, which stimulates erythropoiesis.

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Mechanism for RBC regulation:

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1._____________________

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  1. Kidney releases EPO

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3.____________________

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4.____________________

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  1. O2 ability of blood rises

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  1. Homeostasis restored

  1. Tissue hypoxia

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  1. EPO stimulates red bone marrow

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  1. Enhanced erythropoiesis, increased RBC count

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True or False: Insufficient hemoglobin will not cause tissue hypoxia

False

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True or False: There is a higher risk of stroke at lower altitudes?

False

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Low oxygen level in the air causes what type of hypoxia?

Environmental hypoxia

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What substance causes these effects?

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  • Rapid maturation of committed marrow cells

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  • Increased circulating RBC

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  • Speeds up erythropoiesis

Erythropoietin

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What happens to old RBC?

Engulfed by Macrophages

Broken down for globin and iron

Expelled in waste

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What is an orange-yellow pigment formed in the liver by the breakdown of hemoglobin and excreted in bile?

Bilirubin

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Name the four types of anemia.

  1. Renal Anemia - Kidneys do not secrete EPO

  2. Hemolytic Anemia - Premature lysis of RBC

  3. Aplastic Anemia - Impairment of red bone marrow

  4. Thalassemia - one globin chain absent or faulty

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BONUS: Sickle cell anemia - Incorrect amino acid in globin beta chain

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Polycythemia Vera

Bone cancer in which too many RBC are produced (increased viscosity of blood)

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Secondary polycythemia

Increased EPO production in response to chronic tissue hypoxia

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What are three methods of increasing RBC count artificially?

  1. Blood doping - removal of blood to cause tissue hypoxia, reinjected to increase RBC count.

  2. Artificial EPO injections

  3. Testosterone shots

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What does aspirin inhibit?

Thromboxine A2

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Hemostasis is a series of reactions for ______________________

The stoppage of bleeding

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What are the three steps of hemostasis?

  1. Vascular Spasm

  2. Platelet Plug

  3. Coagulation

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Constricts the diameter of the blood vessel (lessens flow of blood).

Vasoconstriction

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What is the Von Willebrand Factor?

Glycoprotein used in the clotting process for platelets to bind to and for a clot.

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As platelets become activated in the clotting process, what do they release?

Release serotonin, ADP, and thromboxane A2 which will call more platelets to activate and bind at the site of injury.

Also signals to continue vasoconstriction.

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During homeostasis, why do endothelial cells secrete to prevent platelets from sticking together?

  • Nitric Oxide (NO)

  • Protsacylin (PGI2)

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Aggregation is when

Platelets stick together (platelet adhesion)

Von Willabrand Factor stabilizes sticking

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How many pathways are there in Coagulation?

Two - Intrinsic and extrinsic

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_______________ stabilizes platelet plug

Fibrin

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Intrinsic Pathway of Coagulation

Clotting factor activated by exposed collagen fibers and activates platelets

-Negatively charged surfaces in vessel

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Extrinsic Pathway of Coagulation

Activated by substances released by damaged tissues

-Tissue Factor (TF)/ Factor III

-Faster

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What are the three phases of coagulation?

  1. Prothrombin activator formation

  2. Prothrombin converted to enzyme thrombin

  3. Thrombin catalyzes fibrinogen --> Fibrin

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What occurs during clot refraction and vessel repair?

-Actin and myosin in platelets contract

-Contraction pulls fibrin strands, serum squeezed out

-Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) causes division of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts

-Fibroblasts rebuild outer blood vessel walls

-Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) restore endothelial lining

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Fibrinolysis

Removes unneeded clots after healing

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What enzyme removes unneeded clots?

Plasmin (Plasminogen is inactive form)

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What is a thrombus?

A blood clot

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What is an Embolus?

Free floating clot

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What is an embolism?

Blood clot blocking flow

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What is thrombocytopenia

Deficient number of circulating platelets

Solution: Treated with a transfusion

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What is petechiae?

Bruising that appears to widespread, spontaneous hemorrhage.

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What is the result of being unable to synthesize procoagulants?

-Unable to complete phase 1 of coagulation.

-Impaired liver function (made in liver)

-Causes include vitamin K deficiency, hepatitis, and cirrhosis

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Hemophilia A

Missing Factor VIII

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Hemophilia B

Missing Factor IX

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