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incomplete metamorphosis

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116 Terms

1

incomplete metamorphosis

A type of development in certain insects in which development from larva to adult is achieved by multiple molts, but without forming a pupa

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absence of teeth, honeycombed bones, and acute sight

Which of the following traits support(s) advanced flight capabilities in modern birds?

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3

monkeys and apes

The two major groups of anthropoids are

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4

ectotherm

Referring to organisms for which external sources provide most of the heat for temperature regulation

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endotherm

Referring to organisms that use heat generated by their own metabolism to maintain a warm, steady body temperature

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6

notochord

Which characteristic is unique to Chordata (it is a diagnostic feature) and is evident at some stage of the life cycle in all chordates?

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7

notochord definition

A flexible, cartilage-like, longitudinal rod located between the digestive tract and nerve cord in chordate animals; present only in embryos in many species

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8

swim bladder and opercula

Two features of ray-finned fish NOT found in sharks are

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9

protostome

A mode of animal development in which the opening formed during gastrulation becomes the mouth. Animals with the protostome pattern of development include the flatworms, molluscs, annelids, nematodes, and arthropods

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10

deuterosome

A mode of animal development in which the opening formed during gastrulation becomes the anus. Animals with the deuterostome pattern of development include the echinoderms and the chordates

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11

Homo habilis

first hominin known to make tools

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12

tetrapod

A vertebrate with two pairs of limbs. include mammals, amphibians, and birds and other reptiles.

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13

eumetazoa

Clade of “true animals,” the animals with true tissues (all animals except sponges).

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14

chordate

a phylum of animals having at least at some stage of development a notochord, dorsally situated central nervous system, and gill slits and including the vertebrates, lancelets, and tunicates

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arthropod

most diverse phylum in the animal kingdom, characterized by a chitinous exoskeleton, molting, jointed appendages, and a body formed of distinct groups of segments

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invertebrates

are most animals vertebrates or invertebrates?

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17

hair and mammary glands

the two distinguishing features of mammals

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18

Cambrian explosion

happened more than 500 million years ago. It was when most of the major animal groups started to appear in the fossil record, a time of rapid expansion of different forms of life on Earth

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19

lancelet

is a chordate, but not a vertebrate (One of a group of small, bladelike, invertebrate chordates)

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20

complete metamorphosis

A type of development in certain insects in which development from larva to adult is achieved by multiple molts that are followed by a pupal stage. While encased in its pupa, the body rebuilds from clusters of embryonic cells that have been held in reserve. The adult emerges from the pupa.

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21

adaptive radiation

Period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species whose adaptations allow them to fill new or vacant ecological roles in their communities

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22

strata

rock layer formed when a new layer of sediment covers an older one and compresses it

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23

homology

similarity in characters resulting from a shared ancestry

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24

homologous structures

structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry

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25

vestigial structures

remnants of features that served important functions in the organism's ancestors

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analogous structures

The similarity between two species that is due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait

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27

convergent evolution

The evolution of similar features in different evolutionary lineages, which can result from living in very similar environments

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pseudogenes

A DNA sequence that resembles a gene but has been mutated into an inactive form over the course of evolution. It often lacks introns and other essential DNA sequences necessary for function

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29

evolutionary tree

branching diagram that reflects a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms

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30

Main points of Natural Selection

  1. populations, not individuals, evolve over time

  2. can only amplify or diminish heritable traits, not one's attained over a parent's lifetime

  3. does not make perfect organisms

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31

evolution

change over time

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32

diversity

adaptation to existing conditions, getting what is needed, divergence

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33

unity

traits passed from parent to offspring

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34

hominoid

a primate of a group that includes humans, their fossil ancestors, and the anthropoid apes (includes lesser apes)

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35

hominid

the great apes: orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and humans

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hominin

the group consisting of modern humans, extinct human species and all our immediate ancestors (including members of the genera Homo, Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Ardipithecus)

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37

ecdysis

the process of shedding the old skin (in reptiles) or casting off the outer cuticle (in insects and other arthropods)

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38

bilateral symmetry

An arrangement of body parts such that an organism can be divided equally by a single cut passing longitudinally through it. A bilaterally symmetric organism has mirror-image right and left sides

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radial symmetry

An arrangement of the body parts of an organism like pieces of a pie around an imaginary central axis. Any slice passing longitudinally through a radially symmetric organism’s central axis divides the organism into mirror-image halves

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40

The Five Vertebrate Groups

Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals

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41

4 characteristics of a vertebrate

notochord, pharyngeal slits, dorsal hollow nerve cord, post-anal tail

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42

porifera

These are pore-bearing multicellular animals. The body has no organs. They exhibit holozoic nutrition. The body is radially symmetrical. They can regenerate their lost parts

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43

cnidarians

an animal characterized by cnidocytes, radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and a polyp and medusa body form. include the hydras, jellies, sea anemones, corals, and related animals.

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44

gastrovascular cavity

A central compartment with a single opening, the mouth; functions in both digestion and nutrient distribution and may also function in circulation, body support, waste disposal, and gas exchange.

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45

ecdysozoans

A lineage of bilaterian animals that includes the nematodes and arthropods, animals with external skeletons that must be shed

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46

examples of protostome animals

including the arthropods (e.g., insects, crabs), mollusks (clams, snails), annelid worms, and some other groups

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47

examples of deuterosome animals

vertebrates, sea stars, and crinoids

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48

vertebrate

A chordate animal with a backbone, including hagfishes, lampreys, chondrichthyans, ray-finned fishes, lobe-finned fishes, amphibians, reptiles (including birds), and mammals

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49

invertebrate

An animal that lacks a backbone

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50

characteristics of an animal

multicellular, true tissues, motile, reproduce sexually, lack cell walls, heterotrophic

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51

phylogeny

The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species.

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52

phylogenetic tree

A branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, may be built using morphological (body shape), biochemical, behavioral, or molecular features of species or other groups.

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53

the eons

Hadean, Archaean, Proterozoic, Phanerozoic

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54

the mass extinctions

Ordovician, Devonian, Permian, Triassic, Cretaceous

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55

pre-cambrian, around 770-800 mya

when did animals first appear in fossil record

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56

3.5 bya

when did prokaryotes first appear in fossil record

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57

2.7 bya

when did single celled eukaryotes appear in fossil record

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58

600 mya

when did multicellular eukaryotes appear in fossil record

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59

divergent evolution

the evolutionary pattern in which species sharing a common ancestry become more distinct due to differential selection pressure which gradually leads to speciation over an evolutionary time period

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60

Oparin Haldane Hypothesis

life arose gradually from inorganic molecules, with “building blocks” like amino acids forming first and then combining to make complex polymers

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61

Miller-Urey Experiment

The Miller-Urey experiment was a simulation of conditions on the early Earth testing the idea that life, or more specifically organic molecules, could have formed by nothing more than simple chemical reactions.

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62

geologic eras

precambrian, paleozoic, mesozoic, cenozoic

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63

stratigraphy

the branch of geology concerned with the order and relative position of strata and their relationship to the geological time scale

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64

Relative time

the physical subdivision of the rocks found in the Earth's geology and the time and order of events they represent

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65

absolute time

the measurement taken from the same rocks to determine the amount of time that has expired, usually using radiometric dating

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66

radiometric dating

A method for determining the absolute ages of fossils and rocks, based on the half-life of radioactive isotopes

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67

permineralization

type of fossilization that happens when minerals transported by water fill in all the open spaces of an organism or organic tissue. Within these spaces, mineral deposits form internal casts

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68

What conditions make it more likely that an organism will form a fossil?

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69

rock types

igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic

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70

how sedimentary rocks are formed

Pieces of rock are loosened by weathering, then transported to some basin or depression where sediment is trapped. If the sediment is buried deeply, it becomes compacted and cemented, forming sedimentary roc

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71

trace fossil

tracks, trails, and burrows of long-dead organisms

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72

body fossil

the remains of actual organisms, include molds and casts

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73

instantaneous speciation

the production of a single individual (or the offspring of a single mating) that is reproductively isolated from the species to which the parental stock belongs and that is reproductively and ecologically capable of establishing a new species population

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74

allopatric speciation

The formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another

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75

sympatric speciation

The formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic area

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76

punctuated equlibria

In the fossil record, a long period in which a species undergoes little or no morphological change (equilibrium), interrupted (punctuated) by a relatively brief period of sudden change

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77

speciation

The evolution of a new species

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78

different species concepts

biological, morphological, phylogenetic, ecological

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79

phylogenetic species concept

A definition of species as the smallest group of individuals that shares a common ancestor, forming one branch on the tree of life

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80

morphological species concept

A definition of species in terms of measurable anatomical criteria.

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81

ecological species concept

A definition of species in terms of ecological niche, the sum of how members of the species interact with the nonliving and living parts of their environment

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82

biological species concept

Definition of a species as a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring but do not produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other such groups.

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83

gene flow

The transfer of alleles from one population to another as a result of the movement of individuals or their gametes

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84

genetic drift

A change in the gene pool of a population due to chance. Effects of genetic drift are most pronounced in small populations

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85

founder effect

Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool is not reflective of that of the original population

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86

bottleneck effect

Genetic drift resulting from a drastic reduction in population size. Typically, the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population

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87

prezygotic barrier

A reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization if mating between two species is attempted. Includes temporal, habitat, behavioral, mechanical, and gametic isolation.

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88

postzygotic barrier

A reproductive barrier that prevents hybrid zygotes produced by two different species from developing into viable, fertile adults. Includes reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, and hybrid breakdown

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89

characteristics needed for Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium

no mutation, random mating, no gene flow, large population size, and no natural selection.

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90

microevolution

A change in a population’s gene pool over generations

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91

macroevolution

Evolutionary change above the species level, encompassing the origin of a new group of organisms through a series of speciation events and the impact of mass extinctions on the diversity of life and its subsequent recovery

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92

forces of evolution

mutation, non-random mating, gene flow, finite population size (genetic drift), and natural selection

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93

artificial selection

The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits

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94

factors of natural selection

individuals of a species are not identical; traits are passed from generation to generation; more offspring are born than can survive; and only the survivors of the competition for resources will reproduce.

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95

phenotype

does natural selection act on the phenotype or genotype

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96

microevolutionary processes

mutation, selection (natural and artificial), gene flow and genetic drift.

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97

non-random mating

when the probability that two individuals in a population will mate is not the same for all possible combinations of genotypes

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98

sexual selection

A form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited traits are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates.

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99

intrasexual selection

competition between members of the same sex (usually males) for access to mates

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100

intersexual selection

members of one sex (usually females) choose members of the opposite sex

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