HOSA Pathophysiology

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Amniocentesis

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Amniocentesis

taking a fluid sample between the 15th and the 16th week of pregnancy to diagnose congenital anomalies

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Bicornate uterus

a uterus having two horns or horn-shaped branches

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Neonate

newborn baby

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Dysplasia

marked by abnormal adult cells

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Muscular dystrophy

progressive degeneration and weakening of the skeletal muscles

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Dystrophy

condition produced by faulty nutrition

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Contractures

immobility of muscles or a joint caused by shortening or wasting of tissue or muscle fibers

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Electromyography

an electrodiagnostic assessment of the activity of the skeletal muscles

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Meninges

Covering around the brain and the spinal cord

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Anecephalic

No cranial vault and little cerebral tissue

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Foramen Ovale

opening in the septum between the right and left atria of the fetal heart

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Acyanotic

absence of a bluish appearance of the skin and mucous membranes

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Adenosarcoma

a cancerous gland like tumor such as wilms' tumor

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Ataxic

uncoordinated gait associated with pathology of the central nervous system

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Azoospermia

an absence of spermatozoa in the seaman

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Dysplasia

marked by abnormal adult cells

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Electromyography

an electrodiagnosis assessment of the activity of skeletal muscles

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Meconium

the first stool of a newborn, greenish black with a tarry consistency

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Pylorus

the narrow part of the stomach toward the duodenum

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Stenosis

narrowing of an opening

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Tachypnea

rapid and shallow breathing

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Trisomy

one or more than the normal number of chromosomes

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Anticholinesterase

any enzyme that counteracts in the presence of choline esters

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Autoimmune

an immune response resulting in the presence of self-antigens or auto-antigens of certain body cells

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Candidiasis

(moniliasis) white, cheesy, curdlike patch on buccal mucosa due to superficial fungal infection

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Collagen

A protein fiber with a unique triple-helix that gives it great strength. Tissues with a lot of collagen fibers are typically very strong, e.g. bone, tendons, ligaments, etc.

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Hematopoietic

pertaining to the production and the development of blood cells or a substance that stimulates their production

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Hypogammaglobulinemia

a below normal concentration of gamma globulin in the blood associated with a decreased resistance to infection

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Immunocompetent

Immunodeficiency

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Immunodeficiency

the diminished ability of the immune system to react with appropriate cellular immunity response

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Immunoelectrophoresis

technique used to separate and allow identification of complex proteins

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Immunogen

an antigen

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Immunoglobulin

protein that can act as an antibody

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Immunosuppressive

having the property of suppressing the bodys immune response to antigens

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Keratoconjunctivitis

dryness of the conjunctiva resulting from a decrease in lacrimal function

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Lymph

a mostly clear, colorless, transparent, alkaline fluid found within the lymphatic vessels; formed in tissues throughout the body

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Lymphadenopathy

disease of the lymphnodes

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Lymphocyte

one of two types of (B Cells & T Cells) of leukocytes found in blood, lymph, and lymphoid tissue

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Macrophage

a monocyte bloodcell

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Phagocytes

cells that digest particles

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Phagocytosis

the process by which cells surround and digest certain particles

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Acidosis

pathologic disease resulting from an abnormal level of hydrogen ions (decrease in pH)

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Corticotropin

hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

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Epiphyseal

the long end of a bone where bone growth occurs

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Gonadotropin

hormone that stimulates the testes and the ovaries to function

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Hyperglycemia

an increase in the normal blood glucose level

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Hyperkalemia

a greater than normal amount of calcium in the blood

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Hypocalcemia

low calcium levels in the blood

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Hypothalamus

portion of the diencephalon of the brain

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Panhypopituitarism

condition in which the entire pituitary gland ceases to function and is not producing any pituitary hormones

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Polydipsia

excessive thirst

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Polyphagia

excessive eating (me)

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Polyuria

excreation of abnormally large amounts of urine

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Pruritus

itching

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Radioimmunoassay

radiology used to detect the concentration of the antigen or the antibody or any other protein in the serum

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Somatotropin

growth hormone (GH) secreted by the anterior pituitary

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Thyrotoxicosis

a toxic condition caused by hyperactivity of the thyroid gland

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Thyrotropin

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

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Thyroxine

Also called thryoid hormone, thyroxine is produced and secreted by follicle cells in the thyroid gland. it targets all cells in the body and increases overall body metabolism.

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Triiodothyronine

hormone that helps regulate growth and development, metabolism, and body temperature

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Vasopressin

ADH. Increases blood volume. Secreted by Posterior pituitary in response to increased plasma osmolarity. Diaretics make you pee ADH - no pee. ADH stimulates reabsorption of H2O by kidnesy. Decreased urine volume, Increased blood volume and Increased Blood pressure.

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Amblyopia

reduced vision in an eye without a detectable organic lesion

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Blepharitis

Inflammation of the eyelids

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Cryotherapy

the therapeutic use of cold

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Diplopia

double vision

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Iridotomy

incision into the iris (usually with a laser) to allow drainage of aqueous humor from the posterior to anterior chamber; used to treat a type of glaucoma

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Macula

a small spot or colored area

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Meibomian

a sebaceous gland on the posterior margin of each eyelid

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Myringotomy

surgical incision of the eardrum preformed to release fluid or pus from the middle ear

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Otoscopy

visual examination of the ear using an otoscope

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Retinopathy

refers to non-inflammatory eye disorders

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Seborrhea

the excessive secretion of sebum from the sebaceous glands

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Sebum

only secretion from sebaceous glands

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Tinnitus

ringing or buzzing in the ears

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Tonometry

measure of intraocular pressure

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Tympanoplasty

Surgical repair of the eardrum

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Vertigo

loss of equilibrium or sensation of instability, dizziness

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Bulla

A fluid-filled blister that is greater than 1 cm in diameter and contains non-purulent ("clear") exudate.

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Cellulitis

an acute, diffuse, spreading, infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

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Comedo

a blackhead; as seen in achne

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Dermatome

a configured zone of skin innervated by a spinal cord segment

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Electrodesiccation

Tissue is destroyed by burning with an electric spark.

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Erythema

redness or inflammation of the skin produced by capillary congestion

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Exudate

fluid, cells, or cellular debris that have oozed into the tissue because of injury or swelling

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Exudative

fluid, cells, or cellular debris that have oozed into the tissue because of injury or swelling

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Fissure

a crack or groove on a surface

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Keratolytic

substance that causes shedding of the skin

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Keratosis

a skin lesion where there is overgrowth and thickening of a cornifield epithelium

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Nevus

(mole) circumscribed skin lesion due to excess melanocytes

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Papule

a circular area on the skin that is reddened and elevated

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Plaques

mounds of fat, mixed with minerals, that build up along artery walls in atherosclerosis.

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Sebaceous

Oil glands of the skin.

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Vesicle

a small, blisterlike elevation of the skin containing clear fluid

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Vesicular

Breath sounds: found over most of lung tissue. Found over lung periphery. Low pitched, soft breezy sound.

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Wheal

a smooth, round, elevated area of the skin with red edges and a white center, usually accompanied by itching; hives

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Avulsion

separation of a body part by tearing

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Bursae

A closed sac lined with a synovial membrane and filled with fluid, usually found in areas subject to friction, such as where a tendon passes over a bone.

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Calcitonin

A hormone produced by the C-cells of the thyroid gland that decreases serum calcium levels. It targets the bones (stimulates osteoblasts), the kidneys (reduces calcium reabsorption), and the small intestine (decreases calcium absorption).

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Crepitation

dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction

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Fascia

a fiberous membrane that covers, seperates, and supports the muscles

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