PSYC2410 Midterm 1

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Applied Research

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259 Terms
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Applied Research

research that is intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind.

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Autonomic nervous system

(ANS) the part of the peripheral nervous system that participates in the regulation of the body’s internal environment.

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between-subjects design

an experimental design in which a different group of subjects is tested under each condition.

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biopsychology

the scientific study of the biology of behaviour; a biological approach to the study of psychology.

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cerebral cortex

the layer of neural tissue covering the cerebral hemispheres of humans and other mammals.

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cognition

higher intellectual processes such as thought, memory, attention, and complex perceptual processes.

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cognitive neuroscience

division of biopsychology that focuses on the use of functional brain imaging to study the neural mechanisms of human cognition.

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comparative approach

the study of biological processes by comparing different species-usually from the evolutionary perspective.

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comparative psychology

the division of biopsychology that studies the evolution, genetics, and adaptiveness of behaviour, often by using the comparative approach.

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confounded variable

an unintended difference between the conditions of an experiment that could have affected the dependent variable.

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consciousness

the perception or awareness of some aspects of ones self or the world.

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converging operations

the use of several research approaches to solve a single problem.

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coolidge effect

the fact that a copulating male who becomes incapable of continuing to copulate with one sex partner can often recommence copulating with a new sex partner.

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dependent variable

the variable measured by the experimenter to assess the effect of the independent variable.

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electroencephalogram

(EEG) a measure of the gross electrical activity in the brain, commonly recorded through scalp electrodes.

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epigentics

the study of all mechanisms of inheritance other than the genetic code and its expression.

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evolutionary perspective

the approach that focuses on the environmental pressures that likely led to the evolution of the characteristics of current species.

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ethological research

the study of animal behaviour in its natural environment

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generalizability

the degree to which the results of a study can be applied to other individuals or situations

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independent variable

the difference between experimental conditions that is arranged by the experimenter.

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korsakoff’s syndrome

a neuropsychological disorder that is common in alcoholics and whose primary symptoms include memory loss, sensory and moto dysfunction, and in its advanced stages, severe dementia.

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leucotome

a surgical device used in psychosurgery to cut out a core of brain tissue.

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lordosis

the arched-back, rump up, tail to the side posture of female rodent sexual receptivity.

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morgan’s canon

the rule that the simplest possible interpretations for a behavioural observation should be given precedence.

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neuroanatomy

the study of the structure of the nervous system.

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neurochemistry

the study of the chemical bases of neural activity

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neuroendocrinology

the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system.

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neurons

cells of the nervous systems that are specialized for the reception, conduction, and transmission of the electrochemical signals.

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neuropathology

the study of nervous system disorders.

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neuropharmacology

the study of the effects of drugs on neural activity.

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neurophysiology

the study of the functions and activities of the nervous system.

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neuroplasticity

the notion that the brain is a “plastic” organ that continuously grows and changes in response to an individuals environment and experiences.

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neuropsychology

the division of biopsychology that studies the psychological effects of brain damage in human patients.

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neuroscience

the scientific study of the nervous system.

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physiological psychology

the division of biopsychology that studies the neural mechanisms of behaviour through direct manipulation of the brains of nonhuman animal subjects in controlled experiments.

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prefrontal lobes

areas of cortex, left and right, that are located at the very front of the brain in the frontal lobes.

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prefrontal lobotomy

a surgical procedure in which the connections between the prefrontal lobes and the rest of the brain are cut, as a treatment for mental illness.

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psychopharmacology

the division of biopsychology that studies the effects of drugs on the brain and behaviour.

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psychophysiology

the division of biopsychology that studies the relations between physiological activity and psychological processes in human subjects by noninvasive methods.

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psychosurgery

any brain surgery performed for the treatment of psychological problems.

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pure research

research motivated primarily by the curiosity of the researcher and done solely for the purpose of acquiring knowledge.

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quasiexperimental studies

studies of groups of subjects who have been exposed to the conditions of interest in the real world; such studies have the appearance of experiments but are not true experiments because potential confounded variables have not been controlled for.

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scientific inference

the logical process by which observable events are used to infer the properties of unobservable events.

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translational research

research designed to translate basic scientific discoveries into effective applications.

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transorbital lobotomy

a prefrontal lobotomy performed with an instrument inserted through the eye socket

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within-subjects design

an experimental design in which the same subjects are tested under each condition.

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Advantages of animal studies?

  • comparative method

  • simpler brain-behaviour relationships

  • fewer ethical restrictions

  • need for validation.

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Advantages to studying humans?

  • can follow instruction

  • can report subjective experiences

  • are cheaper

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Case of Jimmie G.

  • 1975 age 49 (thought he was 19)

  • can’t form new memories (anterograde amnesia)

  • Normal IQ on tests

  • seemingly normal cognitive function.

  • short term memory

  • Diagnosis: Korsakoff’s syndrome

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Explain brain damage in alcoholics?

Indirect:

  • alcohol lacks vitamins→low thiamine intake

  • alcohol interferes with the metabolism of the little thiamine that alcoholics consume.

Direct:

  • alcohol also accelerated neurodegeneration in thiamine deficient rates.

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afferent nerves

nerves that carry sensory signals to the central nervous system.

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anterior

toward the nose end of the vertebrate

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arachnoid membrane

the meninx is located between the dura mater and the pia mater and has the appearance of a gauzelike spiderweb.

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astrocytes

large, star-shaped glial cells that play multiple roles in the CNS

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basal ganglia

a collection of subcortical nuclei

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bipolar neuron

a neuron with 2 processes extending from its cell body

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blood-brain barrier

the mechanism that impedes the passage of toxic substrates from the blood into the brain

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caudate

the tail=like structure that is part of the striatum

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central canal

the small CSF-filled channel that runs the length of the spinal cord.

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central fissure

the large fissure that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.

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central nervous system

(CNS) the portion of the nervous system within the skull and spine

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cerebellum

a mentencephalic structure that is thought to participate in the storage of memories of learned sensorimotor skills.

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cerebral aqueduct

a narrow channel that connects the third and fourth ventricle

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cerebral commissures

tracts that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres

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cerebral ventricles

the four CSF-filled internal chambers of the brain: the two lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, and the fourth ventricle.

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cerebrospinal fluid

(CSF) the fluid that fills the subarachnoid space, the central canal, and the cerebral ventricles. produced by the choroid plexus. absorbed into blood in dural sinuses, then drain into jugular veins.

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choroid plexuses

the networks of capillaries that protrude into the ventricles from the pia mater and produce cerebrospinal fluid.

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cingulate cortex

the cortex of the cingulate gyri, which are located on the medial surfaces of the frontal lobes.

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cingulate gyri

large gyri located on the medial surfaces of the frontal lobes, just superior to the corpus callosum.

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columnar organization

the functional organization of the neocortex in vertical columns; the cells in each column form a mini-circuit that performs a single function.

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contralateral

projecting from one side of the body to the other

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corpus callosum

the largest cerebral commissure

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cranial nerves

the 12 pairs of nerves extending from the brain

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cross section

section cut at a right angle to any long narrow structure of the CNS

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decussate

to cross over to the other side of the brain

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diencephalon

one of the five major divisions of the brain; it is composed of the thalamus and hypothalamus

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distal

far from something

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dorsal

toward the surface of the back of a vertebrate or toward the top of the head.

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dorsal horns

the two dorsal arms of the spinal gray matter

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dorsal root ganglia

structures just outside the spinal cord that are composed of the cell bodies of dorsal root axons.

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dura mater

the tough outer meninx

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efferent nerves

nerves that carry motor signals from the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles or internal organs

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electron microscopy

microscopy techniques used to study the fine details of cellular structure.

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fissures

the large furrows in convoluted cortex.

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fornix

the major tract of the limbic system; it connects the hippocampus with the septum and the mammillary bodies.

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frontal lobe

the most anterior of the four cerebral lobes.

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frontal sections

any slices of brain tissue cut in a plane that is parallel to the face; also termed coronal sections.

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ganglia

clusters of neuronal cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

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glial cells

several classes of nonneural cells of the nervous system

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globus pallidus

a structure of the basal ganglia that is located between the putamen and thalamus.

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golgi stain

a neural stain that completely darkens a few of the neurons in each slice of tissue. thereby revealing their silhouettes. (potassium dichromate, silver nitrate)

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gray matter

portions of the nervous system that are gray because they are composed largely of cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons.

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gyri

the cortical ridges that are located between fissures or sulci.

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hippocampus

a structure of the medial temporal lobes that plays a role in various forms of memory.

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horizontal sections

any slices of brain tissue cut in a plane that are parallel to the top of the brain

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hypothalamus

the diencephalic structure that sits just below the anterior portion of the thalamus

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inferior

toward the bottom of the primate head or brain

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inferior colliculi

the structures of the tectum that receive auditory input from the superior colliculi.

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interneurons

neurons with short axons or no axons at all, whose function is to integrate neural activity within a single brain structure.

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ipsilateral

on the same side of the body

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