US History Unit 0

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American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

  • preferred to pay taxes and honor Parliament and the king- they feared that the resistance would lead to a war that Britain seemed certain to win

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Declarations of Independence

drafted in 1776 and announced America was no longer a British colony

  • mostly written by Thomas Jefferson and with help from Adams and Franklin

  • captured the ideals of the revolution, inspiring the struggle, and how it laid the groundwork for the creation of the United States Constitution

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A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.

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Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption.

  • thought it gave the national government far too much power at the expense of the states.

  • they believed that the President had too much power, that Congress was too small and could not represent voters, and that a federal court system interfered with local courts

  • believed that liberty could not survive unless the federal government remained weak, with most power belonging to state governments.

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A document which spells out the principles by which a government runs and the fundamental laws that govern a society

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Bill of rights

First 10 amendments to the Constitution

  • a list of freedoms guaranteed by the state government

  • protected individual liberty

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War of 1812

A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England was trying to interfere with American trade with France.

  • US ordered an embargo or a banning of trade with a country, on British goods, but it hurt the US more than it hurt Britain. so the US lifted the embargo

  • ended 2 1/2 years later by a peace treaty

  • proved the stability of the country's republican form of government and power

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Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

  • in turn, the US promised to stay out of European affairs

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Manifest Destiny

A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.

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Civil War strategies

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Dred Scott v. Sanford

Supreme Court case that decided that slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens

  • Dred Scott's lawyers thought he should be free because he had lived with his master in the free state of Illinois

  • Northerners thought it was alarming, while Southerners were delighted

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Some abolitionists thought such an unfair decision would bring the crisis to a head more quickly, hastening the ___ of slavery

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Reconstruction Amendments

13th: abolished and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude 14th: secured the rights of former slaves after reconstruction, 15th: prohibits each government in the United States to prevent a citizen from voting based on their race

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Jim Crow Laws

Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites

  • limited rights of blacks

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Freedmen's Bureau

A federal agency set up to help former slaves after the Civil War Provided:

  • provide food- medical care- administer justice- manage abandoned and confiscated property- regulate labor- establish schools- reunion of families

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Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

  • provided a framework for self-government

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House of Burgesses

1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.

  • governed the colony in partnership with a royal governor appointed by the king of England

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Magna Carta

(1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John "Lackland" of England was forced to sign

  • it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom and limited the power of the English Monarch

  • It protected the right of people to own private property and guaranteed the right to trial by jury

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English Bill of Rights

King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689.

  • It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently.

  • By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.

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a movement that emphasized science and reason as guides to help see the world more clearly

  • that all problems could be solved by human reason

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John Locke

English philosopher who believed that people had NATURAL rights that came from God, not from monarchs

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Great Awakening

RELIGIOUS revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.

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Causes of the American Revolution

  1. Taxation2. Revocation of Royal Charters3. Enforcement of Navigation Acts4. British Demands for Colonists to pay for cost of French and Indian War.5. Oppression by King6. Interference of Parliament in Colonial Affairs.7. No Representation in Parliament.

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Valuing the prosperity and protection of the empire, the colonists did not immediately seek independence But to ______ Parliament, colonists boycotted British goods, which threatened British economy, but some loyalists refused

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George Washington

1st President of the United States, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)

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Treaty of Paris

agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country

  • gave the US new boundaries

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Republican Government

government in which officials are representatives elected by the people.

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democratic, conservative

Disagreeing on who should have the right to vote ... Patriots who were more ____________ wanted equal political rights for almost all free men, even those who had little or no property _______________ patriots restricted voting rights to those who had enjoyed those rights in colonial times, which are free men who owned property

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Articles of Confederation

1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 weaknesses include ...

  • no executive- no judicial- no power to tax- no power to regulate trade

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Shay's Rebellion

During an economic depression, which reduced the prices paid to farmers for their produce, they were unable to pay their debts, and farmers faced losing their crops, livestock, and homes

  • armed farmers led by Daniel Shay- they shut down courts, blocking foreclosures The rebellion highlighted the weaknesses of the national government set up by the Articles of Confederation and couldn't defend American interests

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The articles of Confederation gave Congress authority over the ___________ territory, which lay north oft heOhio River and stretched west form Pennsylvania to the Mississippi River

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Land Ordinance

created a system for surveying and selling the land to settlers

  • A major success of the Articles of Confederation

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Northwest Ordinance

Described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed and how they could become full-fledged states

  • also banned slavery in the territory and provided for public education

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Virgina Plan

A plan that called for 3 branches of government, a judicial, executive, and legislature and the legislature based on population

  • advocated a national union that was both strong and republican

  • in both houses, the states with larger populations would have more members

  • National Congress would have the power to veto any state law- featured a President to command the armed forces and to manage foreign relations- he would appoint all executive and judicial officers, but only by approval by the Senate

  • By James Madison

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New Jersey Plan

The proposal at the Constitutional Convention called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population

  • would give Congress the power to regulate commerce and to tax while keeping the basic structure of the Confederation

  • would stay a loose confederation of states, rather than become a unified nation

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The Great Compromise

Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house

  • Senate (each state is allowed 2 senators)

  • simply forbade the states from enacting the sorts of alws that offended many during the 1780s.

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A system in which power is divided between the national/federal and state governments

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Delegates feared domination of northern states, which had a larger white population and worried that it threatened the _____ system, which was viewed as essential to the southern economy and society

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3/5 clause

Slaves counted as 3/5 person for representation and taxation purposes

  • boosted the number of southern seats in Congress

  • gave no rights to enslaved African Americans

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The Federalist Papers

A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.

  • explained why they believed the Constitution was vital to the survival of the new nation

  • also explained how the new system of government would work

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Checks and Balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power

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Virginia Declaration of Rights

Served as a model for the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United States of America

  • By James Madison

  • he limited the amendments to guarantees of individual rights

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"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of _________, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof"

  • First Amendment

  • separation of church and state

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limited government

A principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution.

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the Constitution established a representative government based on this basic ________:

  • popular sovereignty- separation of powers- limited government- federalism- checks and balances- representative government (indirect democracy)

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E pluribus unum

out of many, one (the motto of the US).

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Alexander Hamilton

1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury.

  • He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.

  • leader of the Federalist Party, but was opposed by leaders like Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, who wanted a limited government and an agrarian society

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Democratic Republican Party

Led by Thomas Jefferson

  • believed people should have political power- favored strong STATE governments- emphasized agriculture- strict interpretation of the Constitution- pro-French- opposed National Bank- opposed Hamilton's agenda

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Britain, France

The federalists wanted trade ties with _, while the Democratic Republicans wanted trade ties with _, Britain's enemy

  • George Washington wanted ties with both

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The ________ navy tested American neutrality by seizing US merchant ships trading with French colonies.

  • so Washington sent John Jay to negotiate with Britain

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Jay Treaty of 1794

US & Great Britain*Terms:*Stopped the search and seizure of American ships by the British, made America pay pre-revolutionary debts, and opened British ports.

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Marbury v. Madison

This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review

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John Marshall

American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review in the Marbury v. Madison case

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judicial review

allows the judicial branch to decide the constitutionality of congressional actions

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Lousiana Purchase

The purchase of French land between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains doubled the size of the US

  • cost only $15 mil

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Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815).

  • As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

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Jasksonian Democracy

The idea of widening political power to more of the people

  • more white men voted- blacks, even those with property, native Americans, and women could not vote

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protective tariffs

taxes that would make imported goods cost more than those made locally

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The nullification crisis

A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.

  • Jackson threatened to use troops to enforce federal law in South Carolina- South Carolina backed off after Congress passed a compromise tariff

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Indian Removal Act

(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River

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Trail of Tears

the forced removal of Cherokees and their transportation to Oklahoma

  • many died of diseases, exposure, and hunger

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Business leaders argued that the bank fostered economic growth and confidence, but Jacksonian democrats felt that it favored a small number of rich investors

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Whig Party

An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats

  • stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements

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Panic of 1837

When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands.

  • Jackson's decision to stop accepting paper money for the purchase of federal land lead to panic. Many state banks collapsed as a result.

  • A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.

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Alexis de Tocqueville

French political writer noted for his analysis of American institutions (1805-1859)

  • praised US Consitution

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Industrial Revolution

A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.

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Because of demand for ________ on textile mills, prices increased

  • this encouraged Southern planters to expand their fields and increase the number of enslaved African Americans they owned

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As southern and northern economies diverged, political differences on slaver _________ as well

  • North objected to slavery- slavery was important to the economy in the south, so southerners grew stronger in their defense of slaver

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Resistance to _______ became violent

  • so southerners passed harsher laws and controls to slavery- this inspired some people in the North to work against slavery

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Underground Railroad

a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada

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people who believed that slavery should be against the law

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Frederick Douglas

(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer.

  • He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.

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____ Americans didn't support the abolition of slavery

  • White workers in the North feared that fee African Americans would take their jobs

  • wealthy industrialists worried that the end of slavery would cut off the supply of southern cotton and reduce the demand for ship and shipyards

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Second Great Awakening

a revival of religious feeling and belief from the 1800s to the 1840s that led to an increase in participation in evangelical Protestant movements

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_______ were welcomed by the reform movements

  • they worked in the temperance movement, the abolition movement, and other reform movements

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Industrialism gave women the opportunity to work in jobs instead of staying _____

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Seneca Falls Convention

(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written

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Declaration of Sentiments

Revision of the Declaration of Independence to include women and men (equal).

  • It was the grand basis of attaining civil, social, political, and religious rights for women.

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Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony were some important women leaders in the women _______ movement

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Texas Revolution

War between Texas settlers (Anglo-Texans) and Mexico from 1835-1836 resulting in the formation of the Republic of Texas

  • later would be annexed in to the US

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Sam Houston

Commander of the Texas army at the battle of San Jacinto against Mexico

  • later elected president of the Republic of Texas

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James K. Polk

president in March 1845.

  • favored the annexation of Texas and endorsed a Texan border claim that was still disputed by Mexico and declared war on Mexico

  • wanted to settle the Oregon boundary dispute with Britain and compromised with Britain, agreeing on the split the Oregon Territory.

  • wanted to acquire California.

  • wanted to incorporate Texas into a union.

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The war with Mexico was ____-sided, with the US winning every major battle

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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million

  • secured the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas

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_______ would become a free state, disrupting the balance between the number of free states and slave states

  • which would contribute to the conflict between the North and South

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Wilmot Proviso

bill that called for a ban on slavery in any territory that the US gained from Mexico as a result of the war

  • southern leaders denounced the proposal

  • passed the House of Rep., but defeated in the Senate

  • helped spur the rise of antislavery political parties

  • increased tension between the North and South over slavery

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Free-soil Party

Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories

  • such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.

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Compromise of 1850

(1) California admitted as free state(2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico(3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries(4) federal assumption of Texas debt(5) slave trade abolished in DC(6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas

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Fugitive Slave Act

law that allowed officials...

  • to arrest any person accused of being a runaway slave- deny fugitives the right to a jury trial- required all citizens to help capture runaway slaves

  • outraged many northerners

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_________ states fought back the Fugitive Slave act by passing personal liberty laws and created groups for resistance

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Harriet Beecher Stowe

(1811-1896) American author, she was an abolitionist and author of the famous antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin, a powerful condemnation of slavery

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Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states

  • gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.

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Bleeding Kansas

Started with proslavery forces looting homes, burning down hotels, and destroying the presses. Then John Brown and others conducted a midnight raid on the proslavery settlement and kill 5 of them, creating more violence

  • The dispute further strained the relations between the North and South, making civil war imminent.

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John Brown

an abolitionist who thought using violence was the best way to defeat slavery

  • hoped to inspire and arm local slaves for an uprising that would spread into a general slave rebellion, eventually ending slavery, but no slaves joined his revolt

  • part of Bleeding Kansas

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New Republican Party

prospered because of Northern outrage over "Bleeding Sumner" and "Bleeding Kansas"

  • included abolitionists, antislavery business leaders, and more

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Lincoln-Douglas Debates

1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, but Douglas won the Senate race, but brought Lincoln national attention

  • Douglas supported popular sovereignty- Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate

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southern, northern

the _______ Democrats called for a platform supporting federal protection of slavery in territories (John C. Breckinridge) the _________ Democrats supported the doctrine of popular sovereignty (Stephen A. Douglas)

  • the north won

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John C. Breckinridge

The South's pro-slavery Democratic candidate in the election of 1860. Completed the split of the Democratic Party by being nominated. (North)

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_______ was chosen as the candidate to carry the Republican Party

  • he won the election and didn't get a single southern electoral vote

  • southerners were outraged at Lincoln's election

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Confederate States of America

A republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States

  • guaranteed the protection of slavery and independence of individual states

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