ap psych unit 1 vocab

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Empiricism

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Empiricism

Knowledge is the result of experience and scientific knowledge is developed through observation and experimentation
-Created by Francis Bacon
-Popularized by British philosophers

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Wilhelm Wundt

-considered the father of psychology
-established the first psychology lab
-wanted to measure the "atoms of the mind"

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Edward Bradford Titchener

-introduced structuralism to study the elements of the mind
-used introspection

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Structuralism

Early school focused on identifying the elements of thought and mind (structures) the way early chemists developed the periodic table

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Introspection

The process of looking inward to observe one’s own psychological processes

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Charles Darwin

-Natural selection of mental and physical traits

-Adaptive evolution

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William James

Introduced functionalism

-principles of psychology

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Mary Whiton Calkins

-Student of William James

-Specialized in memory research

-Became first female president of the APA

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Mary Floy Washburn

-Student of Edward Titchener

-First woman to get a Ph.D

-Wrote “The Animal Mind”

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Behaviorism

-psychology should be an objective science

-observable behavior is important to study, not the unseen mental processes

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B.F. Skinner

-Studied behaviorism

-Looked at learning processes in animals

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John B Watson

-Studied behaviorism

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Sigmund Freud

-Developed an influential treatment called psychoanalysis

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Psychoanalytic Theory

Unconcious forces and childhood experiences affect our behavior and mental processes

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Humanism

-Created by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogerrs

-Humans strive to reach their full potential

-Considered a “third force” in psychology

-Rejected behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory

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Cognitive Psychology

The study of mental processes

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Cognitive Neuroscience

The interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition

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Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes of humans and animals

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Behavior

Any observable and measurable action taken by a person or animal

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Nature vs. Nurture

Do genes (nature) or environmental factors (nurture) contribute to a person’s being?

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Nature

-Behavior and mental processes occur because they are innate

-Socrates and Plato

-Rene Decartes

-Charles Darwin

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Nurture

-Behaviors and mental processes occur as a result of experiences of the environment

-Aristotle

-John Locke

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Evolutionary Psychology

The study of how behaviors and mental processes present in the species today exist because they were naturally selected

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Culture

The shared ideas, values, behaviors, and traditions, shared by a group of people and passed from one generation to the next

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Gender

Socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female

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Positive Psychology

The scientific study of human flourishing

-The goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help communities and individuals thrive

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Biopsychosocial Approach

Understanding behavior or mental processes from three key viewpoints

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Biological Perspective

How biological (genetics, neural, hormonal) and physiological processes impact behavior and mental processes

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Cognitive Perspective

How interpretations of situations impact behavior and mental processes

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Evolutionary Perspective

How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes

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Humanistic Perpective

How the drive for personal growth and self actualization impact behavior and mental processes

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Sociocultural Perspective

How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

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Testing Effect

enhanced memory occurs as a result of retrieving, rather than rereading material

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Active Processing

enhanced memory occurs with intentional engagement with material
-put material in your own words
-use a mnemonic device

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Applied Research

Scientific inquiry that aims to use psychology to solve practical problems

-real world application of science

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Counseling Psychologists

-Help people with adjustments and crises

-Challenges related to work, school, family, and relationships

-Administer and interpret psychological tests

-Therapy and counseling

-May conduct research

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Clinical Psychologist

-assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders
-administer and interpret psychological tests
-therapy and counseling
-may conduct research

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Psychiatrist

-holds an md
-may prescribe drugs to treat physiological causes of psychological disorders
-may also provide psychotherapy

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Dorothea Dix

Reformer who advocated for the humane treatment of the mentally ill

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Cognitive Psychologists

Study human thinking

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Developmental Psychologist

Study how our behaviors and thoughts change over our entire lives, from birth to death

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Education Psychologists

-Study how we learn in different environments and in different ways

-Might work in schools or universities designing tests or training teachers

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Experimental Psychologists

-Conduct experiments to understand our behavior and mental processes

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Psychometric Psychologists

Use math and statistics to create and administer, score and interpret tests

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Social Psychologists

Study how we interact with other and how groups impact us individually

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Forensic Psychologists

Bring law and psychology together

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Environmental Psychologists

study how we are influenced and affected by our natural or built surroundings

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health psychologists

Work to promote health and prevent disease

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I/O Psychologists

-study the relationship between people and their working environments
-investigate worker productivity and personnel selection, organiztional structuring, consumer behavior, and training

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Neuropsychologists

Study how our brain impacts our behavior and thoughts

-Might treat alzheimers, work with athletes, people with autism, or ADHD

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Rehabilitation Psychologists

Help individuals who have lost functions after an accident or illness

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Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one could have foreseen it

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Overconfidence

Tendency to think we know more than we do

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Perceived order in random events

When one will believe that there is a pattern when there is none

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Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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operational definition

A carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study

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case study

a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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Naturalistic Observation

a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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Survey

A descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

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Correlation

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and how well either predicts the other

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Positive Correlation

Two sets of data tend to rise or fall together

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Negative Correlation

One set of data rises while the other falls

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Negative correlation

One set of data rises while the other falls

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Correlation Coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two variables (from -1 to +1)

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Illusory Correlation

Perceiving a relationship where none exists or perceiving a stronger-than-actual relationship

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Regression to the mean

The tendency for extreme scores or events to fall back toward the average

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Experimental Group

Subjects are experimented on

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Control group

Subjects do not receive the treatment

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Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experiments and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting conditions between the different groups

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Random Sampling

Choosing a representative sample of the population being studied

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Single Blind

The participants in the study are uninformed about the treatment, if any, they are receiving

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Double Blind

The participants and the researcher are uninformed about which group receives the treatment and which does not

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Placebo

An inert treatment, like a pill without medication

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Placebo Effect

Causes experimental results simply from expectations or assumptions that medication is being taken

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Independent Variable

The factor of an experiment that is being manipulated

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Dependent Variable

The outcome of an experiment that is measured

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Confounding Variable

A factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study’s results

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Experimental Validity

The extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what is supposed to

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Descriptive Statistics

-Numerical data used to measure and decribes characteristics of groups

-Includes measure of central tendency and measures of variation

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Histogram

A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

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Mean

The mathematical average of a set of numbers

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Median

The middle score in a distribution

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Mode

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

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Range

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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Standard Deviation

A computed measure of how much scores carry around the mean score

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Normal Distribution

A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean, or average and fewer and fewer near the extremes
-68% of scores fall 1 standard deviation from the mean
-95% of scores fall 2 standard deviations from the mean
-99% of scores fall 3 standard deviations from the mean

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Inferential Statistics

Numerical data that allows on to generalize

-To infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population

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Statistical Significance

Statistical statement of how likely it is that a result happened by chance

-reported as a p-value

-when less than .05, 95% likely that the results did not occur by chance

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Descriptive

-basic purpose: to observe and record behavior
-conducted: case studies, naturalistic observation, or surveys
-manipulation: none
-weaknesses: no control of variables; single cases can be misleading

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Correlational

-basic purpose: to detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts another
-conducted: collect data on two or more variables
-manipulation: none
-weaknesses: cannot specify cause and effect

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Experimental

-basic purpose: to explore cause and effect
-conducted: manipulate one or more factors; use random assignment
-manipulation: independent variable
-weaknesses: sometimes not feasible; results may not generalize to other contexts; not ethical to manipulate certain variables

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Creative Steps to Research

Design each study, measure target behaviors, interpret the results

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Specific Findings

Detecting the blink of a faint red light in a dark room

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Theoretical Principles

Ability to fly planes at night

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Debriefing

When temporary deception is necessary to the research, it must be fully explained at the conclusion of the experiment

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