Mod 8: Elementary School-age Language Development

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JIM CUMMINS

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JIM CUMMINS

Professor of language and literacy development at the ontario institute for studies in education; Strong advocate for bilingual and L2 learning as it improves the classroom environment

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emerging language learners' (ELL)

During the period of 1970-1980s, Cummins compared ____ performance in an English Standardized (??) test with english speakers; He noticed there are ____ who converse fluently but

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perform poorly in academic tasks

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language

JIM CUMMINS: His research has laid the foundation for the understanding that ___ is a part of cognitive development not behavior

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graph for BICS & CALP

commonly known _____ that helps to show the level of cognitive demands versus how abstract or concrete the language activity is

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BICS & CALP

In 1979, Jim Cummins coined these acronyms; processes that help teachers to understand a student's language fluency

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BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills

measure of conversational fluency or social language, Includes basic speaking and listening skills, developed through everyday interactions with language such as speaking with a friend, on the phone or even sending a text

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BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills

Examples:

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Survival language,

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Understanding and using non-verbal communication, Understanding written directions on worksheets (with or

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without illustration)

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CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

better known as academic language; uses vocabulary for a specific field of interest, usually used in the classroom or workplace

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CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

Examples: Writing an essay, Listening to the news, Understanding research paper, Doing hands-on experiments through scientific inquiry

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Listening, speaking, reading, writing

CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Includes all four modalities:

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Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills

BICS:

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Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

CALP:

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Quadrant 1

concrete and cognitively undemanding language activities; such as a face-to-face introduction, conversation, or a video call, Survival Vocabulary

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Quadrant 3

concrete and cognitively demanding; includes activities such as a job interview or a class presentation, hands- on science experiment

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Quadrant 2

abstract and cognitively undemanding activities; such as a diary entry a phone call or a text message, reading and writing for personal use

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Quadrant 4

abstract yet cognitively demanding; include activities such as a standardized exam or a research paper; writing reports and essays

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understanding language for pedagogical purposes this dichotomy does not work out so well

LIMITATIONS OF BICS & CALP

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BICS, CALP

LIMITATIONS OF BICS & CALP: Highly developed _, Underdeveloped _

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BICS & CALP is not a one-size-fits-all theory

Since each situation presents differing cognitive demands and diverse students come with differing background relationships with english =

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blurred

The quadrant lines can actually become ___ or changed completely depending on the situation

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language abilities

UNDERSTANDING STUDENTS' LANGUAGE ABILITIES: As educators we need to make sure that we are aware of our students ___ ___: just because they are speaking fluently with their peers it doesn't mean they don't need further language support

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socially fluent

___ ___ is not the same as using the language at the same academic level as their native english peers

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five and seven

Academic language: can be very specialized; takes between ____ __ ____ years to develop on par with native english speakers

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six months to two years

Social Language: takes between ________ to develop into fluency

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Giving list of definitions or translations, use of images and drama, connecting to ELs cultural background, Translanguaging, get to know students

WAYS TO TAILOR YOUR LESSON FOR ELs

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Translanguaging

avoid relying solely on best practices and strategies and instead build new understandings and learning paths between your students first and second language

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success in the classroom

IMPORTANCE OF BICS & CALP: Jim Cummins' theory gives educators another look at their students development which helps students experience

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Task Analysis

taking a task and breaking it up into teachable components or parts

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Discrete Response & Chain of Responses

When selecting a skill to teach you first want to think about the target skill and whether is a:

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Discrete response

involves a single step with a clear beginning and ending; E.g. activating a switch or saying hello

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Chain of responses (Chained Tasks)

skills that require multiple responses to complete; E.g. hand-washing or doing division

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TASK ANALYSIS WITH PICTURES

breaks down the steps for the student and just adds that picture representation

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VISUAL SUPPORTS

common in using task analysis for students with disabilities

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identification of teachable component,

basis for data collection, set occasion, Saves teaching time, Allows more than one person, home-school communication tool FUNCTION OF A TASK ANALYSIS

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Selecting a goal, Writing quality, Selecting instructional strategies task analyses, Choosing a data collection method

USING TASK ANALYTIC INSTRUCTION

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Watch someone perform sequence, Determine critical steps, Consider partial participation

CONSIDERATIONS IN WRITING A TASK ANALYSIS

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partial participation

Some students with disabilities cannot independently perform all the steps, they can be taught to perform selected components or adapted version

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Be more active in a task, Make more choices, Provide more control

partial participation: Used to help a learner:

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encouraging the learner

partial participation: may have a goal of _____ to be more active in their routine to make choices or to have more control

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Field Test Task Analysis

Having someone that's not part of developing the task analysis have them perform the steps; You want to be careful of what you include in the steps; Go back and evaluate and think of things that maybe you would have left out

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Chaining

HOW TO TEACH TASK ANALYSIS TO STUDENTS

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Chaining

method for teaching sequential skills or skills that require several steps and that are accomplished in a set order

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FORWARD CHAINING

Involves teaching the initial step first; Instead of directing your teaching efforts on the last step that isn't done independently you find the first step that the child needs to learn and work forward through the task analysis

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FORWARD CHAINING

PROCESS: there's 10 steps in the task analysis, student performs the first step and the teacher reinforces that, teacher would complete steps 2 through 10 and then once the child learns each step they work forward only one at a time through the task analysis, perform step 2 lots of reinforcement the teacher would complete 3 through 10, student would complete 1 2 & 3 with lots of reinforcement and the teacher would complete steps 4 through 10

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BACKWARD CHAINING

moves a student from the last part of the task to the beginning,

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student and the task

the decision to use either forward chaining or backward chaining is dependent on the

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last step

BACKWARD CHAINING: USED WHEN: student can be taught a task easier from the ___ ___ of the task than the first the

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BACKWARD CHAINING

PROCESS: Student is provided with assistant through the process until the last step, Student is encouraged to complete the last step alone, If prompts are provided than they are faded as soon

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as possible so that that last step is independent, When the last step is mastered the student is provided help until she or he is able to perform the

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step before the last one, Each step is mastered prior to the final step and the

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student is completing more and more ending steps independently until she or he is able to do it without any assistance

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broken down into the smallest steps

in order for any of the training program to be successful it is necessary that the task is _____ necessary for the child to learn

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TOTAL TASK CHAINING

training the student has given opportunity to perform each step every time, variation of forward chaining because it has the addition to reinforcers after every step

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successful

RESEARCH ON CHAINING PROCEDURES: all of chaining procedures have been proven __

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task and the student

RESEARCH ON CHAINING PROCEDURES: there are different advantages to different types of chaining but that also depends on the ____

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Backward chaining

RESEARCH ON CHAINING PROCEDURES: ____ ___ has a theoretical advantage because of readily available conditioned reinforcer to

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strengthen new response

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no differential effects

RESEARCH ON CHAINING PROCEDURES: Comparisons of forward chaining & backward chaining:

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Task analytic instruction

is an evidence-based practice and using forward chaining and backward chaining and total test rate chaining are ways to teach task analysis

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classroom

SCHOOL-AGE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Period where there is drastic change in terms of demand in; Increased demand to participate in communication, in the more academic side

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Pragmatic and Semantic Skills

SCHOOL-AGE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Characterized growth in language particularly in

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exception to the rules

SCHOOL-AGE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Children learn the ______ learned during school-age period

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adult-like

SCHOOL-AGE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: During the school-age period, their language is more ___ but there are few syntactic structures that are not

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5

SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT: Pragmatic: Uses mostly direct requests, Repeats for repair, Begins to use gender topics

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SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT: Pragmatic: Repeats with elaboration for repair, Uses adverbial conjuncts now, then, so, though; disjuncts rare

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SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT: Pragmatic: Uses and understands most deictic terms, Narrative plots have beginning, end. problem, and resolution; Semantic: Uses left/right, back/front, Shifts from single-word to multiword definitions

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SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT: Pragmatics: Sustains concrete topics, Recognises nonliteral meanings in indirect requests, Begins considering others'' intentions

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SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT: Pragmatics: Sustains topics through several turns, Addresses perceived source of breakdown in repair, Produces all elements of story grammar; Semantic: Has generally completed most of syntagmatic--paradigmatic shift, Begins to interpret psychological states described with physical terms (cold, blue) but misinterprets

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SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT: Semantics: Comprehends in and on used for temporal relations, Comprehends more familial terms

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SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT: Pragmatics: Sustains abstract topics, 20% of narrative sentences still begin with and; Semantics: Creates abstract of definitions, Has all elements of conventional adult definitions, Understands psychological states described with physical terms

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SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT: Pragmatics: Uses adverbial conjuncts (4/100 utterances) otherwise, anyway, therefore, and however, disjuncts really and probably

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classroom, provide information

LANGUAGE USE: There is an increase in the demands of the ____ require major changes in the use of language; Increase in ability to ___ ___

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Explain, express, describe, direct, report, reason, imagine, hypothesize, persuade, infer, cause, predict outcomes

LANGUAGE USE: Uses language to:

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repetitions

SPEAKING STYLE: More ___ with same age peers, compared to unfamiliar communication partner and parents

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social rules

SPEAKING STYLE: Notice the ____ ___ when communicating with peers

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different codes

SPEAKING STYLE: Uses ___ ___ for parents and other unfamiliar communication partners → more demands and whining for parents

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introduce a topic, sustain it and close or change it

TOPIC INTRODUCTION AND MAINTENANCE: Improved ability to _____; Increase in rate of maintaining introduced topics

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relevance

Decrease in number of different topics introduced or reintroduced → __: Adherence to the _; School-Aged: More closely related: Plane → Travel → Sights → People met

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Concrete → abstract

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8

Concrete topics: __ years old

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11

Abstract topics: ___ years old

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3 to 5

INDIRECT REQUESTS emerge between ages ____ years old

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declarative

INDIRECT REQUESTS: Comprehension of indirect requests begin with ____ forms and eventually mature to interrogative forms

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Polarity

INDIRECT REQUESTS: negatively stated statement but the message is positive as compared to positively states statement but message is negative

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awareness

CONVERSATIONAL REPAIR: There is an increase in ___ of others and towards listener's need; Notice that they go beyond themselves, see if they're understood, if the listeners are following

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repetition

CONVERSATIONAL REPAIR: Children who are of 6 years of age tend to elaborate some elements in the ___

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breakdown

CONVERSATIONAL REPAIR: Older children provide additional input for the listener and can identify source of ___

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3-5 years

CONVERSATIONAL REPAIR: age: repetitions

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6 years

CONVERSATIONAL REPAIR: age: elaboration of elements in repetitions

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9 years

CONVERSATIONAL REPAIR: age: providing additional information

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accurate and correct

DEIXIS/DEICTIC TERMS: Full Contrast: Production of deictic terms are more; School-aged: demonstrative and basic deictic terms, and move them around to change function

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7

DEIXIS/DEICTIC TERMS: Demonstrative pronouns are mastered by __ years old

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vocabulary, word meanings, and figurative language

SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT: Marked changes in their

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increase in lexical items

VOCABULARY GROWTH: An _____ within this period was observed

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root words and morphological variation

VOCABULARY GROWTH: "School aged children store words based on _____"; E.g. store the word meaning of day, days, daily

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activities, information

VOCABULARY GROWTH: New words reflect ___ done and ___ learned in school; Remember, doubt, conclude, assert

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