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Study terms and definitions
What is a stakeholder?
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People who have an interest in a product
What is a primary user?
The person or group of people who will use a product
What is a design context?
The situation a design solution is intended for
What is globalisation?
Businesses and organisations operating globally and developing international influence
What are the four considerations that must be made when designing a product?
Social, cultural, moral and economic
What is sustainable economic growth?
Development satisfying economic needs of humans, without compromising those of future generations
What is the usability of a product?
How easy a product is to use
What is ergonomics?
How people interact with a product
What is inclusive design?
Designing for the widest possible range of consumers
What are anthropometrics?
How the sizes of human bodies can influence design
What are aesthetics?
Factors associated with the nature and beauty of a product
What is the golden ratio?
A mathematical ratio found in nature that can be used to create natural looking products
What is disassembly?
Taking apart a product to examine it in detail
What is marketing?
Promoting and selling a product
What is market pull?
A need for a product that arises from customers to solve a certain need
What is technology push?
Where new research and technology leads to new products on the market
What is twenty-first century design?
Current, forward-thinking design that considers current trends and involves future consideration
What is a throwaway society?
A society influenced by consumerism, affecting the environment
What is a circular economy?
Where resources are used for as long as possible to regenerate products, leading to a cradle-cradle model
What is an emerging technology?
A new technology that is currently being developed
What is artificial intelligence?
Where computer programs 'learn' to perform their functions better than originally programmed, without the interference of humans
What are biometrics?
The identification of a user by physical appearance
What is virtual reality?
A computer-simulated environment that can be a simulation of the real world or an imaginary world
What are drones?
Unmanned flying objects with the potential to carry out certain roles
What is planned obsolescence?
The business practice of deliberately out-dating products before the end of its useful life
What are the six 'R's?
Rethink, reuse, recycle, repair, reduce, refuse
What are some examples of artificial intelligence?
Email inbox spam, car robots, smart personal assistance
What are some examples of biometrics?
Apple iPhone fingerprint scanners, biometric passports, facial recognition
What are some examples of virtual reality?
PlayStation VR, pilot training
What are some examples of drones?
'Blue Planet 2' drone filming, police surveillance, Amazon 'Prime Air' parcel delivery
What is a battery?
A self contained chemical power pack that can produce a limited amount of electrical energy
What is fair trade?
Trade in which fair prices are paid to producers in developing countries
What is oblique drawing?
Simple 3D sketches with added depth to display a design or idea
What is a perspective drawing?
A 3D sketching technique that shows objects in proportion
What are sketch models?
Quick models made from easy-to-work-with materials to give a 3D representation of a design or idea
What are the disadvantages of sketch models?
They are often small, inaccurate and weak
What are the advantages of sketch models?
They are quick to make, give a representation of what a design might look like and they are made out of low-cost materials
What is UCD (user centred design)?
Design based on the understanding of users, the tasks they do and the environments they will use the product in
What is involved in UCD (user centred design)?
Focus groups, usability testing, participatory design, interviews and questionnaires
What is collaboration in design?
Working with others for mutual benefit
What is paper (and boards) measured in?
Gsm (grams per square meter)
What is corrugated cardboard?
A piece of fluted sheet sandwiched between two pieces of card to increase strength
What is card?
A thicker version of paper available in a wide variety of colours and sizes
What is corriflute?
Extruded corrugated plastic similar in structure to corrugated cardboard and is used for outdoor signs, plastic containers, packaging and for modelling
What is Styrofoam?
Expanded polystyrene foam with a blue tint and is used in insulation for caravans, boats, coolers and lorries and for models in design
What is hardwood?
Slow-growing wood which is dense, hard and heavy from deciduous trees
What is softwood?
Fast-growing wood which is cheaper than hardwood and usually softer, with it coming from coniferous trees
What is a ferrous metal?
A metal containing iron
What is a non-ferrous metal?
A metal which doesn't contain iron
What is an alloy?
A metal made by combining two or more metals
What is plastic memory?
The ability of thermo polymers to return to their original state after reheating
What is a mechanism?
A series of parts that work that work together to control forces and motion
What is a system?
A set of mechanical or electronic parts that work together to produce a desired output
What is a force?
A push, pull or twist
What is rotary motion?
Motion in a circular shape
What is linear motion?
Motion in a straight line
What is oscillating motion?
Motion in a circular shape but moving backwards and forwards
What is reciprocating motion?
Motion back and forwards in a straight line
What is an input?
The type of motion put into a mechanism
What is an output?
The type of motion a mechanism produces
What is a lever?
A rigid bar that is free to turn around a fulcrum
What is the load from a lever?
The output force of a lever
What is a fulcrum
The pivot around which a lever turns
What is the effort of a lever?
The input force of a lever
What is the arm length?
The distance between the force being exerted and the fulcrum
What is a cam and follower?
A mechanism which converts rotary motion (cam) into reciprocating motion (follower)
What is a pinion?
A small driver gear (smaller than the driver gear)
What is a shaft?
A rod that transfers the rotation through a mechanism
What is a simple gear train?
A pair of gears consisting of a driver gear and a driven gear
What is a spur gear?
A toothed wheel
What is torque?
A turning or twisting force
What is lubrication?
A substance applied to reduce friction between moving parts
What is a pulley and belt drive?
A method of transferring rotary motion between two shafts
What is a linkage?
A component used to direct forces and movement to where they are needed
What is a subsystem?
A section of a system with a specific role
What is a system diagram?
A diagram of interconnections and flow of signals in an electronic system
What is embedding?
Customising a microprocessor to be permanently placed within a product
What is a microcontroller?
A special-purpose microprocessor that adds functionality to a product
What is a physical quantity?
Something that can be measured, e.g light, temperature or speed
What is a program?
A set of instructions to tell a micro-controller how to carry out a task
What is a sensor?
A component that produces a signal in response to a specific physical quantity
What is a signal?
An electrical voltage that is used to represent information
What is latching?
A switch that stays on (or off) after a button is released
What is a momentary switch?
A switch that stays on only while it is held down