OES end of year exam

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define nature

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units 1 and 2 doesn't include water and carbon cycle

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define nature

The living things, the ecosystem and the process that form them and the places in which we find all of these

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Nature vs nurture

Concept regarding our genetic makeup vs the environment

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The laws of nature

Laws of science and maths that relate to. the way the world works

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Natural

Something that come from nature

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Artificial

Things that are created by humans

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Un-natural

Refers to an object or process that humans have affected in some way

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Urban areas

Areas of permanent infrastructure designed to support higher population densities such as cities and towns

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Built areas

Areas that have been created or modified by people and includes buildings, parks and transport systems

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Wilderness

An environment that is big, remote and untouched by humans

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Big

Needs to be big enough to be self-sufficient

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Remote

Some distance from large urban populations, not easy transportation access

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Untouched

Undamaged or unmodified by humans

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World heritage protected areas

Places deemed so significant to humans and for environmental protection that they’re given status beyond the state or country

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National park

Areas of nationwide significance because of their outstanding natural environments, features, scenic landscapes and diverse land types. They protect natural and cultural features and usually offer visitor facilities and have limited areas for intensive recreation or development.

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Marine parks

Protect marine and coastal environments, safeguarding marine habitats for important plants and animals and conversing natural, cultural and aesthetic values.

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State parks

Managed for the same purposes as a national park. Generally smaller than national parks and make up an area of land containing natural environments and features and scenic landscapes

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Intrinsic motivations

Are motivations that we get within ourselves

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Extrinsic motivations

Motivations we get from outside ourselves which are external to us

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Competence/mastery

Being competent in the activity and building strength through participating in the experience

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Stimulus avoidance

A type of negative reinforcement, where something we do something because it helps us to avoid something else and to help avoid feeling bad and being sick of indoors

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Socialisation

All about social benefits

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Cognitive reward

All about mental rewards

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Appreciation

A recognition of value and significance in an outdoor environment

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Awe

A feeling of wonder or admiration for an outdoor environment

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Contemplation

A feeling that engenders long and thoughtful observation, or a deep connection

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Inspiration

A feeling about the outdoor environment that leads a person to want to do something or create something

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Exhilaration

A feeling of excitement or happiness, particularly resulting from an outdoor environment

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Connection

A feeling that we are apart of place or connected to that place; it can come with some spiritual feelings or feelings of the wondrous nature of an environment

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Curiosity

A feeling of wanting to know more and. wanting t understand an outdoor environment in more detail or other ways

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Positive responses to an outdoor environment

  • Appreciation

  • Awe

  • Contemplation

  • Inspiration

  • Exhilaration

  • Connection

  • Curiosity

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Negative responses to an outdoor environment

  • Fear

  • Revulsion

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Fear

An unpleasant feeling resulting from a belief. that something about an outdoor environment

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Revulsion

A sense of disgust and loathing of something negative that a person sees in an environment

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Factors that influence personal responses

  • Age

  • Background

  • Education

  • Experience

  • Culture

  • Religion

  • Socioeconomic status (SES)

  • Media

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Outdoor environment as a resource

A resource is something from the environment that supplies, supports or aids humans in some way and is often a source of income.

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Examples of who uses an environment as a resource

  • landowners

  • farmers

  • tourism

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Outdoor environment as recreation and adventure

Recreation is an activity that. is done for enjoyment, amusement or pleasure and is considered to be fun by the participant. Adventure is an activity that is exciting, risky or daring experience that is in some way dangerous in nature.

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Examples of who uses an environment for recreation and adventure

  • rock climbers

  • hikers

  • students attending a camp

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Outdoor environment as a spiritual connection

Connecting to something on a deeper level and feeling close to or having faith to something. You don’t need to be doing an activity you can just be in the environment

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Examples of who uses an environment as an spiritual connection

  • Indigenous Australians.

  • That sense of perspective and awe

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Outdoor environment as a study site

A study site is a place where investigation, analysis and other activities occur in the pursuit of knowledge. It may be used for observation, exploration, testing, monitoring, recording and reporting in order to better understand the environment how and. why it has changed over time and human interrelationships with it

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Examples of who uses an environment as a study site

  • scientists

  • students

  • volunteers

  • land mangers

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Experiential knowledge

Obtaining knowledge and understanding through actively engaging in an environment, often a personal experience.

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Environmental and natural history

understandings of an environment in this way provides an ability of retrospect being able to reflect on what has changed but why it might have and making predictions about the future

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Environmental and natural history is based on…

  • land formations

  • climate and weather events

  • changes to the landscape and animals that inhabit it

  • knowledge of land history through time

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Ecological

Grounded in biology and concerned with interrelationships between living organisms and their physical surroundings. Plays an important role in keeping an ecosystem functioning adequately

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Social

Human interactions with the outdoors is the foundation of the social perspective. Understanding of. the environment and which activities or behaviours have been successful and which haven’t. This leads to a better understanding of specific environments

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Economic perspectives

Directly linked to profit and associated. with what the environment offers - resources and income opportunities

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Environmental risks

Risks that originate from the outdoor environments themselves

  • weather

  • terrain

  • dangers of flora and fauna

  • remoteness of an area

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Risks associated with people

Risks connected to people involved such as leaders, participants and others

  • skill

  • knowledge

  • experience

  • health and fitness

  • age

  • fears

  • emotions that particpants bring to an experience

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risks associated with equipment

Risks with specialised equipment that is used while on outdoor trips, or equipment used to get to a place

  • Clothing

  • Buoyancy aids

  • Surfboards

  • Tents

  • Climbing ropes

  • Kayaks

  • Motor Vehicles

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Life threatening risks

Dangers on outdoor experiences may include

  • Drowning

  • Lightening strikes

  • Poisonous bites

  • Impacts with solid things

  • Exposure (hyperthermia & hypothermia)

  • Burns from bushfires and stoves

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To celebrate nature and the outdoors

  • Film and TV will often do this about a place or an animal

  • A film about an outdoor activity

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To sell a place or an experience

Usually found in marketing or advertising trying to literally sell a place, tourism or an experience

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To inform

When portraying the outdoors is about informing people about something

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To understand and develop our knowledge

Related to informing but more about our understanding and developing knowledge. Portraying environments in order to educate us

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To challenge

About challenging the way we perceive, think or see. things. Usually in TV, films and artworks

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To scare

Media creates fear to create interest, feeling and in some cases to influence

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How does the media influence us?

By motivating, changing behaviour, informing. and influencing

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How does the media motivate us?

By inspiring people to care about something or to visit a particular place or activity

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How does the media change our behaviour?

Moderating the way someone acts in a. particular place

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How does the media inform us?

Educating people about an issue related to a place or activity

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How does the media influence us?

People to but and use latest equipment and technology

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What are codes of conduct?

are a set of rules outlining the responsibilities of or proper practices for an individual, group or organisation

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who creates the codes of conduct?

Are developed by different stakeholders such as governments, commercial and community based groups working together

eg.

  • parks victoria

  • local indigenous groups

  • environmental. protection authority (EPA)

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What is in a code of conduct?

Often associated with with minimal impact strategies are used for prevention and education

  • Ideal group sizes

  • Seasonal restrictions

  • Vehicle restrictions

  • Best practices for the conduct of the activity

  • Practices that should be avoided

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Why follow the codes of conducts?

They are a code of ethics and its everyones responsibility to follow guidelines provided to them.

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Factors that affect access to the outdoors

  • Socioeconomic status (SES)

  • Cultural background

  • Age

  • Gender

  • Physical ability

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Socioeconomic status (SES)

An individuals or families economic and social position in relation to others based upon income, education and occupation

  • Low SES

  • Middle SES

  • High SES

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Cultural background

Pattern of thinking, feeling and acting that stem from the social content of your life experience, such as ethnicity, race, SES, gender, language, religion, sexual orientation and geographical area

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Age

Is possible the most influential factor that can affect access. to the outdoors. This is mainly due to fitness and physical ability

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Gender

The state of being male and female but also used with reference to the social and cultural differences rather than biological differences

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Physical ability

The quality of being able to preform some type of physical action. This can refer to someones level or mobility

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Technological development

These are advancements and modifications made to clothing and equipment in order to enhance or improve our participation in some way

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The good, the bad and the ugly?

There is a debate on what these advancements in technology have meant to outdoor pursuits

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What are these techonolgy?

When we refer. to technologies we. refer to advancements that. have been made across outdoor recreational experiences Usually in regard to equipment or clothing

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What is a risk?

Is defined as the potential to lose something of value so the motivation for risking must be to gain something of value

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Loss

Losing something we. value fro taking a risk might come in the form of:

  • Physical (Injuries)

  • Psychological (embarrassment or failure)

  • Financial (damage to expensive equipment)

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Gain

Gaining something from taking a risk might come. in the form of:

  • Physical (Developing fitness)

  • Psychological (Rise in self-esteem)

  • Finiancial (A monetary reward)

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Absolute risk

The uppermost limit of a risk in a particular situation or activity assuming safety hasn’t been considered. ‘Worst-case scenario’ type of risk

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Perceived risk

Is the subjective assessment that a person makes about the risk they are about to face. Can be. much higher or lower than the real risk

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Actual/real risk

The risk that actually exists for a situation or activity where safety has been considered and controls put in place. Its an absolute risk adjusted with safety controls

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Factors of risk

  • Risks related to people

  • Risks related to equipment

  • Risks related to the environment

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Define biodiversity

The number and variety of organisms found within a specified area

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Geology

The influence of geology can be seen in an area by the. type of rock found there, the soil characteristics and drainage

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Climate

Annual rainfall, extremes in temperature and average daylight hours. are examples of climatic factors that can affect a landscape

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Position

Is the geographic location

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Aspect

Generally refers to the horizontal direction to which a mountain slope faces

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Recreational understandings

Depend on what experience they have had with a recreation activity and depends on what knowledge is required

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Interrelationships

Any change in one. component of an ecosystem will result in changes to other elements of the system

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Abiotic

non-living factors

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Biotic

living factors

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The biosphere

The earths shell approx. 20km thick that surrounds the Earth and stretches from the ocean to the highest mountains

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Lithosphere

The soil and crust of the earth (mantle, core and. molten rock)

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Hydrosphere

All water on Earth, including vapour in the atmosphere, rivers, oceans, ice caps, etc.

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Atmosphere

A gaseous envelope of air surrounding the Earth

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Food chain

is the series of links that shows the consumption and transfer of nutrients energy through feeding

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Food web

is a series of interlocking and interdependent food chains

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Trophic levels

  • Producers

  • Primary consumers

  • Secondary consumers

  • Tertiary consumers

  • Decomposers

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Producers

They make their own food and. use the suns energy through the process of photosynthesis

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