Psychology Semester 1 Exam

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Ivan Pavlov

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1

Ivan Pavlov

Russian physiologist who, working with dogs, had shown that a reflex such as salvation could be caused to occur in response to a totally new and formerly unrelated stimulus

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John B. Watson

  • psychologist who’s the founder of behaviorism

  • believed all behavior is learned

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B.F. Skinner

  • new leader of the behavioral perspective field

  • developed theory that voluntary behavior is learned through operant conditioning (which is behavioral responses that are strengthened when followed by pleasurable consequences)

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Abraham Moslow

  • one of the founders of humanist psychology

  • wanted better understanding for self-actualization (which is achieving one’s full potential)

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Carl Rogers

one of the founders of humanistic psychology

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Jean Piaget

  • believed that children form mental schemes as they experience new situations ad events

  • stages of cognitive development include:

    • sensorimotor

    • preoperational

    • concrete operations

    • formal operations

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Sigmund Freud

  • neurologist who developed the psychoanalysis theory

  • believed all behavior stems from an unconscious motivation

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William James

founder of functionalism

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Scientific method

system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurements are reduced

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Case study

study of one individual in great detail

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Naturalistic Observation

study of people or animals in their natural enviornment

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Longitudinal Study

one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages

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Random Sample

every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected

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Cross-Sectional Study

several different age groups are studied at one time

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Independent Varibale

variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter

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Dependent Variable

variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the suspects in an experiment

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Placebo

phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior

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Double-Blind Procedure

study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group

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Genes

sections of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements

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Chromosomes

tightly wound strands of genetic material or DNA

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DNA

special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism

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Genome

a complete set of DNA in an organism

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Mutation

a permanent change in the genetic material of an organism

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Natural selection

principle stating that inherited characteristics that give a survival advantage are more likely to be passed on to future generations

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Culture

a shared set of beliefs, behaviors, values, and attitudes held by a group of people or a society

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Norms

a culture’s understood rules for expected behavior, values, beliefs, and attitudues

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Collectivism

a cultural style that emphasizes the importance of interdependence, group goals, and group needs

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Individualism

a cultural style that emphasizes the importance of individuality, independence, and personal needs

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Neuron

the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that receives and sends messages within that system

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Dendrite

branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons

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Soma

the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell

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Axon

tubelike structures that carries the neural message to other cells

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Refractory Period

period of time during which a cell is incapable of repeating an action potential

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Synapse

fluid-filled space that connects sensory organs in the peripheral nervous system to the brain

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Resting Potential

state where the sodium ions are outside the cell

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Neurotransmitter

chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell

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Interneurons

neurons found in the center of the spinal cord that recieves information from the sensory neurons and sends commands to the muscles

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Sympathetic Divison

  • fight or flight system

  • part of the ANS (automatic nervous system) that is responsible to stressful events and bodily arousal

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Parasympathetic Divison

part of the ANS (automatic nervous system) that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands

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Endocrine System

consists of the glands and organs that make hormones and release them directly into the blood

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Pituitary Gland

  • AKA the mastery gland

  • secretes human growth hormone and influences all the other hormone-secreting glands

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Thyroid Gland

  • endocrine gland found in the neck

  • regulates metabolism

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Adrenal Glands

  • endocrine glands

  • secrete hormones to:

    • deal with stress

    • regulate salt intake

    • provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence

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Brainstem

part of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord

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Medulla

  • first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain

  • responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate

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Thalamus

relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the cerebral cortex

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Cerebellum

  • located behind the pons

  • controls and cordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement

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Hypothalamus

  • small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland

  • responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex

  • maintains homestasis

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Hippocampus

  • curved structure located within each temperol lobe

  • responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects

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Amygdala

  • brain structure located near the hippocampus

  • responsible for fear responses and memory of fear

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Cerebral Cortex

  • outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons

  • responsible for higher thought processes

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Corpus callosum

thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres

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Broca’s Area

  • located in the left frontal lobe

  • devoted to the production of speech

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Wernicke’s Area

  • located in the left temporal lobe

  • helps us understand the meaning of words

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N-REM Sleep

any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM

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REM Sleep

stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream

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Sleep Apnea

disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more

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Nacrolepsy

disorder in which the person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day w/o warning

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Melatonin

  • secreted by pineal gland

  • when present it makes us sleepy, when not we become awake

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Circadian rythms

a cycle of bodily rhythms that occurs over a 24-hour period

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Ultradian rhythms

rhythm w/ a length of less than a day

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Infradian rhythm

biological rhythm w/ a frequency of less than 1 cycle in 24 hours

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Night terrors

rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep w/o waking fully

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Ernest Hilgard

believed hypnosis worked only on the immediate conscious mind of a person, while a part of that mind remained aware of all that was going on

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Social Influence Theory

idea that people are heavily influenced by the thoughts and actions of others

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Divided Consciousness Theory

state in which one’s consciousness is split into distinct components, possibly during hypnosis

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Posthypnotic suggestion

  • person is told to focus on what’s being said

  • told to relax and feel tired

  • told to “let go” and accept suggestions easily

  • told to use vivid imaginations

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Posthypnotic amnesia

hypnosis can create amnesia of whatever happens during the hypnotic session

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Psychoactive drugs

drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory

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Dependence

person’s body becomes unable to function normally w/o a particular drug

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Withdrawl

  • physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure

  • results from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems

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Depressants

drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system

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Opiates

relieves pain and causes euphoria

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Endorphine

hormone released when body feels pain or stress

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Stimulants

drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system

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Amphetamines

stimulants made in labs

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Hallucinogens

drugs that alter perceptions and may cause hallucinations

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Barbiturates

depressant drugs that have a sedative effect

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Bottom-up processing

the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception

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Top-down processing

use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features in a united whole

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Absolute threshold

lowest level of stimulation that a person can consciously detect 50% of the time the stimulation is present

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Sensory adapation

tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging

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Selective attention

the focusing of attention on selected aspects of the environment and the blocking out of others

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Hue

  • color

  • determined by the length of the wave

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Cornea

bends light waves so the image can be focused on the retina

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Iris

  • colored part of the eye

  • muscles control the size of the pupil

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Pupil

  • interior of the eye

  • iris opening that changes sizes depending on the amount of light in the environment

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Retina

  • a light-sensitive area at the back of the eye

  • contains photoreceptor cells

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Rods

  • responsible for non-color sensitivity to low levels of light

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Cones

  • responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision

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Optic nerve

nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

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Blind spot

  • area in the retina where the axons at the 3 layers of the retinal cells exit the eye to form the optic nerve

  • sensitive to light

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Trichomatic theory

  • theory of color vision

  • proposes 3 types of cousins: red, blue, and green

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Opponent-process theory

  • theory of color vision

  • proposes 4 primary colors w/ cones arranged in pairs: red and green, blue and yellow

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95

Hertz

  • cycles or waves per second

  • a measurement of frequency

  • human limits between 20-20,000

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Ear drum (tympanic membrane)

separates the outer ear from the middle ear

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Cochlea

small-shaped structure of the inner is filled w/ fluid

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Hair cells

  • on the organ of Corti

  • receptors for sound

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Auditory nerve

bundle of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear

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Kinesthetic sense

sense f the location of body parts relation to the ground and each other

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