AP Psych Benchmark 1

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Cognition

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118 Terms

1

Cognition

all the mental processes involved with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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2

Memory

The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

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3

Encoding

the processing of information into the memory system

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4

Storage

the retention of encoded material over time

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5

Retrieval

the process of getting the information out of memory storage

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6

Three Stage Processing Model

the theory that a memory goes from sensory memory to short term (aka working) memory and then into long term memory

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7

2 seconds

immediate storage for information, large capacity, limited to .5

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8

Iconic Memory

visual images stored in sensory memory for .5 seconds

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9

Echoic Memory

auditory information stored in sensory memory for 2 seconds

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10

9 items for 20

aka working memory, holds 5

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11

9 items for 20

aka short term memory, holds 5

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12

30 seconds

the amount of items that can be held in short term / working memory for 20

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13

9 items over and over to keep them in short term / working memory

when you practice saying your 5

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14

Long Term Memory (LTM)

where our semantic and episodic memories are stored, unlimited capacity and time

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15

Explicit Memory (a.k.a. declarative)

facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (easy to explain)

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16

declarative Memory (a.k.a. explicit)

facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (easy to explain)

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17

Effortful Processing

when you try to get something into your long term memory

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18

Automatic Processing

when you accidentally get something into your long term memory (especially spacing, timing, frequency)

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19

procedural Memory (a.k.a. Implicit)

actions your body knows how to do without you being able to describe exactly every step involved (impossible to explain)

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20

Implicit Memory (a.k.a. procedural)

actions your body knows how to do without you being able to describe exactly every step involved (impossible to explain)

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21

Positive Transfer

when something you memorized previously helps you memorize something new

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22

Negative Transfer

when something you memorized previously makes it harder to memorize something new

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23

Chunking

grouping items into meaningful groups helps you remember more

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24

Mnemonics

memory aids that help you remember by using a pattern of letters, numbers, or relatable associations like rhymes, poems, songs, outlines, images, etc

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25

Spacing Effect

distributed practice leads to better retention than massed practice

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26

Testing Effect

quizzing yourself on material leads to improved retention

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27

Shallow processing

barely thinking about something leads to poor memory

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28

Deep processing (semantic)

semantic encoding and the self reference effect leads to better memory

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29

Self

applying information to your own life helps you remember it best

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30

Prospective memory

remembering to do something that you had planned to do in the future

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31

Hippocampus

the brain part that processes explicit memories

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32

Cerebellum

the brain part that processes implicit memories

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33

Infantile amnesia

most people have no memories before age 3 because the hippocampus hadn't developed well enough to process explicit memories yet

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34

term memory, which happens especially when we sleep

when recent learned experiences are transformed into long

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35

Flashbulb Memory

a clear, strong, and persistent episodic memory

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36

Long Term Potentiation

neurons that fire together get wired together

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37

term memory with no clues

type of retrieval when we just have to pull it from long

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38

Recognition

type of retrieval when we have options and can just choose the right one

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39

Priming

activating a retrieval cue

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40

Context

when your environment serves as a retrieval cue

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41

State

when your state of consciousness serves as a retrieval cue

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42

dependent memory

a type of state

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43

Serial Position Effect (primacy/recency)

remembering the beginning and end of a list the best

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44

Anterograde Amnesia

type of forgetting where you can't encode new memories

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45

Retrograde Amnesia

type of forgetting where you can't remember old memories

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46

Encoding failure

when you didn't get information into your memory system

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47

Hermann Ebbinghaus

researcher who studied nonsense syllables and found that spaced studying leads to increased retention and that memory fades over time

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48

Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve

memories going through an initial stage of rapid memory decline, followed by a slower rate of memory decay over the long term

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49

Savings Score

(aka Relearning Method) Memories are easier to relearn than learn from scratch

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50

"Tip of the tongue" Phenomenon

a type of retrieval failure

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51

Retrieval failure

when you can't find the information in your memory system

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52

Proactive Interference

when old information blocks you from retrieving newer information

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53

Retroactive interference

when new information blocks you from retrieving older information

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54

Source Amnesia

when you can't remember where you got information (you sometimes think it happened to you)

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55

Next

you are unlikely to remember the information that the person presented right before you presented (because you didn't encode what they said)

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56

46poorly stored memory that sort of matches the current situation

when you feel like a new situation is familiar because of a term

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57

Memory Construction

every time you retrieve a memory, you unconsciously fill in the blanks with stuff you know now (aka reconstructive memory)

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58

Misinformation Effect

when the way someone words a question or statement changes your memory

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59

Elizabeth Loftus

researcher who studied eyewitness testimony and focused on the misinformation effect

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60

Visual Encoding

the encoding of picture images

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61

Acoustic Encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words

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62

Semantic Encoding

the encoding of meaning

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63

cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. (p. 356)

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64

concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. (p. 356)

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65

convergent thinking

narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution. (p. 357)

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66

creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. (p. 357)

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67

divergent thinking

expands the number of possible problem solutions (creative thinking that diverges in different directions). (p. 357)

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68

prototype

a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin). (p. 356)

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69

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier/but also more error/prone/use of heuristics. (p. 361)

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70

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common. (p. 364)

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71

belief perseverance

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited. (p. 367)

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72

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. (p. 362)

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73

framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. (p. 368)

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74

heuristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error

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75

insight

a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy/based solutions. (p. 361)

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76

intuition

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning. (p. 363)

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77

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. (p. 362)

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78

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct/to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments. (p. 365)

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79

representativeness heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information. (p. 364)

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80

aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding). (p. 377)

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81

babbling stage

beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language. (p. 374)

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82

Broca's area

controls language expression an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech. (p. 377?)

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83

grammar

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. In a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences. (p. 373)

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84

language

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning. (p. 372)

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85

linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think. (p. 379)

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86

morpheme

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix). (p. 373)

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87

one word stage

the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words. (p. 375)

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88

phoneme

in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. (p. 373)

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89

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram/"go car"/using mostly nouns and verbs. (p. 375)

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90

two

word stage

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91

Wernicke's area

controls language reception/a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe. (p. 377)

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92

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. (p. 612)

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93

factor analysis

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score. (p. 608)

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94

general intelligence (g)

a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. (p. 608)

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95

grit

in psychology, grit is passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long

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96

intelligence test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores. (p. 607)

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97

intelligence

mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. (p. 607)

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98

savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. (p. 609)

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99

achievement test

a test designed to assess what a person has learned. (p. 619)

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100

aptitude test

a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn. (p. 619)

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