Blood and Lymphatic System

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1

Plasma

The liquid portion of blood

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Lymph fluid

The liquid portion of the lymphatic system

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Erythrocytes

Red blood cells

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Leukocytes

White blood cells

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Thrombocytes

Platelets

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Pluripotential stem cells

  • Cells that are able to self-renew by dividing and developing into the three primary groups of cells that make up a human body

  • TB gốc vạn năng

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Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

What is the role of RBCs?

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120 days and then phagocytized by cells in the spleen and liver

How long does an average RBC live?

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  • Granular leukocytes

  • Non-granular leukocytes

What are the 2 types of WBCs according to how they appear when stained and viewed under a microscope?

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Start the clotting process and provide hemostasis

What is the role of platelets?

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Bone marrow

Where is the pluripotential stem cells located?

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Hematopoiesis

A process where pluripotential stem cells develop into immune systems and blood vessel

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  • B-cells (mature in the bone marrow)

  • T-cells (mature in the thymus)

What are the 2 types of lymphocytes?

What is the difference between them?

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Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen)

Through what organs are B-cells and T-cells distributed?

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Phagocytes

Cells that engulf and digest microorganism and cellular debris

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T-cell education

A process in the thymus in which T-cells are trained to recognize other cells from the same body and distinguish them from all other cells

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Erythropoiesis

A process in which erythropoietin stimulates the bone marrow to produce RBCs

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Lymph nodes

The small, kidney-shaped nodes contain lymphatic tissue, located along a network of lymphatic channels

<p>The small, kidney-shaped nodes contain lymphatic tissue, located along a network of lymphatic channels</p>
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  • Release lymphocytes

  • Help remove and destroy antigens in the blood and lymphatic vessels

What are the roles of lymph nodes?

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  • Filtrate the lymph fluid when it enters the node to remove bacteria and other foreign bodies (including malignant cells)

  • Phagocytosis

  • The site of final maturation for lymphocytes

What are the roles of lymphatic tissue?

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  1. Axillary

  2. Cervical

  3. Inguinal

  4. Popliteal

  5. Submandibular

What are the location of the lymph nodes?

  1. Underarm and upper chest

  2. Neck

  3. Groin area

  4. Behind the knee

  5. Floor of the mouth and lower jaw

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Lymphatic fluid

A transparent, slightly yellow liquid found in the lymphatic vessels which is collected from all parts of body and returned to the blood after filtration in the lymph nodes

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Lymphatic vessels

Vessels that intertwine with blodo vessels and distribute lymphatic fluid throughout the body

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Move proteins and water from interstitial spaces and return them to the bloodstream

What is the role of lymphatic vessels?

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Lacteals

Lymphatic vessels that located in the small intestines

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Absorb fat and other nutrients

Produce a milkyl lymph fluid called chyle

What is the role of lacteals?

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Spleen

A lymphoid organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen beneath the diaphragm

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  • Initiate an immune response

  • Filter and remove bacteria, and other foreign substances from the bloodstream

  • Destroys worn-out blood cells (hemolysis)

  • Blood reservoir

What are the roles of the spleen?

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  • Tonsils (amiđan)

  • Adenoids (amiđan họng)

  • Appendix (ruột thừa)

  • Thymus (tuyến ức)

  • Peyer’s patches (mảng Peyer trong ruột non)

What are the other lymphoid organs and tissues in food and air passages?

<p>What are the other lymphoid organs and tissues in food and air passages?</p>
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Humoral immunity (Miễn dịch thể dịch)

A process in which an invading antigen causes B cells to divide and differentiate into plasma cells.

Each plasma cell produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies into the bloodstream to destroy bacteria and viruses

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IgG

The immunoglobulin that:

  • Make up 80% plasma antibodies

  • Appears in all body fluid, the major antibacterial and antiviral antibody

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IgM

An immunoglobulin that

  • 1st immunoglobulin produced during immune response

  • Too large to cross membrane barriers

  • Present only in vascular system

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IgA

The immunoglobulin that

  • Found in body secretions (saliva, sweat, tears, etc)

  • Defends against pathogens on body surfaces (respiratory and GI tracts)

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IgD

The immunoglobulin that

  • Present in plasma, easily broken down

  • Predominant on the surface of B-cells

  • Mainly an antigen receptor

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IgE

The immunoglobulin that

  • Involve in immediate hypersensitivity reaction (allergic reaction)

  • Stimulate release of mast cell granules, which contain histamin and heparin

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Complement system

A major mediator of inflammatory response

Consist 20 proteins circulating as functionally inactive molecules

Activated by an antigen-antibody reaction

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T-cells responds directly to antigens → destruction of target cells through the secretion of lymphokines

What is the mechanism of cell-mediated immunity (miễn dịch TB)?

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  • A type of acquired immunity that occurs when immune system responds to a harmful agent and develops long-term immunity

  • Longest lasting and the most effective

Natural, active immunity

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  • A type of acquired immunity that is the transfer of antibodies from a mother to a fetus through a placenta or a breastfed infant

  • Temporary, partial immunity

Natural, passive immunity

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A type of acquired immunity that is obtained by vaccination with weakened or dead infectious agents to the body to alert the immune system

Artificial, active immunity

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A type of acquired immunity that is provided by substances that offer immediate but temporary immunity (antibiotics, gamma globulin, interferon)

Artificial, passive immunity

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Angioedema

A subcutaneous, dermal eruption that produces deep, large, raised sections of skins and diffuse swelling of the subcutaneous tissue

Phù mạch

<p>A subcutaneous, dermal eruption that produces deep, large, raised sections of skins and diffuse swelling of the subcutaneous tissue</p><p>Phù mạch</p>
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<p>Butterfly rash</p>

Butterfly rash

  • A classic sign of systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Lesions appear on the cheeks and bridge of the nose in a butterfly-shaped pattern

  • Ban cánh bướm

<ul><li><p>A classic sign of <strong><em>systemic lupus erythematosus</em></strong></p></li><li><p>Lesions appear on the cheeks and bridge of the nose in a butterfly-shaped pattern</p></li><li><p>Ban cánh bướm</p></li></ul>
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Chills (rigors)

Extreme, involuntary muscle contractions with characteristic paroxysm of violent shivering and tooth chattering

<p>Extreme, involuntary muscle contractions with characteristic paroxysm of violent shivering and tooth chattering</p>
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Cyanosis

Blue to purple color of the skin, nail bed and lips

<p>Blue to purple color of the skin, nail bed and lips</p>
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Ecchymosis

Bruise

<p>Bruise</p>
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Epistaxis

A profuse nosebleed

<p>A profuse nosebleed</p>
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Hematochezia

Passing of bloody stools

<p>Passing of bloody stools</p>
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Hemoptysis

Bleeding from the lungs or bronchial tubes (coughing with blood)

<p>Bleeding from the lungs or bronchial tubes (coughing with blood)</p>
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Hemorrhage

Uncontrolled bleeding

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Lymphadenopathy

Enlarged lymph nodes

<p>Enlarged lymph nodes</p>
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Lymphangioma

Benign tumor caused by congenital malformation of the lymphatic system

<p>Benign tumor caused by congenital malformation of the lymphatic system</p>
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Pruritus

Itching

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Splenomegaly

Enlarged spleen

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Thrombosis

Formation of blood clot inside a blood vessel

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Urticaria

Hives

<p>Hives</p>
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ABO blood typing

Classifies blood according to the presence of major antigens A, B on RBC surfaces and to serum antibodies anti-A and anti-B

<p>Classifies blood according to the presence of major antigens A, B on RBC surfaces and to serum antibodies anti-A and anti-B</p>
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Complete blood count (CBC)

Measures the number of blood elements in a blood sample

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Crossmatching

An antibody detection test that establishes the compatibilty of a donor’s and recipient’s blood

<p>An antibody detection test that <strong>establishes the compatibilty of a donor’s and recipient’s blood</strong></p>
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Direct antiglobulin test (direct Coombs’ test)

A test which demonstrates the presence of antibodies or complement on circulating RBCs

Ex: Rh factor

<p>A test which demonstrates the presence of antibodies or complement on circulating RBCs</p><p>Ex: Rh factor</p>
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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

An assay which identifies antibodies to bacteria, viruses, deoxyribonucleic acid, allergens and immunoglobulins

Kháng nguyên - antigen (KN) hoặc Kháng thể - antibody (KT) đã biết được gắn trên một giá thể rắn, sau đó cho mẫu có chứa kháng thể - antibody (KT) hoặc kháng nguyên (KN) cần tìm vào giếng và cuối cùng là thêm cơ chất vào để enzyme phân giải và phát ra tín hiệu, tín hiệu phổ biến nhất là sự đổi màu của các chất hóa học.

<p>An assay which identifies antibodies to bacteria, viruses, deoxyribonucleic acid, allergens and immunoglobulins</p><p>Kháng nguyên - antigen (KN) hoặc Kháng thể - antibody (KT) đã biết được gắn trên một giá thể rắn, sau đó cho mẫu có chứa kháng thể - antibody (KT) hoặc kháng nguyên (KN) cần tìm vào giếng và cuối cùng là thêm cơ chất vào để enzyme phân giải và phát ra tín hiệu, tín hiệu phổ biến nhất là sự đổi màu của các chất hóa học.</p>
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Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

The degree of erythrocyte settling in a blood sample during a specified period

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Hematocrit

Measures the percentage of RBCs in a blood sample

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Hemoglobin

Measure of the amount of Hb in a volume of blood

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HLA test (human leukocyte antigen test)

A group of antigens that are present on the surfaces of all nucleated cells (but most easily detected on lymphocytes)

Essential to immunity and determine the degree of histocompatibility between transplant recipients and donors

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Immunoelectrophoresis

A test which identifies immunoglobulins in a serum sample

Used to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation therapy or chemotherapy and detects hypogammaglobulinemias

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Platelet count

The number of platelets in a microliter of blood

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Prothrombin

A test which is commonly used to evaluate clotting in patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy

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Rh typing

A test that classifies blood by the presence or absence of Rho (D) antigen on the surface of RBCs

<p>A test that classifies blood by the presence or absence of Rho (D) antigen on the surface of RBCs</p>
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Shilling test

A test which determines a patient’s ability to absorb vitamin B12

If less than 10% radiolabeled vitamin B12 is detected, there is an impaired absorption

<p>A test which determines a patient’s ability to absorb vitamin B12</p><p>If less than 10% radiolabeled vitamin B12 is detected, there is an impaired absorption</p>
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WBC count (leukocyte count)

The number of WBCs in a microliter of whole blood

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WBC differential

A test that evaluates type, number and condition of WBC present in the blood (including NEU, EOS, BASO, LYM, MONO)

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Western blot test

A test which detects the presence of specific viral proteins

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Patch testing

A dilute solution of each allergen is placed directly on the skin and covered with gauze

Positive reaction: appearance of redness, vesicles or itching, swelling

<p>A dilute solution of each allergen is placed directly on the skin and covered with gauze</p><p>Positive reaction: appearance of redness, vesicles or itching, swelling</p>
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Scratch test

A test introduce allergens into a scratched area on the patient’s skin with a special tool or needle

Positive reactions: redness, itching, swelling

<p>A test introduce allergens into a scratched area on the patient’s skin with a special tool or needle</p><p>Positive reactions: redness, itching, swelling</p>
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Intradermal skin tests

Inject recall antigens into superficial skin layer with a needle

To evaluate the patient’s immune system

<p>Inject recall antigens into superficial skin layer with a needle</p><p>To evaluate the patient’s immune system</p>
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Bone marrow aspiration

A small amount of bone marrow is removed and the blood elements and their precursors are evaluated

Also used for checking for the presence of abnormal or malignant cells

<p>A small amount of bone marrow is removed and the blood elements and their precursors are evaluated</p><p>Also used for checking for the presence of abnormal or malignant cells</p>
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Aplastic anemia

Injury to the stem cells in the bone marrow → decreased production of RBC, WBC and platelets

Thiếu máu bất sản

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Pernicious anemia

Anemia that is caused by deficiency in absorption of vitB12 due to a lack of HCl in the stomach

Thiếu máu ác tính

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Myeloproliferative disorders

The bone marrow produces too many cells

Rối loạn sản tủy

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Erythroblastosis fetalis (Rh factor incompatibility)

When the antibodies in the mother’s blood destroy the fetus’s RBCs → fetal anemia

Bệnh tán huyết ở thai nhi

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Posthemorrhagic anemia

Anemia as a result of acute or chronic blood loss

Thiếu máu sau chảy máu

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Sickle cell anemia

A hereditary disease in which RBC a

Bệnh hồng cầu hình liềm

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Thalassemia

A hereditary type of anemia in which Hb isn’t produced properly

<p>A hereditary type of anemia in which Hb isn’t produced properly</p>
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Disseminated intravascular coagulation

  • Occur when other conditions cause the circulating clotting factors and platelets to deplete → severe hemorrhage

  • Đông máu rải rác nội mạch

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Factor V Leiden mutation

  • Inherited mutation in the factor V gene → development of inappropriate blood clots and increased risk of stroke (in young people)

  • Đột biến yếu tố V Leiden

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Hemophilias

  • A hereditary bleeding disorder where there are deficiencies in the clotting factors necessary for coagulation

  • Bệnh máu khó đông

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Inherited thrombophilias

  • Diseases where abnormal clotting factor traits are inherited → clots forming in the blood vessels inappropriately

  • Hội chứng tăng đông

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Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

  • Abnormal immune response that destroys platelets that follow a viral infection. Recover without treatment

  • Bệnh giảm tiểu cầu miễn dịch nguyên phát

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Thrombocytopenias

  • Deficiencies in the number of circulating platelets → blood-clotting disorders

  • Giảm tiểu cầu

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Asthma

  • A chronic, reactive airway disorder → episodes of airway obstruction with bronchospasm, mucus secretion and mucosal swelling

  • Hen suyễn

<ul><li><p>A chronic, reactive airway disorder → episodes of airway obstruction with bronchospasm, mucus secretion and mucosal swelling</p></li><li><p>Hen suyễn</p></li></ul>
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Acute asthma

A type of asthma where an attack can begin either dramatically with severe symptoms or slowly with gradual symptoms

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Extrinsic asthma

A type of asthma that results from sensitivity to pollen, animal dander, mold or other sensitizing substance

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Intrinsic asthma

A type of asthma which is diagnosed when no extrinsic allergen can be identified

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Status asthmaticus

A persistent, intractable asthma attack that can lead to acute respiratory failure

Cơn hen

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Allergic rhinitis

  • A reaction to inhaled allergens → runny nose, itching, nasal obstruction

  • Viêm mũi dị ứng

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Anaphylaxis

  • A dramatic, acute reaction marked by sudden onset of rapidly progressive hives and respiratory distress

  • Phản ứng sốc phản vệ

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Atopic dermatitis

  • A chronic skin disorder characterized by superficial skin inflammation and intense itching

  • Viêm da cơ địa (chàm)

<ul><li><p>A chronic skin disorder characterized by <strong>superficial skin inflammation and intense itching</strong></p></li><li><p>Viêm da cơ địa (chàm)</p></li></ul>
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Latex allergy

A hypersensitivity reaction to products that contain latex

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Hemolytic reaction

  • A transfusion reaction due to mismatched blood

  • When this occurs, RBCs clump together and break down causing kidney damage

Phản ứng tan máu

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