Cardiovascular System (Heart) - Lec

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  • Heart

  • Blood vesselsCirculatory System

  • Circulatory System

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131 Terms

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  • Heart

  • Blood vesselsCirculatory System

  • Circulatory System

Cardiovascular System

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  • Heart

  • Blood Vessels

  • Blood

Circulatory System

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  • Approximately the size of a fist

  • Located

    • In the mediastinum between the second rib and fifth intercostal space

    • On the superior surface of the diaphragm

    • Two-thirds to the left of the midline

    • Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum

Heart Anatomy

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Location of Heart - Image

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Heart - Image

  1. Right ventricle

  2. Interventricular septum

  3. Left ventricle

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  • Double-Walled Sac

    • Superficial fibrous pericardium

Pericardium—Fibrous

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  • Loosely surrounds heart

  • DICT sac – thick, tough white

  • Attached to the diaphragm and Great Vessels of the Heart

  • Protects, anchors, and prevents
    overfilling

Superficial fibrous pericardium

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Pericardium—Fibrous - Image

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Pericardium - Image

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Pericardial fluid - Image

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  • Deep two-layered serous pericardium

    • The parietal layer lines the internal
      surface of the fibrous pericardium

    • Visceral layer (epicardium) on
      the
      external surface of the heart

    • Separated by fluid-filled
      pericardial cavity (decreases
      friction)

Pericardium—Serous

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Visceral and Parietal Pericardium - Image (A)

  1. Outer balloon wall (comparable to parietal serosa)

  2. Air (comparable to serous fluid)

  3. Inner balloon wall (comparable to visceral serosa)

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Visceral and Parietal Pericardium - Image (B)

  1. Heart

  2. Parietal pericardium

  3. Pericardial space (Has serous fluid)

  4. Visceral pericardium

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Heart - Image

  1. Heart

  2. Visceral pericardium

  3. Parietal pericardium (Fibrous?)

  4. Serous

  5. Pericardial cavity

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Heart - Image (Pt. 1)

  1. Pericardium

  2. Myocardium

  3. Pulmonary trunk

  4. Fibrous pericardium

  5. The parietal layer of the serous pericardium

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Heart - Image (Pt. 2)

  1. Pericardial cavity

  2. Epicardium (visceral layer of serous pericardium) HEART

  3. Myocardium WALL

  4. Endocardium

  5. Heart chamber

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  • Epicardium

  • Myocardium

  • Endocardium

Heart Wall

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Same thing as the visceral layer of the serous pericardium

  • Simple Squamous Epithelium

  • Shiny

  • Produces pericardial fluid

Epicardium

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The cardiac muscle layer forms the bulk of the heart.

  • Spiral bundles of cardiac muscle cells

  • Fibrous skeleton of the heart: crisscrossing, the interlacing layer of connective tissue

Myocardium

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  • Anchors cardiac muscle fibers

  • Supports great vessels and valves

  • Limits spread of action potentials to
    specific paths

Fibrous skeleton (Heart)

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Myocardium - Image

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Endothelial layer of the inner myocardial surface

  • Lines the chambers of the heart

  • Simple Squamous Epithelium

  • Is in direct contact with Blood

    • It provides a smooth, slick surface for blood to “slide” against

  • Is continuous with endothelial lining of blood
    vessels

Endocardium

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Ventricular Endocardium - Image

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  • (2) Atria

  • (2) Ventricles

Chambers of Heart

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  • Receiving Chambers

  • Thin-Walled

  • VERY little musculature

  • Low pressure

Atria )Pt. 1)

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  • Pumping chambers

  • Thick-Walled

  • Heavily muscularized

  • High pressure

Ventricles (Pt. 1)

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Chambers - Image

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  • Left and Right

  • Separated internally by the interatrial septum (wall)

  • Auricles (ears) increase atrial volume

Atria (Pt. 2)

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Atria - Image

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Auricles

  1. Right

  2. Left

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Left and Right
Separated by the interventricular
septum
Anterior and posterior
interventricular sulci mark the
position of the septum external

Ventricles (Pt. 2)

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Ventricles - Image

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Thin walls ridged by pectinate muscles

Atria - The Receiving Chambers

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Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
Coronary sinus

Atria - Vessels emptying into the right atrium

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Right and left pulmonary veins

Atria - Vessels emptying into the left atrium

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Atria (Emptying vessels) - Image (Frontal section)

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Heart - Image

  1. Superior vena cava

  2. Right pulmonary veins

  3. Right atrium

  4. Right ventricle

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Heart - Image

  1. Inferior vena cava

  2. Left ventricle

  3. Left atrium

  4. Left pulmonary veins

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Heart - Image

  1. Superior vena cava

  2. Right pulmonary veins

  3. Inferior vena cava

  4. Coronary Sinus

  5. Left pulmonary veins

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Heart - Image

  1. Superior vena cava

  2. Right atrium

  3. Right ventricle

  4. Inferior vena cava

  5. Left atrium

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Heart - Image

  1. Left pulmonary veins

  2. Left ventricle

  3. Epicardium

  4. Myocardium

  5. Endocardium

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Thick walls ridged by trabeculae carneae

Ventricles: The Pumping Chambers

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Pulmonary trunk

Ventricles: Vessel leaving the right ventricle

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Aorta

Ventricles: Vessel leaving the left ventricle

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Trabeculae carneae - Image

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Heart - Image

  1. Pulmonary Artery

  2. Pulmonary Trunk

  3. Aorta

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  • Ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart (prevent backflow of blood)

  • 4 (2 AV & 2 SL)

Heart Valves

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Heart Valves - Image

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  • Lie between the atria and the ventricles

  • Prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles contract

Atrioventricular (AV) Valves

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AV Valves - Image

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Between the left atrium and left ventricle
◦ (2) flaps
Bicuspid, Mitral
Chordae tendons and papillary muscles

AV Valves - Left Valve

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AV Valves (Left Valve) - Image

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AV Valves (Left Valve) - Image

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Heart - Image

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Between the right atrium and right ventricle
◦ (3) flaps
Tricuspid
Chordae tendons and papillary muscles

AV Valves - Right Valve

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AV Valves (Right Valve) - Image

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AV Valves (Right Valve) - Image

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Prevent backflow into the ventricles
when ventricles relax
Aortic semilunar valve
Pulmonary semilunar valve

Semilunar (SL) Valves (Pt. 1)

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Semilunar (SL) Valves - Image (1)

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Semilunar (SL) Valves - Image (2)

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  • Heart valves ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart

  • Semi-lunar valves are found in the large arteries that leave the ventricles
    Pulmonary SL valve
    Aortic SL valve

Semilunar (SL) Valves (Pt. 2)

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  • Prevent backflow into the
    ventricles

  • Each has three flaps

Semilunar (SL) Valves (Pt. 3)

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Pulmonary and aortic valves from above - Image

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Image

  1. Pulmonary valve

  2. Aortic valve

  3. Area of cutaway

  4. Mitral valve

  5. Tricuspid valve

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Image (Anterior)

  1. Fibrous skeleton

  2. Myocardium

  3. Tricuspid (right atrioventricular) valve

  4. Mitral (left atrioventricular) valve

  5. Aortic valve

  6. Pulmonary valve

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Semilunar valves open - Image

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Semilunar valves closed - Image

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  • (Lub-dup) are associated with the closing of heart valves

  • The first sound occurs as AV valves close

  • The second sound occurs when SL valves close

Heart Sounds

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Heart Sounds - Image

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Vessels returning blood to the heart include

  • Superior and inferior vena cavae

  • Coronary Sinus

  • Right and left pulmonary veins

External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart (Anterior View)w)

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External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart (Anterior View) - Image

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Vessels returning blood to the heart include:

  • Right and left pulmonary veins

  • Coronary Sinus

  • Superior and inferior venae cavae

External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart (Posterior View)

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Vessels conveying blood away from the heart

  • The pulmonary trunk, which splits into the right and left pulmonary arteries

  • Ascending aorta (three branches) -brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and subclavian arteries

External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart

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Circulation - Image

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Circulation - Image

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• Cardiac muscle tissue
• Cardiac cycle
• Cardiac conduction system

?

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Image

  1. Nucleus

  2. Intercalated discs

  3. Cardiac muscle cell

  4. Gap junctions

  5. Desmosomes

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  • Cardiac muscle is striated, short, fat, branched, and interconnected

  • The connective tissue endomysium acts as both the origin and insertion

Microscopic Anatomy: Heart Muscle (Pt. 1)

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  • Intercalated discs anchor cardiac cells together and allow free passage of ions

  • Heart muscle behaves as a functional syncytium

Microscopic Anatomy: Heart Muscle (Pt. 2)

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  • Excitability

  • Contractility

  • Extensibility

  • Elasticity

Properties of Muscle

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•Automaticity

•Auto rhythmicity

Cardiac Muscle (+2) & Contraction

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• Contracts automatically—no nervous stimulation required

Automaticity

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• Contracts in a rhythm—very consistent over time

Auto rhythmicity

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  • Pulmonary Circuit (circulation)

  • Systemic Circuit (circulation)

  • Coronary Circuit (circulation)

Circuits

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• Receives blood from organs (deoxygenated)
• Sends blood to lungs

Pulmonary Circuit (circulation) (Pt. 1)

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• Receives blood from lungs (oxygenated)
• Sends blood to organs

Systemic Circuit (circulation)

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Nourishes the myocardium

Coronary Circuit (circulation)

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The right side of the heart is the pump for the pulmonary circuit

  • Short-distance

  • Low resistance through lungs

  • Low-pressure pump

  • Thinner walls (ventricles)

Pulmonary Circuit (circulation) (Pt. 2)

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Pulmonary Circuit (circulation) - Image

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Image

  1. Right ventricle

  2. Interventricular septum

  3. Left ventricle

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  • Systole

  • Diastole

Contraction & Relaxation

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Contraction of the heart muscle

Systole

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Relaxation of the heart muscle

Diastole

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Diastole (filling) - Image

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Systole (pumping) - Image

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Diastole & Systole - Image

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Cardiac cycle - Image

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  • When one cell undergoes an action potential, the action potential spreads to all connecting cells (they all contract together)

  • Action potentials are all or nothing in the heart.

Functional Syncytium (Pt. 1)

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• One heartbeat spreads to the whole heart
• Muscular contraction is followed after depolarization

Functional Syncytium (Pt. 2)

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• Atria group/syncytium
• Ventricle group/syncytium

Functional Syncytium: Types (2)

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