Love, Sex, and Marriage final

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who was the first owner of pitti palace

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1

who was the first owner of pitti palace

luca pitti (florentine merchant who had it built as his private home in middle of 15th century)

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2

who purchased pitti palace from luca pitti and when

eleonora of toledo 1549

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3

how long did it take for all of pitti palace to be created

over a course of three centuries

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4

whats inside pitti palace

treasury of the grand dukes, palantine gallery, royal and imperial apartments, gallery of modern art, museum of costume and fashion

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5

who are the three artists who made publication, sketches, and sonnets of I Modi

Marcantonio Raimondi, Giulio Romano, Pietro Aretino

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6

who was the engraver of I Modi (publisher)

Marcantonio Raimondi

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7

who was the artist of I Modi (sketches)

Giulio Romano

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8

who was the writer of I Modi (sonnets)

Pietro Aretino

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9

what is I Modi about

displayed several images of different positions

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10

public reaction to I Modi

scandalized as it depicted sex for pleasure and not conception and had no reference to christianity challenged gender roles revolutionized ertoicism in the renaissance

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11

what is was the political situation in florence when david was built

Florence had just gotten rid of two tyrants: piero medici and savonarola David saves his people from the goliath (tyrant) - florence people identified with him

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12

artistic analysis of david

david is readying himself for the fight (immediate anticipation of action), just caught first glance of enemy, face shows uncertainty for the future, pose is relaxed, sense david as a human being it was too beautiful to be placed on the cathedral (religious context) and was placed in front of the piazza signoria as a political context of the newly reconstituted republic

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13

what does david symbolize

independence, strength, perfect image of youthful beauty

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14

what are the prigioni/michelangelo's non finito

the prisons, michelangelo's not finished. Philosophy that michelangelo had that the art work is trapped inside the marble already and he just has to carve it out

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15

what was considered sodomy

sexual intercourse not aimed at procreation anal sex, masturbation, zooerasty

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16

punishments for sodomy

burnt at the stake, galleys (doing the oars on ships), imprisonment for life, exile

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17

what is dante alighieri's punishment for sodomites in inferno

third circle so walking on scorching sand in the rain of fire

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18

what is the ufficiali di notte

in 1432, judicial magistracy in florence that only pursued and prosecuted sodomy.

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19

what was la rivolta dei compagnacci of 1512

"revolt of the comrades" 30 young aristocrats broke into palazzo vecchio and asked to repeal the rules that caused exile and loss of all goods for the convicted sodomites When the medici returned in september (the next month) the demands were accepted and rules abolished

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20

main openly homosexual artists

michelangelo, leonardo da vinci, botticelli, pietro aretino

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21

greek myth of ganymede

ganymede was abducted by zeus to be his cupbearer and lover - important step in history of homosexuality

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22

why did homosexuals in renaissance lean towards neoplatonism

neoplatonism concept of love allowed explanation of justification of sodomy

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23

what is the neoplatonist concept of love for homosexuals

"heavenly love" was more properly directed towards other men because male intellect was deemed superior to female Close male bonds provided a better route to unity with god through love

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24

what happened to artemisia gentileschi

she was raped in 1611 but her master, she married a florentine painter and moved in 1612 to avoid the backlash, she was the first woman accepted into the accademia del disegno.

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25

difference between artemisia's portrayal of judith and holofernes and the others before it

much more dynamic, gorey. handmaid has a more influential part in the murder - showing women sticking together

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26

when was artemisia gentileschi alive

1593-1653

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27

what was artemisia gentileschi's influence of the baroque period

she was a female painter at this time who made amazingly dynamic paintings

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28

what was so different about the baroque period

it focused on perspective, striking the imagination, and dynamic pieces

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29

who was artemisia's rapist

agostino tassi

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30

when was artemisia raped

1611

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31

why was artemisia seen as a feminist icon

she is a symbol of resilience and inspiration, she established herself in a predominantly male world, success among baroque painters, took her rapist to court and won

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32

what is the function of the ospedale degli innocenti

so that parents who could not care for or do not want their children could leave them here

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33

where were the children left

in the wheel outside of the hospital

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34

how would the children left behind be recognized

by a token or something else left with them

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35

who was michelangelos lover

tommaso de cavalieri

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36

who was leonardos lover

salai (gian giacomo caprotti) - inspiration for st john the baptist and angel incarnate

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37

what were the symptoms of syphilis

painful ulcers, tumors, miscarriages, fatal transmission to infants, face and nose defects, disfiguring, flesh rotting, exposed bone, limbs fall off

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38

what were the remedies for syphilis

bloodletting, laxative use, baths in wine,herbs,olive oil, mercury exposure (no treatment)

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39

what was syphilis a symbol of

sexual deviance

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40

what were some crimes against sex workers

abuse, rape, murder

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41

how did jealousy impact fatal attractions

francesco medici and bianca cappello were murdered by the duke's brother out of jealousy Caravaggio would often duel for his lovers

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42

what happened to caravaggio

he would often duel for his lovers which led to him dying from a staph infection from a cut during a duel

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43

honor killing

if a man found his wife cheating he could kill her and not face punishment

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44

what did people think was the correlation between sodomy and the plague

sodomy is a sin so many believed god was punishing the world with the plague because of it There was a declining population because of the plague so people looked down on sodomy as it doesn't help with reproduction

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45

what was the correlation between incest and the plague

incestual relationships increased because marrying outside the family would increase the chances of getting sick

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46

what is the correlation between prostitutes and the plague

general lack of work due to low demand, demand increased after plague ended

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47

who wrote la cazzaria

antonio vignale

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48

how is la cazzaria written

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49

what is personified in la cazzaria

cazzi (dick), potte (pussy), coglioni (balls), and culi (asshole)

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50

who are most powerful in la cazzaria

cazzi (larger cazzi have more power than small) and coglioni (balls) are the gentlemanly class

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51

who has the least power in la cazzaria

potte and culi - represent common, lesser people, showing the difference in gender roles (pussys don't have power)

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52

what is the political implications of la cazzaria

the characters reflect respective political groups in sienna

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53

what political group does the potte and culi represent

monte del popolo and riformatori

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54

la cazzaria implications towards the ideal man

bigger cazzi are seen as more masculine, confident, stronger, better leadership, and take more risks and smaller cazzi are seen as weaker, less assertive, less powerful represents what an ideal man should embody

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55

homoeroticism in la cazzaria

the two narrators are both men that are having an intimate discussion and the book ends with them having bedtime sex talk extreme cazzi descriptions and the use of cazzi symbolism as dominant and powerful because arsiccio is sodo's teacher, some think this topic was an effort for him to seduce sodo

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56

what was fabliaux

a medieval literary genre of short stories that describe sexual obscenities

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57

what were the primary subjects of criticism in fabliax

women and the clergy

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58

what was the decameron

collection of stories that focus on the individual over nobles or other important figures characters make their own destiny and find fortune on their own without god many stories involve sex

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59

how does the decameron use sex in its contents

many of the stories have casual references to sex in ways that are nonchalant and similar to our modern sense of humor

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60

how does the decameron appeal to women

boccaccio (author) has an introduction where he states sympathy for women and it is believed that they are his target audience though men are still protagonists in the stories

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61

who wrote facetiae

bracciolini

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62

what is facetiae

the first renaissance joke book

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63

what was the contents of facetiae

joke book of short stories often involving pornagraphic/vulgar subjects pokes fun at church, political parties, wealthy households, women, and the stupid

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64

facatiae: getting up late from bed

listening to the dispute of two litigants its a waste of time if the day is spent in bed but it is cold outside and the bed is warm so why work everyday when people need their rest

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65

facetiae: curator that buried a dog

priest buried his beloved dog in a cemetery but this is illegal so the priest says that the dog was very wealthy and had great integrity and that the dog left money for the cop

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66

facetiae: fool that thought his wife had two things

peasant in bed with his wife who turns and she has two things he says one was enough for him then the wife says they should donate the second to the church, the following night a man from the church joins them in bed

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67

why is venice in a good position

allowed for hub of trade by sea as it was middleman between the middle east and destinations in europe the city was distinct from other city states due to location which isolated the city politically, economically, and culturally, allowing the city to pursue the pleasures of art

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68

venetian architecture

conservatism (retaining the overall form top the buildings) arched or round tops in windows

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69

when is the venetian carnival

10 days leading up to lent

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70

why does venice have the carnival

republic of venice was a major financial and maritime power during middle ages and renaissance

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71

role of masks in the carnival

allowed people to do things that werent openly possible

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72

what was the caccie dei tori

bull hunts tiratori steered the bulls through the alleys, people made the bulls as angry as possible, aggressive dogs let loose hunt ended with beheading the bull

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73

flight of the angel

an unknown venetian citizen dresses in carnival costume and flys over st mark's square, once over the middle the angel offers homage to the doge

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74

harlequin

one of the most popular and oldest venetian character, seen as the servant and the clown

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75

pulcinella

venetian character from the south of italy, his mask depicts him as a cockerell

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76

colombina

venetian character mischievous maid, wears maid costume and only an eye mask

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77

pantalone

venetian character that is an old merchant, wealthy and esteemed

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78

la compagnia delle calza

theatrical group that was present during the carnival to honor venice's history and provide entertainment wore trousers with a recognizable symbol

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79

la venexiana

comedy of 5 acts about venice and the women of the city a love triangle between a man, a widow, and a married woman insight into venetian society and its customs

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80

how did the renaissance revive nudity

humanism movement in the 14th century put man at the center of the universe and renewed traditional greek and roman culture and values

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81

how did the greek view eroticism

naked body was a sign of elite status, athleticism, and racial supremacy

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82

what are the pornographic coins

spintriae

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83

who is gaspara stampa

feminist, italian poet, musician and singer

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84

gaspara campa background

porn in padua, moved to venice, admired for her lyrical verses she was rejected by collaltino di collalto and then dedicated all her poetry towards her heartbreak - about 311 poems had emotional traumas and health problems that contributed to tone of her poetry tormented love

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85

vittoria colonna

born in marino, italian noblewoman and poet, very educated, first woman to publish book of poems in italy she was 3 years old when she was assigned a marriage her husband and father were taken prisoner and she used these emotions to write her poetry wrote 2 books of sonnets

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86

vittoria colonna impact

first woman to receive high literary status, allowed a pathway for other women writers to publish their works, known as an inspiration for women writers in italy, her work published all different types of genres

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87

what are the wooden chests that the father of the bride would give to the couple called

cassoni

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88

what are wedding parades called

nozze

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89

wedding celebration for peasants

townspeople would gather then after the husband would buy everyone drinks

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90

some of the most expensive wedding gifts

cassoni, portrait of couple, kitchenware

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91

bride wedding garments

tailored gown was colorful (not plain white), lace silk and gold embroidery, jewelry, gold and silver thread headpiece

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92

groom wedding garments

silver and gold vest, jacket with metal buttons, hat, shirt with collar, pleated pants

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93

what is the ring day called (marking couple as officially married) and where can it be seen

anellamento illustrations of the ring ceremonies are portrayed on cassoni, paintings, and other objects

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94

querelle des femmes

the woman question debate centered on the nature and status of women negative and positive attitudes towards women were juxtaposed in text

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95

moderata fonte

venetian writer and poet not in a convent or courtesan but a respectable married mother who produced literature centered on women's issues most famous was the worth of women

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96

the worth of women by modesta fonte

focuses on women's value in society and men's injustive for failing to recognize it discussion of gender inequality and responsibility of husbands and fathers men constantly let women down and disappoint them women question what they have been told and taught their whole lives

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97

what is the banquet of chestnuts

a decadent feast even better than the romans held by the borgia. Orgy party!

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98

what were the baccanale

painting consisting mostly of children, except for two adults attending a feast dedicated to dionysus woman is giving her breast milk to a child carnal pleasures

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99

what was the camerini d'alabastro (alabaster dressing room)

in ferrara, private studies/relaxation rooms of the duke alfonso I d'este duke chose to commission 5 paintings representing bacchanals (drunk party and orgy scenes involving bacchus - greek god of free love) to decorate the room dried to convey personification of god bacchus

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100

what food was served at the nobles banquets

sugar, sweet dishes like fruit tarts, meats like veal, there would be several dishes

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