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strong thick walled carrying blood away from the heart and under high pressure
arteries subdivide into…
carry blood to capillaries (gas and nutrient exchange)
arterial wall layers?
tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa
is simple squamous epithelium
middle smooth muscle layer w/ collagen and in some cases elastic fibers
is the thin outer layer of the vessels
the tunica externa is made of?
loose areolar connective tissue
elastic arteries is also called
the largest artery?
what is the elastic arteries?
-large amount of elastic fibers in thick tunica media; larger diameter size.
-examples include, aorta, pulmonary trunk, common iliac arteries
muscular arteries size?
muscular arteries aka
what is muscular arteries?
-has thick media w smaller diameter
-capable of greater vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust blood flow
-distribute blood to various organs
-union of the branches of two or more arteries supplying the same body region
-provide alternate routes, for blood to reach organs due to blockage
-occur between arterioles and venules
increase resistance and increase blood pressure
decrease resistance and decreases blood flow
have a walls of simple squamous epithelium
capillaires allow for exchange of
gas and nutrients with tissue fluid
flow of blood into the bed via arterioles and blood exits via venules, blood flow through capillaries
formed by endothelial cells held together by tight junctions with interruptions called intercellular clefts which allow for the passage small solutes
cells of the endothelium contain many small pores, that allow for rapid passage of small solutes
wide winding capillaries with unusually large fenestration and wide intercellular clefts
drain blood from most capillaries then join to form veins that return blood to heart
viens are lower in and higher in?
o2 and wastes
prevent backward flow of blood when closed and make sure blood is moving towards the hearts
veins/venules carry about ____ of the bodys blood
mechanisms of venous return
skeletal muscle pump
happens when CO is insufficient to meet body’s metabolic needs
blood pressure > osmotic pressure
osmotic pressure > blood pressure
accumulation of fluids in tissues that occur when fluid filtered out of blood and into tissues faster than it is reabsorbed back into blood.
right ventricular failure
lead to systemic edema
left ventricular failure
leads to pulmonary edema
reduced capillary reabsorption
reduced plasma albumin concentration - hyproteinemia can cause liver failure or edema
obstructed lymphatic drainage
the lymphatic system responsible for returning about 10% of tissue fluid back to blood, if blockage occurs with this reabsorb system, edema can result
amount of blood flowing through an organ/tissue/blood vessels at any given time
the flow per given volume or mass of tissue, usually in mL per 100 grams of tissue per minutes
force that blood exerts against vessel wall
where is BP measured
what device measures bp
peak arterial pressure during ventricular systole top #
minimum arterial pressure during ventricular diastole (relaxation) bottom #
chronic low resting bp less then 90/60
chronic resting bp higher then 140/90
differences between diastolic and systolic pressures
factors affecting resistance
strong vasoconstrictor that raises BP when too low
released from adrenal cortex, raises BP, signaling kidneys to retain sodium, urinate less.
ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
released from atrial cells, antagonist to aldosterone so lowers BP
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
raises bp, by promoting water retension by kidney, released from posterior pituitary.
epinephrine and norepinephrine
released from adrenal medulla and sympathetic neurons casues vasoconstriction, raises BP.
heart → arteries → capillaries → veins → heart
heart → arteries → 1st capillary bed → portal vein → 2nd capillary bed → veins → heart
heart → arteries → vein → heart
vein draining a capillary bed join w/ another vein to provide alt routes of blood draining from an organ. this is why vein blockages are not as life threatening as artery blocks
when 2 arteries merge to provide collateral routes of blood supply to a tissue common in coronary circulation and around joints
the lymphatic system
network of vessels structures and organs that assists in circulating body fluids (lymph) and production of immune cells.
lymphatic system functions
clear colorless tissue that has left the tissue spaces and entered a lymphatic capillary
lymphatic capillary → lymphatic vessels → lymph nodes →lymphatic vessels →lymphatic trunk → collecting ducts →subclavian veins
lymphatic collecting duct
trunks of draining into right lymphatic ducts
trunks draining into thoracic duct
flow of lymph is?
slow and low pressured
mechanism of the flow of lymph
lymphatic vessels contract
skeletal muscle contraction
presence of valves
natural killer cells
large lymphocytes that target bacteria/infected host cells
targets similar to NK cells
antibody secreting cells that target a variety of pathogens
phagocytic cells that target tissue debris, dead cells, bacteria, and other foreign materials
mobile antigens presenting cells involved in activation of immune system
stationary APCs and found in lymphatic organs
diffuses lymphatic tissue located in connective tissue underlying mucous membrane
specialized clusters of MALT, underlying the epithial layer of the ileum in the small intestine
lymph flows into the lymph node via ?
afferent lymphatic vessels
lymph flows OUT of a lymph node via ?
efferent lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes filter out?
harmful particles out of lymph fluids
identation on concave side of node where efferents exit and arteries/veins enter and leave node
concentrated w rbcs; will remove old worn out rbcs and phagocytized by macrophages
regions concentrated with lymphocytes/macrophages monitor blood for foreign invaders
3 characteristics of innate immunity
local, non specific, and lacks memory
external barriers are???
skin, mucous membrane, and hair