✧*̥˚ a&p : blood vessels and lymphatic system *̥˚✧

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108 Terms

1

arteries

strong thick walled carrying blood away from the heart and under high pressure

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arteries subdivide into…

arterioles

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arterioles

carry blood to capillaries (gas and nutrient exchange)

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4

arterial wall layers?

tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa

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tunica interna/intima

is simple squamous epithelium

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tunica media

middle smooth muscle layer w/ collagen and in some cases elastic fibers

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tunica externa

is the thin outer layer of the vessels

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the tunica externa is made of?

loose areolar connective tissue

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9

elastic arteries is also called

conducting arteries

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the largest artery?

elastic arteries

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11

what is the elastic arteries?

-large amount of elastic fibers in thick tunica media; larger diameter size.

-examples include, aorta, pulmonary trunk, common iliac arteries

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12

muscular arteries size?

medium

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muscular arteries aka

distributing arteries

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what is muscular arteries?

-has thick media w smaller diameter

-capable of greater vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust blood flow

-distribute blood to various organs

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15

anastamoses

-union of the branches of two or more arteries supplying the same body region

-provide alternate routes, for blood to reach organs due to blockage

-collateral circulation

-occur between arterioles and venules

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vasoconstriction

increase resistance and increase blood pressure

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vasodialtion

decrease resistance and decreases blood flow

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capillaries

have a walls of simple squamous epithelium

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19

capillaires allow for exchange of

gas and nutrients with tissue fluid

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20

microcirculation

flow of blood into the bed via arterioles and blood exits via venules, blood flow through capillaries

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21

continuous capillaries

formed by endothelial cells held together by tight junctions with interruptions called intercellular clefts which allow for the passage small solutes

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fenestrated capillaries

cells of the endothelium contain many small pores, that allow for rapid passage of small solutes

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sinusoids capillaries

wide winding capillaries with unusually large fenestration and wide intercellular clefts

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venules

drain blood from most capillaries then join to form veins that return blood to heart

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25

viens are lower in and higher in?

o2 and wastes

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veins valves

prevent backward flow of blood when closed and make sure blood is moving towards the hearts

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veins/venules carry about ____ of the bodys blood

64%

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28

mechanisms of venous return

  • pressure gradient

  • gravity

  • cardiac suction

  • skeletal muscle pump

  • respiratory pump

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29

circulatory shock

happens when CO is insufficient to meet body’s metabolic needs

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arterial end

blood pressure > osmotic pressure

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venous end

osmotic pressure > blood pressure

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edema

accumulation of fluids in tissues that occur when fluid filtered out of blood and into tissues faster than it is reabsorbed back into blood.

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right ventricular failure

lead to systemic edema

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left ventricular failure

leads to pulmonary edema

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35

reduced capillary reabsorption

reduced plasma albumin concentration - hyproteinemia can cause liver failure or edema

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36

obstructed lymphatic drainage

the lymphatic system responsible for returning about 10% of tissue fluid back to blood, if blockage occurs with this reabsorb system, edema can result

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flow

amount of blood flowing through an organ/tissue/blood vessels at any given time

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38

perfusion

the flow per given volume or mass of tissue, usually in mL per 100 grams of tissue per minutes

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39

blood pressure

force that blood exerts against vessel wall

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40

where is BP measured

brachial artery

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41

what device measures bp

sphygmomanometer

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42

systolic pressure

peak arterial pressure during ventricular systole top #

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diastolic pressure

minimum arterial pressure during ventricular diastole (relaxation) bottom #

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44

hypotension

chronic low resting bp less then 90/60

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hypertension

chronic resting bp higher then 140/90

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pulse pressure

differences between diastolic and systolic pressures

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factors affecting resistance

  • blood viscosity

  • vessel length

  • vessel radius/diameter

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48

angiotensin II

strong vasoconstrictor that raises BP when too low

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49

aldosterone

released from adrenal cortex, raises BP, signaling kidneys to retain sodium, urinate less.

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ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)

released from atrial cells, antagonist to aldosterone so lowers BP

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ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

raises bp, by promoting water retension by kidney, released from posterior pituitary.

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epinephrine and norepinephrine

released from adrenal medulla and sympathetic neurons casues vasoconstriction, raises BP.

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simplest pathway

heart → arteries → capillaries → veins → heart

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54

portal system

heart → arteries → 1st capillary bed → portal vein → 2nd capillary bed → veins → heart

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arteriovenous anastomosis

heart → arteries → vein → heart

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venous anastomoses

vein draining a capillary bed join w/ another vein to provide alt routes of blood draining from an organ. this is why vein blockages are not as life threatening as artery blocks

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arterial anatomoses

when 2 arteries merge to provide collateral routes of blood supply to a tissue common in coronary circulation and around joints

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the lymphatic system

network of vessels structures and organs that assists in circulating body fluids (lymph) and production of immune cells.

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59

lymphatic system functions

  1. fluid recovery

  2. immunity

  3. liquid absorption

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lymph

clear colorless tissue that has left the tissue spaces and entered a lymphatic capillary

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61

lymphatic pathways

lymphatic capillary → lymphatic vessels → lymph nodes →lymphatic vessels →lymphatic trunk → collecting ducts →subclavian veins

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lymphatic trunks

  • jugular

  • subclavian

  • bronchomediastinal

  • intercostal

  • intestinal

  • lumbar

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lymphatic collecting duct

  • thoracic

  • right lymphatic

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trunks of draining into right lymphatic ducts

  • right jugular

  • right subclavian

  • right bronchomediastinal

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trunks draining into thoracic duct

  • right/left lumbar

  • intestinal trunk

  • left bronchomediastinal

  • left subclavian

  • left jugular

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66

flow of lymph is?

slow and low pressured

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mechanism of the flow of lymph

  • lymphatic vessels contract

  • skeletal muscle contraction

  • respiratory movement

  • presence of valves

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68

natural killer cells

large lymphocytes that target bacteria/infected host cells

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t-lymphocytes

targets similar to NK cells

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b-lymphocytes

antibody secreting cells that target a variety of pathogens

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macrophages

phagocytic cells that target tissue debris, dead cells, bacteria, and other foreign materials

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dendritic cells

mobile antigens presenting cells involved in activation of immune system

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reticular cells

stationary APCs and found in lymphatic organs

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MALT

diffuses lymphatic tissue located in connective tissue underlying mucous membrane

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peyer’s patches

specialized clusters of MALT, underlying the epithial layer of the ileum in the small intestine

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lymph flows into the lymph node via ?

afferent lymphatic vessels

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lymph flows OUT of a lymph node via ?

efferent lymphatic vessels

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78

lymph nodes filter out?

harmful particles out of lymph fluids

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hilum

identation on concave side of node where efferents exit and arteries/veins enter and leave node

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spleen function

filters blood

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red pulp?

concentrated w rbcs; will remove old worn out rbcs and phagocytized by macrophages

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white pulp?

regions concentrated with lymphocytes/macrophages monitor blood for foreign invaders

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3 characteristics of innate immunity

local, non specific, and lacks memory

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external barriers are???

skin, mucous membrane, and hair

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phagocytosis

cellular eating by certain leukocytes

  • destruction of foreign particles by engulfing the foreign invader

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macrophages

cells develop from larger wbcs such as monocyte; termed macrophages once they leave blood and take up phagocytic role

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neutrophils

target bacteria in connective tissue consumed at the end of of their response to pathogen

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interferon

protein released by some viral infected cells serves to protect neighboring cells

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3 major processes of inflammation

  1. mobilization of defenses

  2. containment and destruction of pathogens

  3. tissue cleanup and repair

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adaptive immunity

  • systemic

  • specific

  • remember

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cellular immunity

involves lymphocytes directly attacking and destroying foreign cells or diseased cells

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humoral immunity aka (antibody mediated immunity)

involves production of antibodies which dont destroy pathogens, may be classified as passive or active.

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antigens stimulate

the production of antibodies

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APCS (antigen presenting cells)

  • b cells

  • macrophages

  • reticular cells

  • dendritic cells

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mch stands for????

major histocompatibility complex

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opsonization

coating antigens with antibodies to make antigens easier target of phagcytosis

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precipitiation

enhances phagocytosis by grouping together individual cells or ag molecules making them immobile and less able to spread; easier targets for phagocytes

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neturalization

blocks the ability of ag to adhere to host cells by coating the ag with abs, diminishes pathogenicity

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complement fixation

abs interact.attract complement proteins causing cytolysis of microbial cell

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cytotoxic t cells (Tc)

t cells that carry out direct attacks on antigens

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