Ortho Chapter Terms

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Abduction

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126 Terms

1

Abduction

lateral movement away from the median plane of the body.

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2

Adduction

Movement towards the median of the plane

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3

Ankylosis

Abnormal stiffness or fixation of a joint

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4

Arthritis

Inflammation of a joint

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5

Athrodesis

Surgical fusion of a joint

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6

Articulation

The place of union between 2 or more bones; a joint

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7

Avulsed

A part or structure forcibly torn away

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8

Bankhart Repair

Soft tissue repair and re-implantation to secure the shoulder.  The Glenoid rim is reattached to the joint capsule. A Putti Plat Procedure is another procedure also used on the shoulder.

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9

Cannulated

a device having a hollow core; an instrument that can have a central channel that can be fitted over a guidewire or pin

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10

Carpal Tunnel

compression of the median nerve at the volar surface of the wrist.

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11

Chisel

Used with a mallet to mold bone to remove bone for a graft

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12

Closed Fracture

Fracture of the bone with no skin wound

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13

Closed Reduction

Bones are placed in their proper position without surgery

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14

Condyle

Rounded projection at the end of a bone forming articulation

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15

Comminuted

A fracture in which there are multiple bone fragments

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16

Compartment Syndrome

extreme tissue swelling within a closed compartment of the body or closed external device such as a cast.

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17

Compression

mechanical force in which a structure is compacted or pressed together.

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18

Cruciate

cross shaped

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19

Distraction

A mechanical process in which a structure is elongated

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20

Dupuytren Contracture

a common condition in which the fascia of the palm or fingers contracts.  Constricted palmar fascia is incise and released to restore mobility.

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21

Scoliosis

Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

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22

Osteoporosis

Disease process that results in reduction in the mass of bone per unit of volume

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23

Osteomyelitis

Inflammation of bone, especially the marrow, caused by a pathogenic organism

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24

Colles Fracture

a transverse fracture of the distal radius (wrist fx). An angulated fracture of the distal radius at the epiphysis approximately 1” from the wrist joint.  The fracture causes the hand to assume a dorsal and lateral position until treated.

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25

Counter Sink

Cuts recess at cortex for head of screw

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26

Athrodesis

Surgical fixation or immobilization of a joint

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27

Osteoarthritis

the cartilage within a joint begins to break down and the underlying bone begins to change.

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28

Arthroplasty

Plastic surgery to reshape or reconstruct a diseased joint

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29

Depth Gauge

Used to measure the screw length of the hole drilled

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30

Diaphysis

The shaft or middle part of the long cylindrical bone

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31

Drill guide

Used to protect the soft tissue when drilling

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32

Elevator

a periosteal elevator is used in nearly every ortho case.  Its main function is to remove periosteum from bone surfaces.  This is necessary in order to cut through a portion of bone tissue because the periosteum tends to shred or tear on contact with rongeurs or cutting instruments.

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33

Endosteum

Membrane lining in the medullary cavity of a bone

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34

Epiphysis

A center for ossification at the ends of a long bone

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35

Epicondyle

A projection on the surface of a bone located above a condyle

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36

Exostasis

Bony growth on the surface of a bone

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37

Fasciectomy

Excision of strips of fascia

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38

Fasciotomy

Surgical incision and division of fascia

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39

Flexion

Bending; opposite of extension

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40

Foramen

A hole in a bone for the passage of vessels

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41

Fossa

Shallow depression

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42

Gouge

Used with a mallet to model bone or to remove bone for a graft. Make a V cut

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43

Hammertoe repair

a condition in which a toe has contracted at the proximal interphangeal (PIP) joint (middle joint in the toe).

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44

Intramedullary rods (IM)

A thick rod inserted into the intramedullary canal to provide structural support from inside the bone.  Used for fractures of long bones such as the femur, tibia, humerus.

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45

Kyphoplasty

Foward curvature of the spine (hunchback)

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46

K Wires

Thick wires that are inserted directly into tissue with a drill.  They are very sharp and should be handled with caution.  They cause little trauma to bone and can be easily withdrawn.  They are also used to provide temporary and permanent stability of a fracture.

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47

McBride Procedure

Variation of a bunionectomy

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48

Bristow Procedure

A screw is used to secure the coracoid process onto the neck of the glenoid cavity

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49

Putti-Platt procedure

Subscapularis tendon is overlapped and shortened

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50

Rotator Cuff

occurs in the humerus at the intersection site of four muscles (infraspinous, supraspinosus, teres minor and subscapularis)

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51

Synarthrosis

Suture joint- a joint with limited movement or fixated articular surfaces, such as between the skull bones

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52

Diarthrosis

Synovial joint- a joint that is freely moveable such as the hip or shoulder

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53

Amphaithrosis

cartilaginous joint- a joint in which the bones are connected by cartilage and only slightly moveable, such as the symphysis joints

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54

Osteocyte

a bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted.

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55

Osteoblast

Cells that help with the growth and healing of bone

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56

Arthoscopy

Direct visualization into a joint through an endoscope

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57

Arthroscope

An endoscope for examining the interior of a joint

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58

Hallux Valgus

displacement of the great toe toward the other toes also called a bunnionectomy. There are four common procedures to treat bunions: Chevron, Mckeever, Keller, McBride.

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59

Hammer toe

A toe with dorsal flexion of the first phalanx and plantar flexion of the second and third phalanges

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60

Impacted

A fracture in which the ends of the bones are wedged together

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61

Internal Fixation

The use of internal wires, screws, or pins applied directly to bone segments to keep them in place

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62

Kirschner Wire

Steel wire placed through a bone in order to apply traction

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63

Laminectomy

Excision of a vertebral posterior arch

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64

Luxation

Dislocation of a joint; displacement of articular surface

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65

Malunion

growth of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty position, forming an imperfect union.

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66

Marrow

Soft tissue occupying the medullary cavity of many bone

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67

ORIF

open reduction, internal fixation; surgical treatment of bone fractures by placing the bones in their proper position using internal wires, screws, or pins applied directly to fractured bone segments to keep them in place.

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68

Osteochondritis

Inflammation of bone and cartilage

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69

Osteotomy

Surgical cutting through a bone

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70

Palmar

Concerning the palm of the hand

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71

Reamer

Used to form a hollow area in a bone

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72

Red Marrow

Highly vascular and is found in the spaces of the cancellous bone.  It produces RBC’s, platelets, WBC’s and hemoglobin.

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73

Sublaxtion

A partial or incomplete dislocation of a joint

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74

Talipes Equinovirus

Club foot

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75

Tapping

The process of making a hole in the material to accommodate the screw.  Tap is used to  cut the  screw thread pathway in bone when the screw is not self-tapping.

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76

Yellow Marrow

Consists mainly of fat cells and connective tissue of the cancellous bone. It is found in the medullary cavity of long bones.  It does not produce RBC’s except during trauma.

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77

Coxa Vara

Dislocated hip (inward)

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78

Lordosis

Backward curvature of the spine (swayback)

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79

Osteoma

Tumor of the bone

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80

Osteochondroma

Tumor of the bone and cartilage

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81

Osteosarcoma

Malignant tumor of the bone

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82

Chondromalacia

Softening of the articulating cartilage

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83

Contracture

Shortening of distal extremities following an injury or improper use of a tourniquet

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84

Atropy

Wasting away

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85

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Compression of the median nerve as the volar surface of the wrist

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86

Dupuytrens

The condition where fibrous bands cause contractures in the fingers, commonly the ring finger and little finger

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87

BKA

Below Knee Amputation

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88

AKA

Above Knee Amputation

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89

THA

Total Hip Arthroplasty

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90

ACL

Anterior Cruciate Ligament- Autograft, synthetic ligament, or allograft may be used for an ACL replacement. The surgeon will place heavy non-absorbable synthetic sutures (usually a #2 or #5 Ethibond) through the drill holes for the tibia and femoral tunnels.

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91

IM

Intramedullary

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92

MCP

Metacarpophalangeal Joint disease- this is the cause of advanced rheumatoid arthritis

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93

PPMA

Polymethylmethacrylate

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94

ORIF

Open reduction internal fixation

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95

CR

Closed Reduction

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96

Hemostatic Agents

Helps manage bleeding- bone wax aka Bone putty (ostene). Beeswax combination

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97

Laminar Air Flow

Air moves in linear patterns, entering at one wall and exiting at another, 300 changes per minute

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98

Vertebral column

7 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar

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99

Ribs

1-8 are attached to the sternum, 11-12 are floating

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100

Cancellous Screw

used mainly in dense bone; large diameter and greater pitch to increase contact with bone

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