Clinical Skills B Final

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Week 1

Products and technologies that facilitate a client's ability to maneuver through space, including seating and positioning; improve mobility to enhance participation in desired daily occupations; and reduce risk for complications such as skin breakdown or limb contractures

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105 Terms


Week 1

Products and technologies that facilitate a client's ability to maneuver through space, including seating and positioning; improve mobility to enhance participation in desired daily occupations; and reduce risk for complications such as skin breakdown or limb contractures

Wheeled mobility

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These are examples of what?

"Is the trunk upright and midline? Is pelvis in neutral position without tilt, obliquity or rotation?"

Screening for someone with a WC

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Wheelchair seating system categories least supportive to most

sling upholstery, short periods of time, transport chair or fleet wheelchair

Captain's seat, scooters or consumer PWCs

linear seating, flat surfaces

generic contoured seating,

aggressively contoured seating, increased postural support and pressure distribution

molded seating, most contact with client, significant orthopedic asymmetries

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Localized injury to the skin or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure or pressure in combination with shear and or friction. Formerly called pressure sores, bed sore or pressure ulcers

Pressure injury

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Heat, moisture, poor pressure distribution, lack of sensation, immobility, friction, shearing, incontinence are examples of,

Increased risk for pressure injury

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Some cushions may be good for pressure distribution, but provide less postural control

Contoured shape: Better for pressure distribution, but more challenging for transfers

Reduce heat and moisture with certain materials

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Dependent WC Weight over 35 lb Limited sizes, adjustments and modifications Sling seat and back

Standard WC. Most basic. Manual WC

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Dependent WC

Lower seat to floor height (allows for foot propulsion) ONLY difference

Similar weight/lack of adjustments to standard WC

For clients who had a stroke

Standard hemi WC Manual WC

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Two options. Weighs less than 36 lbs, weighs less than 34 lbs.

More sized options Limited frame adjustments and accessories

Not for long-term use or extensive self-propelling

Lightweight WC Manual WC

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Weights less than 30 lbs

Greatest degree of options

Maximize self-propulsion efficiency and reduce repetitive stress injury risk

Rigid and folding frame options. Rigid is lighter and more durable

Custom lightweight and ultra lightweight WC Manual WC

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Other types of manual WCs

Recliner: Angle of 90 not maintained, can cause shearing forces Standing frame Tilt in space Bariatric

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Types of power WCs

Scooter aka power-operated vehicle

Power WC

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Shear forces Disrupt alignment Increase pressure over sacrum Could set of spasms

Disadvantages of recline

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Joy stick Head array Sip and puff are examples of,

alternative drives for power WCs

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Foam and honeycomb

Types of solid cushions

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Easy to clean cushion, molds around bony prominences, conducts heat away from skin, heavy, can leak, contents inside may need to be redistributed

Gel cushion

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ROHO is a type of gas cushion

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Solid cushions are more functional for transfers

Gel and gas cushions are better to prevent pressure injuries and for pressure distribution

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Solid cushions are usually less expensive

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Lightweight cushion, less expensive, not moisture resistant, may be warm, cut to size, easy to transfer, difficult to clean, wears out, not for long term use


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Lightweight cushion, can be cleaned, air flow, very firm, material compression may occur


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Lightweight cushion, easy to clean, difficult to use for transfers (unstable), may leak if punctured, monitor pressure level, compartmentalized

Gas cushion ROHO is a brand

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Clinical eval in WC best for testing..

Endurance/speed Perception Cognitive status Active ROM

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Week 2 Types of interventions page 59 in OTPF 4

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Components of occupations that are objective and separate from the client's engagement or contexts. Activities as interventions are selected and designed to support the development of performance skills and performance patterns to enhance occupational engagement


Address part of an occupation Work on practice & problem solving out of context of a task

Performance skills and performance patterns

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Broad and specific daily life events that are personalized and meaningful to the client


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Methods and tasks that prepare the client for occupational performance are used as part of a treatment session in preparation for or concurrently with occupations and activities or provided to a client as a home-based engagement to support daily occupational performance

Interventions to support occupations

PAMS physical agent modalities Orthotics Assistive tech Wheeled mobility Self regulation

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Facilitation of the acquisition of concrete skills for meeting specific goals in a real life, applied situation. In this case, skills refers to measurable components of function that enable mastery.

Example: Education client on hip precautions (education) before engaging in transfer training or LB dressing (training)

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Use of tech such as videoconferencing, teleconferencing, or mobile telephone application technology to plan, implement, and evaluate occupational therapy intervention, education, and consultation

Virtual Interventions

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Joint protection presentation

Addressing human performance in relation to occupational performance

Applying the most efficient use of equipment, tools, and environment to promote health and safety

Joint protection, energy conservation, body mechanics


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Aims to reduce loads on joints and reduce deforming forces, thus minimizing risk of injury

Goals of this approach Reduce pain Reduce forces on joints Reduce secondary inflammation Reduce loading to preserve joint integrity Reduce pain from overuse Reduce fatigue

Joint Protection

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Joint protection principles were primarily developed for arthritis management. OA or RA

Strategies are used to help Reduce inflammation Decreases inflammation of joint Redistributes stress on joints Preserves joint integrity over the long term Reduce fatigue

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Limits positions of deformity

Hand ergonomics

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Reduce the force and effort


Use Built up handles Levers Splints Rearrange the environment

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Conserve energy resources so an individual can perform tasks at a higher level of function without expending more energy

Clients with RA, MS, cardiopulmonary deficits

Energy Conservation Techniques

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Ergonomics Principles

Pace activities, balance rest and activity, alternate heavy and light tasks.

Use work simplification: plan, prioritize, problem solve

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Bathing and showering Toileting and toilet hygiene Personal hygiene and grooming Eating and swallowing Feeding Sexual activity dressing Functional mobility

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observable, goal-directed actions that result in a client's quality of performing desired occupations. Skills are supported by the context in which the performance occurs, including environmental and client factors.

Performance skills

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represent small, observable actions related to moving oneself or moving and interacting with tangible task objects (e.g., tools, utensils, clothing, food or other supplies, digital devices, plant life) in context.

Motor skills

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small, observable actions related to communicating and interacting with others in context

Social interactions skills

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small, observable actions related to selecting, interacting with, and using tangible task objects (e.g., tools, utensils, clothing, food or other supplies, digital devices, plant life); carrying out individual actions and steps; and preventing problems of occupational performance from occurring or reoccurring in context.

process skills

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Reside within the client and influence the client's performance in occupations

Client factors

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Values, beliefs, spirituality, body functions, body structures are examples of what?

Client factors

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Perceptions, motivations, and related meaning that influence or are influenced by engagement in occupations

Values, beliefs and spirituality

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aspects of the physical, social, and attitudinal surroundings in which people live and conduct their lives

Environmental factors

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Problems statement progression, potential justification for continued services

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Week 3 Transfers on context progression of transfers most to least

Transfer board Squat pivot/bent pivot Stand pivot with or w/o device Functional mobility level transfers with device, without device

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Patients' pivot point are their hips

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Week 4 Neuro Based Transfers

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Shoulder shrug present

High cervical C2-4

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Deltoid C5, biceps C5, wrist extensors C6 present

Mid cervical C5-6

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Triceps C7, digit flexion and extension C8 present

Low cervical C7-8

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Lower injury (below T12)=more hypotonic legs usually

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Week 6 Health Literacy

"Apply written material to occupational performance"

Functional literacy

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What is the client's level of education?

What is the impact of reading level on different areas of occupation such as health management?

Functional literacy

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Education about disease process, health promotion

Finding reliable sources of information

Know when to find health info.

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Roles of healthcare team

What questions to ask

Know where to find health info

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Assertiveness, self-advocacy skills training within healthcare

What questions to ask

Communications skills, social participation, self-advocacy

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Following instructions

Habits and routines

Scheduling a healthy routine each week


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Educational materials should be no higher than a 5th grade reading level

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A resource that helps individuals to see what reading level their text is (readability formula, helps you write clearly)

Gunning Fog Index (FOG)

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Way a person activates a target that is an important part of meeting an occupation-based goal e.g., phone icon, key on keyboard

Access method

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Ask Me 3. Does Your Client understand?

What is my main problem?

What do I need to do?

Why is it important for me to do this?

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How to improve accessibility and comprehension

Teach-back method, client restates info in their own words

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Two types of access to tech

Direct access: Able to spontaneously select any available target

Indirect access: Connecting steps between person and desired target to select/activate. Less strenuous BUT slower.

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Week 9 Assistive Technology

"Methods and tasks that prepare the client for occupational performance are used as part of a treatment session in preparation for or concurrently with occupations and activities or provided to a client as a home-based engagement to support daily occupational performance"

Interventions that support occupations

Under this category is Assistive tech and environmental considerations

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According to AOTA, "the term assistive technology device means any item, piece of equipment or product system whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified or customized that is used to increase, maintain or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities"

Assistive technology

Can be used for remediation or compensation

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Range of motion, strength, endurance, cognitive skills


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Technology bridges the gap between what the individual can do and what he/she/they need to do


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Usability Aesthetics Durability Prognosis

Reasons why the person might not use the equipment (equipment abandonment)

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This acts as an electricity conductor or interrupter. Used with direct or indirect access


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Direct vs indirect access

Direct: Efficient and intuitive Digits, voice or eye gaze to directly activate target Eye gaze: Requires more caregiver support and tech knowledge, but effective for people with little physical movement May require addition tools such as a stylus or key guard

Indirect access Switch scanning: Provide a person with limited physical movement access to multiple selections by activating one target via a software or hardware interface. Scan may be automatic or manual.

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Two main categories for positioning and mounts

Flexible: Adjustable, best for lightweight devices or those that use portrait and landscape position. Often NOT funded by insurance

Fixed: Require tool adjustment to change position. Support heavy devices. May be funded by insurance for speech-generating device.

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The way a person moves around computer display-mouse, touch screen


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Primary mouse or touchscreen actions


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Enables a person with physical, cognitive, psychosocial deficits to control electronics in his/her/their own environment

EADLs Electronic Activities of Daily Living

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Indirect access examples navigation/selection methods

Disability-specific joysticks and trackballs Head-controlled mouse Mouth-controlled mouse Eye gaze

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Communicates between the switch and the target/appliance

e.g., Jellybean to computer monitor via interface


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Switch use and indirect access navigation/selection methods examples...

Joystick, trackball, USB switch adaptor/jellybean switch, head-controlled mouse, Jouse 3

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Enable a person to control electronics in their physical environment, including appliances, home theater system, lights, doors, etc.

Electronic Aids to Daily Living (EADLs)

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Executes two actions such as turn appliance on/off

Discrete control method

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Increased flexibility such as adjusting volume on TV

Continuous control method

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EADLs are usually not funded by health insurance because it is not considered medically necessary....worker's comp, VA may fund if it's needed for employment

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Areas of Occupation (9)

ADLs IADLs Health management Rest and sleep Education Work Play Leisure Social Participation

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Week 22 Functional Mobility Screens and Falls Prevention

Older adults (65 years of age plus)

1 out of every 3 older adults falls each year Rates of deaths from falls increased 31% from 2007-2016

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Environment: Home Assessment (Extrinsic) considerations

Proper footwear Floors and walkways Height of transfer surfaces Lighting that is easily accessible Access to a phone or life alert type button

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Client factors (intrinsic)

Advanced age Muscle weakness HX of falls Fear of falls Visual deficits

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Balance Assessments used by varying disciplines

Morse Fall Scale: Nursing in acute care

Berg Balance Scale PT simulate stair walking looking over shoulder functional movements incorporated, assess balance and fall risk in adults 18+

6 minute walk PT children and adults walking endurance

Egress PT or nurse for bariatric patients. Readiness to stand

5 time sit to stand: PT transfers for adults 18+. No UE support allowed. More outpatient

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3 common OT Fall assessments

Timed up and go (TUG) mobility balance fall risk 65+ and neuro population 3 meters. 9.8 feet, circle around a cone.

Functional reach test. Tests ability to reach outside BOS for 18+. Can be done seated or standing

30 second chair stand test 30CST 18+, assess functional LE strength. AKA 30 Second Sit to Stand Test. Get credit for any standing.

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Interventions for decreasing fall risk

Functional, task-specific balance training: Transfer training, use of assistive device

Environmental modifications: Lighting, walkways

Appropriate footwear, supportive shoes preferable Education

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Used to describe a single device. A rigid or semi rigid device that supports a weak or deformed body member or restricts or eliminates motion in a diseased or injured part of the body. An orthosis can be custom fabricated, custom fit or prefabricated.


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Used for billing purposes by physicians when casts are applied. Casts and strapping applied for the purpose of reducing fractures and dislocations.


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A semirigid or rigid device fabricated and applied to support a weak or injured body part, or to restrict or eliminate motion of a body part. Used for billing purposes by therapists.


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Who can make orthosis *** (***hint hint by Jesci)

OTs OTAs PTs PTAs Dentists Nurses with addition special training usually seen on hospital burn units Certified orthotists

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Goals of immobilizing orthosis

Symptom relief Protection and positioning Maximizing function Improve/preserve joint alignment Contracture management Block or transfer muscle forces

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Goals of mobilizing orthosis

Remodel long standing dense mature scar tissue

Elongate soft tissue contractures

Increase PR of joint motion

Substitute for weak or active muscles

Provide resistance for exercise

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Orthosis types 5

  1. Static: To immobilize, no moveable parts

  2. Serial static: Position the tissue to allow a low load prolonged stress, remolded at intervals

  3. Dropout: Allows motion in one direction, while blocking another

  4. Static progressive: Mobilizing force with no moving parts

  5. Dynamic: To mobilize. Provide controlled movement. Uses one or more moveable parts.

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Approaches of orthosis fabrication

Biomechanical: Applies principles of kinetics and forces acting on the body e.g., dynamic orthosis to apply forces in order to increase ROM

Sensorimotor: Inhibit or facilitate normal motor responses in persons with damaged CNS e.g., orthosis for managing spasticity

Rehabilitative: Focus on abilities rather than disabilities with goal of maximizing function within their abilities e.g., tenodesis orthosis to facilitate grasp/release

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Heats up between 135-180 degrees F, hardens when cooled

Thermoplastic material, low-temperature thermoplastic most commonly used, will expire. LTT.

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Memory Elasticity Drape & contour Bonding time Self-finishing edges Other considerations: Heating time, working time, shrinkage

are all examples of

Handling characteristics

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