Vocab 1 list

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equity in relationships

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221 Terms

1

equity in relationships

a situation in which people receive in proportion to what they give to the relationship; does not have to be identical or exact

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2

Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

trust vs. mistrust; autonomy vs. shame; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; identity vs role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation; integrity vs. despair

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ethnocentrism

Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.

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ethics of testing

used by psychologists in order to be certain that treatment are research are being conducted in a manner which is not harmful to participants; related to research ethics, confidentiality, torture, and euthanasia

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experiment

one type of research method in which the investigator manipulates one or more independent variables (IV) to determine the effect(s) one some behavior (the dependent variable) while controlling other relevant factors

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extinction

from conditioning and refers to the reduction of some response that the organism currently or previously produced; results from the unconditioned stimulus NOT occurring after the conditioned stimulus is presented over time; in operant conditioning it results from some response by the organism no longer being reinforced

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false consensus effect

an overestimation of how much other people share our beliefs and behaviors

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feature (signal) detector cells: Hubel & WIsel's research on visual processing

the ability to detect certain types of stimuli, like movements, shape, and angles, requires specialized cells in the brain

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feature analysis

a perceptual and attentional theory that explains how an individual combines pieces of observable information about an object in order to form a complete perception of the object; focuses on the visual search component of stimuli perception; utilization of cues like color, shape, and size to distinguish objects from one another

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feral children

children who have not been exposed to society and thus have not developed or matured as they should EX: Genie

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fetal alcohol syndrome

physical, cognitive, and psychological abnormalities that result from consuming alcohol during pregnancy deformed heads, incomplete development of the face and mouth, brain deficits

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12

figure-ground

gestalt psychology concept; two main visual components necessary for a person to see an object properly; a figure (the object) and the ground (the background or surroundings in which the object occurs)

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flynn effect

phenomenon in which there is a marked increase in intelligence test score averages over time

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14

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

the tendency for people to comply with some large request after first agreeing to a smaller request

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15

formal operations

ability to think logically about abstract concepts, extrapolate about events that occurred at different times (does not have to be occurring right then and there), think about people that are not there

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fovea/ foveal vision

the central focal point on the retina in the eye around which the cones cluster; has only cones around it detects finer details

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17

Francis Galton's research

studied all the behavioral and cognitive differences between people including individual differences in personality, intellect, and physical characteristics; established the field of differential psychology

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free association

saying everything that pops into your head; Freudian (psychoanalytic) method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing

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frequency (audition)

the number of complete wavelengths (also known as cycles) that occur within a specific time; a wave with high frequency means it occurs more rapidly or often and is also considered shorter; used to measure all sorts of wavelengths, such as light waves, sound waves, and brain waves

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20

Freud's stages of psychosexual development

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent and Genital -oral- mouth, lips, tongue; sucking, biting, chewing -anal- anus; bowel movements -phallic- genitals; attraction -latency- none -genital- genitals; sex

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21

Freudian dream analysis: two levels of interpretation

an approach to psychological understanding that focuses on finding emotional clues and symbols in a person's dreams; comes from the psychoanalytic school of psychology that was pioneered by Freud and Jung and assumes that the human mind and motivations resist being easily understood and that the symbols found in dreams must be properly interpreted in order to gain an understanding of a person's inner mental workings TWO interpretations- manifest & latent content

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22

frustration-aggression principle

frustration (feelings of tension that occur when our efforts to reach some goal are blocked) occurs and can produce feelings of anger, which in turn can generate feelings of aggression and aggressive behavior; has been utilized to explain a lot of violent behavior over time

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functional fixedness

when something is thought of only in terms of its functionality; narrow and limited thinking; often inhibits the problem solving process

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24

fundamental attribution error

the tendency for an observer, when interpreting and explaining the behavior of another person, to underestimate the situation and to overestimate the personal disposition

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25

galvanic skin response (GRS)

occurs when an individual perceives stimuli that causes physiological arousal and the skin is able to conduct electricity more than when not aroused; essentially a change in the electrical energy conducted by the skin; often used in research and in applied settings as a component of a lie detector test

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ganglia

an area of the forebrain that is important to smooth muscle movement and actions; this area works in conjunction with the midbrain to help us avoid moving in choppy, fragmented ways

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27

Gansfeld Procedure

a technique developed to research mental imagery and anomalous cognition using visual deprivation, in which a subject is situated in a uniform visual field by wearing translucent, monochromatic goggles and in an analogous audio field using white noise playing through headphones

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gate control theory of pain

developed by Mellzack and Wall who indicated that the spinal cord contains a type of neurological "gate" which opens and closes to either allow or block pain signals to travel to the brain; this gate does not actually open and close like the gate on a fence, but simply allows pain signals to pass onto the brain when they are traveling on the small nerve fibers, and does not allow pain signals to pass when they are traveling on the larger fibers; there doesn't really need to be anything physical to produce pain; only need to have the small nerve fibers send signals onto the brain to feel pain

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generalization of a study

"ecological validity"; the extent to which findings (from a study) can be generalized (or extended) to those in natural settings (outside the lab) *the more control psychologists exert in a study the less they may be able to generalize

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genotype and phenotype

the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits; the sum total of genes transmitted from parent to offspring

refers to the visible expression of the information contained in a person's genetic code; whatever can be measured or observed of a person's physical, psychological and biological makeup

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31

Gestalt principles

principles of visual perception that describe how we organize visual parts into a whole

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32

Gestalt psychology

a psychological perspective that emphasizes that the mind tends to perceive unified wholes and patterns rather than the bits and pieces that make up those wholes and patterns EX- when we watch a film we perceive the moving pictures as one meaningful event, not a succession of multiple still photos

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33

glial cells

also known as neuroglial cells or glia; non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis (fluid balances) and form myelin (a fatty substance that surroundings the axons of the nerve cells) in the brain; different from neurons in that they aren't directly involved in synaptic contact or electrical impulses; also responsible for support and production of both the central and peripheral nervous system Functions: to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, and to insulate one neuron from another, destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons from the brain

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gradual and reciprocal initiatives in tension-reduction (GRIT)

a conflict de-escalation method developed by Charles Osgood. It is a bargaining strategy with the end goal being a "gradual reduction in tension" between two parties

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35

group therapy (advantages of)

process where a collection of clients with similar issues or concerns meet as a group with one or more therapists, or other facilitators, to discuss those issues, and to learn about and share information and solutions about those issues less expensive than an individual session, more efficient for the therapist, sense of community

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36

groupthink

a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures; people within a group become so consumed with the group, maintaining group cohesiveness, and doing what is important for the group that they themselves lose their ability to think independently and make good, sound judgments EX- JFK & Bay of Pigs

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gustatory senses

sweet, sour, salty, bitter umami

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habituation

the tendency to have decreased responsiveness to something

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39

Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Response

the body has a natural, adaptive response to stress that is composed of three stages: alarm, resistance, exhaustion; when a person gets to the exhaustion stage, they may experience severe physical problems

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haptic memory

sensory memory for touch that lasts for the least amount of time--about a quarter of a second

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Harry Harlow's research on surrogate mothers

emphasized the importance of care-giving and companionship as vital to normal social and cognitive development; in his surrogate mother experiment, Harlow demonstrated the importance of contact comfort; baby rhesus monkeys were separated from their mothers and given two surrogate mothers - one made out of wire, and another made of terry cloth; he found that the baby monkeys preferred to cling to the terry cloth surrogate even when food was provided by the wire surrogate

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Hawthorne Effect

also known as Subject Reactivity, can be defined as changes in behavior resulting from attention participants believe they are getting from researchers, and not the variables manipulated by the researchers

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heuristics

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems representative- judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes availability- estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory anchoring- the process of making decisions based on certain ideas or standards held by the decision maker

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44

hierarchy of needs (Maslow)

according to Abraham Maslow, humans have certain needs that must be fulfilled for healthy living; these needs motivate us to act the way we do, and in particular, in ways that satisfy the needs that are not yet fulfilled; suggested that these needs are not all equally important, but exist in a hierarchy (shaped like a pyramid), with the most important, basic needs at the bottom physiological needs safety needs love and belonging esteem self actualization

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45

High self-monitors vs Low self-monitors

High SM: care a great deal about how they appear to others; suave at cocktail party, trash talk at street BB game.Low SM: less interested in how they appear to others; they are who they are regardless of the momentary situation

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hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, once the outcome is already known that you could have foreseen

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histogram

very similar to a bar graph in which each bar represents some class or element; bars actually touch each other to show that there are no gaps in between the classes

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homeostasis

the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state that is optimal for functioning

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Howard Gardner's view of multiple intelligences

people have different ways of processing stimuli and information and theorized that these different types of intelligence mostly work independently of each other; goes against the concept of a generalized all-encompassing intelligence that can be measured as a whole

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50

hue

refers to the aspect of color that is determined by the wavelength of light

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51

hybrid

created by combining the genetic traits of more than one species to create a mixed eneity

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52

hypnosis

a temporary state of heightened relaxation and suggestibility during which some people are able to become so focused that they experience imaginary happenings as if they were real

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hypothalamus

a part of the brain that sits below (hypo) the thalamus and is responsible for orchestrating several behaviors that are considered "maintenance" behaviors (such as eating, drinking, body temperature); helps govern the endocrine system (glands that produce hormones) using the pituitary gland, and is also involved in feeling emotions and perceive things as rewarding

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54

hypothesis testing

a testable prediction about the relationship between at least two events, characteristics, or variables done through an experiment

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55

id, ego, superego

according to Freud, humans have three main components to their personality that cause us to behave the way we do and make us who we are; the part that you may consider that little devil sitting on your shoulder trying to get you to do all those things that feel good, even if they are wrong; part of the human personality that is made up of all our inborn biological urges that seeks our immediate gratification (guided by the Pleasure Principle), regardless of social values or consequences EX- smash bakery window for bread

according to Freud, part of personality that helps us deal with reality by mediating between the demands of the id, superego, and the environment; prevents us from acting on every urge we have (produced by the id) and being so morally driven that we can't function properly; works according to the reality principle which helps us direct our unacceptable sexual and aggressive urges to more acceptable targets

acts as our moral guide and mediates between the id and the ego; contains the conscience, which makes us feel guilty for doing or thinking something wrong and good when we do something right

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major theories of hypnosis

a social interactoin in which one person (the hypnotist) suggest to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

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IDEAL (strategy for problem solving)

(Identify, Define, Explore, Act, Look) method to problem solving. First, identify problem, then define it. If there are too many issues or goals, Rees (1991) recommends prioritizing them.The next step is to explore alternatives. There are many ways to do this, but a common one is by brainstorming. Jot down as many possibilities as you can, without censorship, and only explore each one's worthiness later. Rees suggests establishing objective and measurable criteria, using both essential and desirable parameters, and then deciding on the solution that fits best. Once a solution has been chosen, make a plan of implementation. Act on the plan that has been chosen. Finally, look the, or evaluate, the effects. Is the solution working the way you thought it would? Why or why not?

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58

identical twin research

a research design that studies the differences between nature and nurture in individual psychology; by observing the differences between twins, both identical and fraternal, it is theorized that a distinction between behaviors that are inborn (genetic) or learned can be made

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identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

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illusory correlation

sometimes people believe there is some relationship between events, variables, etc., even though none really exists; occurs in everyday life

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imaging techniques

PET, CAT, MRI, fMRI, EEG

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PET scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task brain/tissue functioning

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CAT scan

a method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography show brain damage

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MRI

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain shows brain anatomy

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fMRI

A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. brain funtion and structure

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EEG

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp epilepsy

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imprinting

when certain birds and mammals form attachments during a critical period very early in their lives; during this point in development, the birds are so available to form attachments, that even if there is no mother bird, or no bird at all, they may develop attachments to a substitute

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incentives

those stimuli in the environment, both positive or negative, that motivate our behavior; these things pull us to behave in certain ways EX- money

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independent/dependent variables

the experimental variable or variable that is manipulated by the research and has some effect on the DV

variable that is used to measure the effect the IV has

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induced motion

the illusion of movement that happens when a frame of reference moves in one direction and produces the illusion that a stationary object is moving in the opposite direction

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inductive vs. deductive reasoning

a style of reasoning in which decisions are made and conclusions are reached by a process of analyzing available evidence and past experiences EX- a child learns that if they touch something hot and get burned, they reason that touching hot things is not a good idea and learn not to do that again, or that if they do something that pleases an adult and get a reward, that this is a behavior to repeat

a decision-making process where choices are made based upon the results of previous choices and a critical observation of the results; used heavily in scientific experimentation EX: a person touches a hot stove burner and burns him/her self; learn from this experience and, next time confronted with a hot stove, likely choose not to touch the burner knowing that they will probably get burned

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industrial organizational psychology

a branch of psychology that studies the relationships between work and people; attempts to develop ways to improve job satisfaction and increase productivity

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infant-mother attachment

an emotional tie or bond between two people; a very powerful bond that is important for survival; keeps infants close to their mothers which is important for getting food, staying away from danger, and getting comfort

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information-processing approach

a framework used by cognitive psychologists to explain and describe mental processes; likens the thinking process to how a computer works

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internalization

refers to the normal process where children learn and absorb (internalize) knowledge and rules about the world from social context, rather than through being specifically told; how children learn how to alter their behavior in response to the situation that they are in

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absolute threshold

the smallest intensity of a stimulus that has to be present for the stimulus to be detected

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achievement test

An achievement test is a standardized test that is designed to measure an individual's level of knowledge in a particular area

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Aptitude test

measures a person's ability to learn something

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Action potential

the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.

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Resting Potential

Resting potential refers to the polarization of cellular fluid within a neuron that provides the potential to produce an action.

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81

acuity-vision

refers to the sharpness, clearness and focus of a person's vision. It is a measure of the eye's spatial resolution, or ability to perceive shapes and figures in a 3-dimensional setting

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afferent neurons

(sensory neurons) nerve cells in our PNS that transmits impulse from receptors to the brain or spinal cord

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efferent neurons

(motor neuron) nerve cells in our PNS that transmits impulses from our sensory or interneurons to muscle cells that contract or gland cells that secrete

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aggression

any form of behavior that is intended to harm or injure some person, oneself, or an object

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agonist

a chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter

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antagonist

a chemical that opposes/blocks the action of a neurotransmitter

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87

Ainsworth Strange Situation

a thirty-minute procedure that consists of a series of separations and reunions among a caregiver, a child, and a stranger; assesses attachment in infancy.

top 3 patterns of attachment: 1.) secure- present: balance, separated: distress, reunited: warm, 2.) insecure-ambivalent- present: exploratory (clinging to parent), separated: very upset, reunited: angry/resistant/ambivalent, 3.) insecure-avoidant- present: explored playroom, separated: not upset, reunited: snubbed/avoided. A fourth pattern of attachment was identified: "insecure-disorganized"- extreme distress over separations and disorganized, disoriented, and confused during reunions

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Secure attachment

when he is able to freely explore when the mother is around, interacts with the stranger when the mother is present but not when she is absent, shows distress when the mother leaves, and is happy to see the mother return

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Insecure Avoidant

They are very independent of the attachment figure both physically and emotionally. They do not seek contact with the attachment figure when distressed. Such children are likely to have a caregiver who is insensitive and rejecting of their needs

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Insecure Ambivalent / Resistant

The child will commonly exhibit clingy and dependent behavior, but will be rejecting of the attachment figure when they engage in interaction. When distressed they are difficult to soothe and are not comforted by interaction with the attachment figure.

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Albert Bandura: major view of learning and Bobo Doll experiment

He supported the Social Learning Theory, which states learning happens by observing others and modeling their behaviors. According to Social Learning Theory, If we see that other people get desirable outcomes by behaving in a certain manner, then we are more likely to behave in a similar way

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Albert Ellis—Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)

a confrontational cognitive therapy that vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions.

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Alfred Adler—inferiority complex

used to describe people who compensate for feelings of inferiority (feeling like they're less than other people, not as good as others, worthless, etc.) by acting ways that make them appear superior

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algorithm

a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem

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all-or-nothing law (all-or-none) of neural firing

states that the physical reaction of a nerve or muscle to an outside stimulus will be the same regardless of the comparative strength of the stimulus; there's either a complete response or no response at all

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altruism

refers to unselfish behaviors or actions done for the sake of someone else.

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American Psychological Association (APA)

is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States,with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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anterograde amnesia

refers to an individual's inability to form new memories following a traumatic event

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retrograde amnesia

inability to retrieve or recall information before the traumatic event

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androgyny

displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics

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