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Hepatocytes uptake substances from capillary via what membrane?
Hepatocytes modify compounds/material before excretion across what membrane?
What are 3 examples of bile acids?
What are 4 examples of bile salts?
Free iron in the blood; travels with transferrin in the blood
Reduced to bilirubin
Transported with albumin--not soluble in blood
Build up of bilirubin causes ____________.
Bilirubin in the small intestine is metabilized to _____________ by microbes in the natural flora.
Urobilinogen is metabolized to ________ to be excreted through the feces and is oxidized to ____________ to be excreted as urine.
Bilirubin (w/ albumin)
Conjugated bilirubin (in liver)
Urobilinogen (GI bacteria)
Using numbers 1 through 6, list the metabolism of heme when converted to bilirubin to be excreted in the urine.
Urobillinogen (GI bacteria)
Using numbers 1-6, list the metabolism of heme when converted to bilirubin to be excreted in feces.
urobilinogen (GI bacteria)
Reabsorption in small intestine (made to bile)
Using numbers 1-6, list the metabolism of heme when converted to bilirubin to be reabsorbed in GI tract.
Make molecules more water soluble
During biotransformation in the liver, what is the overall purpose of this process?
How many phases make up biotransformation in the liver?
What catalyzes phase 1 of biotransformation in the liver?
What is the mechanism of action for P-450 cytochromes?
Conjugation; makes product more water soluble
What major process occurs in phase 2 of biotransformation? What does this do to the phase 1 product?
excretion of phase 2 product into blood or bile
What major process is occurring in phase 3 of biotransformation in the liver?
Reduced glutathione (GSH)
What is the starting material of mercapturic acids (phase 2 conjugation)?
Out of all the bile produced from hepatocutes, how much bile (relatively) is diverted to the gallbladder between meals (instead of the small intestine through the duodenal papilla)?
What do hepatocytes make bile acids from?
What are the 2 major organic solutes that make up bile?
Normal lipid absorption and digestion
What is the primary function of bile?
Bile salts form soluble ___________________ with fat to aid in passage from lumen.
What increases excretion of bile in the feces?
What are 2 main bile excretory products?
Secondary bile acids are formed by dehydroxylation by __________.
What levels decrease within the blood due to bile acid production?
What major player is responsible for secretion of bicarbonate rich fluid?
What major player is responsible for inhibiting the cAMP pathway in bile duct secretion?
___________ increases bile duct secretion. ______________ inhibits bile duct secretion.
What condition decreases bicarbonate in bile secretions?
Glucagon (pancreatic alpha cells)
What is indicated by number 1 in the image?
D cell (somatostatin)
What is indicated by number 2 in the image?
Cystic duct to gallbladder
Common bile duct to duodenum
What are the 2 parts of the common hepatic duct bifurcation?
What mediator relaxes the sphincter of Oddi?
True/False: CCK decreases bile secretion.
True/False: Most bile acids are recycled.
terminal ileum & colon
What parts of the GI system reabsorb bile acids?
Bile is used to absorb ____. Bile helps this be absorbed then drops it off in the __________ and cycles back to help more be absorbed.
Between meals in low blood glucose conditions, ____________ occurs to make glucose from amino acids. In addition, _______________ can also occur to breakdown glycogen to glucose.
glycogen synthesis; fat
After meals, during high glucose conditions, ________ can occur to store glucose for later usage (glycogen). After glycogen is made, unused carbohydrates are converted to _____.
True/False: Glucose entry into the liver depends on insulin.
Excess glucose can be used in what process?
During lipogenesis, excess glucose is converted to what?
C-reactive protein (CRP)
What are 4 major plasma proteins produced by the liver?
C-reactive protein is used to measure what within the body?
Removing free radicals
What is glutathione responsible for?
What are 3 major coagulation inhibitors in hemostasis/fibrinolysis (anti-clot)?
What is a major player of fibrinolysis?
What is a prohormone plasma protein made by the liver?
ApoA-I & ApoA-II
What type of apolipoproteins are present with HDL?
What type of apolipoproteins are present with LDL?
Metabolism of amino acids
What is the liver’s role in dealing with amino acids?
The liver converts amino acids to _______ for excretion in the urine.
What glucose metabolic pathway occurs during fasting?
Amino Acids & urea
Glucose & Glycogen
What are the 8 primary components produced from the liver (think ABCG)?
4 ring lipid molecule
Glycerol with 3 fatty acid chains
Cholesterol linked to fatty acid with ester bond
HMG CoA reductase
What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis?
Cholesterol synthesis is inhibited by what drugs?
True/False: The liver makes cholesterol endogenously.
Fat that hasn’t yet entered the liver
lipoprotein lipase (LPL)
Chylomicrons are cleaved by what?
When chylomicrons are cleaved, what 3 components are left over?
Remnants of chylomicrons that have been cleaves enter the liver and are converted to _______.
True/False: Chylomicrons are made of endogenous fat.
Chylomicrons travel into the blood via the _______________.
fatty acids; glycerol
LPL breaks down triglycerides into ____________ and ____________.
The liver packages endogenous fat (& chylomicron remnants) as _______.
What breaksdown VLDL?
What is responsible for transporting lipoproteins?
Release of ________________ leads to more and more densely packed cholesterol molecules.
Both chylomicrons & VLDL carry ______________ to tissues.
ketone bodies; kidney
Fatty acids metabolize to ___________ in β oxidation. They are then sent to the brain, muscle, & __________.
Which is healthier: HDL or LDL?
What lipoprotein is responsible for removing lipids from blood vessels?
What is present in higher quantities within HDL: cholesterol or triacylglycerides?
ApoA-1 & ApoA-2
What apolipoproteins aid in the transport of HDL?
Dietary fat is transported as _______________.
What are the 3 main components of chylomicrons?
Lipoprotein lipase; apolipoprotein CII
________________ breaks down triglycerides to release fatty acids to tissues. _______________ inhibits this from occuring.