APD Hepatobiliary Physiology & Liver Metabolic Functions (Lecture 10)

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

basolateral membrane

1 / 109

Tags and Description

110 Terms

1

basolateral membrane

Hepatocytes uptake substances from capillary via what membrane?

New cards
2

apical membrane

Hepatocytes modify compounds/material before excretion across what membrane?

New cards
3
  1. Chenodeoxycholic acid

  2. Cholic acid

  3. Protonated form

What are 3 examples of bile acids?

New cards
4
  1. Glucoronate

  2. Glycine

  3. Sulfate

  4. Taurine

What are 4 examples of bile salts?

New cards
5

heme

Free iron in the blood; travels with transferrin in the blood

New cards
6

biliverdin

Reduced to bilirubin

New cards
7

bilirubin

Transported with albumin--not soluble in blood

New cards
8

jaundice

Build up of bilirubin causes ____________.

New cards
9

urobilinogen

Bilirubin in the small intestine is metabilized to _____________ by microbes in the natural flora.

New cards
10

stercobilin; urobilin

Urobilinogen is metabolized to ________ to be excreted through the feces and is oxidized to ____________ to be excreted as urine.

New cards
11
  1. Heme

  2. Biliverdin

  3. Bilirubin (w/ albumin)

  4. Conjugated bilirubin (in liver)

  5. Urobilinogen (GI bacteria)

  6. Urobillin (urine)

Using numbers 1 through 6, list the metabolism of heme when converted to bilirubin to be excreted in the urine.

New cards
12
  1. Heme

  2. Biliverdin

  3. Bilirubin (w/ albumin)

  4. Conjugated bilirubin (in liver)

  5. Urobillinogen (GI bacteria)

  6. Stercolbin (feces)

Using numbers 1-6, list the metabolism of heme when converted to bilirubin to be excreted in feces.

New cards
13
  1. Heme

  2. Biliverdin

  3. Bilirubin (w/ albumin)

  4. Conjugated bilirubin (in liver)

  5. urobilinogen (GI bacteria)

  6. Reabsorption in small intestine (made to bile)

Using numbers 1-6, list the metabolism of heme when converted to bilirubin to be reabsorbed in GI tract.

New cards
14

Make molecules more water soluble

During biotransformation in the liver, what is the overall purpose of this process?

New cards
15

3

How many phases make up biotransformation in the liver?

New cards
16

P-450 cytochromes

What catalyzes phase 1 of biotransformation in the liver?

New cards
17

Adds oxygen

What is the mechanism of action for P-450 cytochromes?

New cards
18

Conjugation; makes product more water soluble

What major process occurs in phase 2 of biotransformation? What does this do to the phase 1 product?

New cards
19

excretion of phase 2 product into blood or bile

What major process is occurring in phase 3 of biotransformation in the liver?

New cards
20

Reduced glutathione (GSH)

What is the starting material of mercapturic acids (phase 2 conjugation)?

New cards
21

1/2

Out of all the bile produced from hepatocutes, how much bile (relatively) is diverted to the gallbladder between meals (instead of the small intestine through the duodenal papilla)?

New cards
22

cholesterol

What do hepatocytes make bile acids from?

New cards
23
  1. Bilirubin

  2. Cholesterol

What are the 2 major organic solutes that make up bile?

New cards
24

Normal lipid absorption and digestion

What is the primary function of bile?

New cards
25

mixed micelles

Bile salts form soluble ___________________ with fat to aid in passage from lumen.

New cards
26

Cholestyramine (Questran)

What increases excretion of bile in the feces?

New cards
27
  1. Heavy metals

  2. Lipophilic compounds

What are 2 main bile excretory products?

New cards
28

bacteria

Secondary bile acids are formed by dehydroxylation by __________.

New cards
29

cholesterol

What levels decrease within the blood due to bile acid production?

New cards
30

secretin

What major player is responsible for secretion of bicarbonate rich fluid?

New cards
31

somatostatin

What major player is responsible for inhibiting the cAMP pathway in bile duct secretion?

New cards
32

Secretin; Somatostatin

___________ increases bile duct secretion. ______________ inhibits bile duct secretion.

New cards
33

cystic fibrosis

What condition decreases bicarbonate in bile secretions?

New cards
34

Glucagon (pancreatic alpha cells)

What is indicated by number 1 in the image?

<p>What is indicated by number 1 in the image?</p>
New cards
35

D cell (somatostatin)

What is indicated by number 2 in the image?

<p>What is indicated by number 2 in the image?</p>
New cards
36
  1. Cystic duct to gallbladder

  2. Common bile duct to duodenum

What are the 2 parts of the common hepatic duct bifurcation?

New cards
37

CCK

What mediator relaxes the sphincter of Oddi?

New cards
38

False

True/False: CCK decreases bile secretion.

New cards
39

True

True/False: Most bile acids are recycled.

New cards
40

terminal ileum & colon

What parts of the GI system reabsorb bile acids?

New cards
41

fat; blood

Bile is used to absorb ____. Bile helps this be absorbed then drops it off in the __________ and cycles back to help more be absorbed.

New cards
42

gluconeogenesis; glycogenolysis

Between meals in low blood glucose conditions, ____________ occurs to make glucose from amino acids. In addition, _______________ can also occur to breakdown glycogen to glucose.

New cards
43

glycogen synthesis; fat

After meals, during high glucose conditions, ________ can occur to store glucose for later usage (glycogen). After glycogen is made, unused carbohydrates are converted to _____.

New cards
44

False

True/False: Glucose entry into the liver depends on insulin.

New cards
45

glycolysis

Excess glucose can be used in what process?

New cards
46

fat

During lipogenesis, excess glucose is converted to what?

New cards
47
  1. Albumin

  2. Globulins

  3. C-reactive protein (CRP)

  4. Glutathione

What are 4 major plasma proteins produced by the liver?

New cards
48

systemic inflammation

C-reactive protein is used to measure what within the body?

New cards
49

Removing free radicals

What is glutathione responsible for?

New cards
50
  1. Protein S

  2. Protein C

  3. anti-thrombin III

What are 3 major coagulation inhibitors in hemostasis/fibrinolysis (anti-clot)?

New cards
51

plasminogen

What is a major player of fibrinolysis?

New cards
52

angiotensinogen

What is a prohormone plasma protein made by the liver?

New cards
53

ApoA-I & ApoA-II

What type of apolipoproteins are present with HDL?

New cards
54

Apo-B100

What type of apolipoproteins are present with LDL?

New cards
55

Metabolism of amino acids

What is the liver’s role in dealing with amino acids?

New cards
56

urea

The liver converts amino acids to _______ for excretion in the urine.

New cards
57

glycogenolysis

What glucose metabolic pathway occurs during fasting?

New cards
58
  1. Amino Acids & urea

  2. Angiotensinogen

  3. Bile

  4. C-Reactive protein

  5. Coagulation factors

  6. Glucose & Glycogen

  7. Cholesterol

  8. Glutathione

What are the 8 primary components produced from the liver (think ABCG)?

New cards
59

cholesterol

4 ring lipid molecule

New cards
60

triglyceride

Glycerol with 3 fatty acid chains

New cards
61

cholesterol ester

Cholesterol linked to fatty acid with ester bond

New cards
62

HMG CoA reductase

What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis?

New cards
63

The -statins

Cholesterol synthesis is inhibited by what drugs?

New cards
64

True

True/False: The liver makes cholesterol endogenously.

New cards
65

dietary fat

Fat that hasn’t yet entered the liver

New cards
66

lipoprotein lipase (LPL)

Chylomicrons are cleaved by what?

New cards
67
  1. Triglycerides

  2. Fatty acids

  3. Cholesterol

When chylomicrons are cleaved, what 3 components are left over?

New cards
68

VLDL

Remnants of chylomicrons that have been cleaves enter the liver and are converted to _______.

New cards
69

False--dietary fat

True/False: Chylomicrons are made of endogenous fat.

New cards
70

thoracic duct

Chylomicrons travel into the blood via the _______________.

New cards
71

fatty acids; glycerol

LPL breaks down triglycerides into ____________ and ____________.

New cards
72

VLDL

The liver packages endogenous fat (& chylomicron remnants) as _______.

New cards
73

lipoprotein lipase

What breaksdown VLDL?

New cards
74

apolipoproteins

What is responsible for transporting lipoproteins?

New cards
75

triacyglycerides

Release of ________________ leads to more and more densely packed cholesterol molecules.

New cards
76

triglycerides

Both chylomicrons & VLDL carry ______________ to tissues.

New cards
77

ketone bodies; kidney

Fatty acids metabolize to ___________ in β oxidation. They are then sent to the brain, muscle, & __________.

New cards
78

HDL

Which is healthier: HDL or LDL?

New cards
79

HDL

What lipoprotein is responsible for removing lipids from blood vessels?

New cards
80

cholesterol

What is present in higher quantities within HDL: cholesterol or triacylglycerides?

New cards
81

ApoA-1 & ApoA-2

What apolipoproteins aid in the transport of HDL?

New cards
82

chylomicrons

Dietary fat is transported as _______________.

New cards
83
  1. Cholesterol

  2. Triglycerides

  3. Phospholipids

What are the 3 main components of chylomicrons?

New cards
84

Lipoprotein lipase; apolipoprotein CII

________________ breaks down triglycerides to release fatty acids to tissues. _______________ inhibits this from occuring.

New cards
85

LDL

_______ is the breakdown product of VLDL.

New cards
86

LDL

What lipoprotein deposits cholesterol in cells & vessels?

New cards
87

Apolipoproteins

________________ bind & transport triacylglycerides & cholesterol.

New cards
88

Chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL

What lipoproteins contain more triacylglycerides than cholesterol?

New cards
89

HDL

What lipoprotein contains more cholesterol than triacylglycerides?

New cards
90

Apopoliportein CIII

What transports triglycerides from the liver to other organs?

New cards
91

LDL

What lipoprotein transports cholesterol & triglycerides from the liver to peripheral organs using apopoliprotein B100?

New cards
92

HDL

What lipoprotein transports fat from peripheral tissue to the liver using ApoA-I and ApoA-II?

New cards
93

cholesterol

What lipid molecule is needed for cell membranes?

New cards
94

cholesterol

What is needed for the synthesis of steroid hormones?

New cards
95

To produce energy

What is the main purpose of breaking down triglycerides?

New cards
96

HDL > 50

What are the normal levels of HDL in the body?

New cards
97

LDL < 100

What is the normal level of LDL in the body?

New cards
98

Triglycerides < 150 (think 50 x 3)

What is the normal level of triglycerides in the body?

New cards
99

LDL < 70

What is the best with disease level of LDLs?

New cards
100

Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease

In what patients should LDL levels be lower than the norm?

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 29754 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(95)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard158 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard200 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 74 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard57 terms
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)