BIOL 1510 Midterm Exam

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Macroevolution

1 / 126

Tags and Description

Chapters 25-28

127 Terms

1

Macroevolution

the broad pattern of evolution above the species level

New cards
2

Protocell

an abiotic precursor of a living. ell that had a membrane-like structure and that maintained an internal chemistry different from that of its surroundings

New cards
3

Hydrothermal Vents

an area on the deep sea floor where heated water and minerals from Earth’s interior gush into the seawater

New cards
4

Alkaline Vents

a deep sea hydrothermal vent that releases water that is warm rather than hot and that has a high pH

New cards
5

Ribozymes

an RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme, such as an intron that catalyzes its own removal during RNA splicing

New cards
6

Radiometric Dating

a method for determining the absolute age of rocks and fossils, based on the half-life of radioactive isotopes

New cards
7

Half-Life

amount of time it takes for half of a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay

New cards
8

Geologic Record

a standard time scale dividing Earth’s history into time periods, grouped into four eons - Hadean, Archaean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoicand further subdivided into eras, periods, and epochs

New cards
9

Stromatolites

layered rock that results from the activities of prokaryotes that bind thin films of sediment together

New cards
10

Endosymbiont Theory

the theory that mitochondria and plastids, including chloroplasts, originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by a host cell. the engulfed cell and its host cell evolved into a single organism

New cards
11

Serial Endosymbiosis

a hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotes consisting of a sequence of endosymbiotic events in which mitochondria, chloroplasts, and perhaps other cellular structures were derived from a small prokaryotes that had been engulfed by larger cells

New cards
12

Cambrian Explosion

a relatively brief time in geologic history when many present-day phyla of animals first appeared in the fossil record. 535-525 million years ago, the emergence of the first large, hard-bodied animals

New cards
13

Plate Tectonics

the theory that the continents are part of great plates of earth’s crust that float on the hot, underlying portion of the mantle. movements in the mantle cause the continents to move slowly over time

New cards
14

Pangaea

the supercontinent that formed near the end of the Paleozoic era, when plate movements brought all the landmasses of Earth together

New cards
15

Mass Extinction

the elimination of a large number of species throughout Earth, the result of global environment changes

New cards
16

Adaptive Radiations

period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species whose adaptions allow them to fill different ecological roles in their communities

New cards
17

Heterochrony

evolutionary change in the time or rate of an organism’s development

New cards
18

Paedomorphosis

the retention in an adult organism of the juvenile features of its evolutionary ancestors

New cards
19

Homeotic Genes

any of the master regulatory genes that control placement and spatial organization of body parts in animals, plants, and fungi by controlling the development fate of groups of cells

New cards
20

Phylogeny

the evolution of history of a species or group of related species

New cards
21

Systematics

a scientific discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships

New cards
22

Taxonomy

a scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life

New cards
23

Binomial

the two-part latinized format for naming a species, consisting of the genus and specific epithet

New cards
24

Linean Classification

Domain → Kingdom → Phylum → Class → Order → Family → Genus → Species

New cards
25

Taxon

a named taxonomic unit at any given level of classification

New cards
26

Phylogenetic tree

a branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms

<p>a branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms</p>
New cards
27

Phylocode

proposed system of classification of organisms based on evolutionary relationships: only groups that include a common ancestor and all of its descendants are named

New cards
28

Branch Points

the representation on a phylogenetic tree of the divergence of two or more taxa from a common ancestor

New cards
29

Rooted

describing a phylogenetic tree that contains a branch point representing the most recent common ancestor of all taxa in the tree

New cards
30

Basal taxon

in a specified group of organisms, a taxon whose evolutionary lineage diverged early in the history of the group

New cards
31

Polytomy

in a phylogenetic tree, a branch point from which more than two descendant taxa emerge. a polytomy indicates that the evolutionary relationships between the descendant taxa are not yet clear

New cards
32

Analogy

similarity between two species that is due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait

New cards
33

Homoplasies

a similar structure or molecular sequence that has evolved independently in two species

New cards
34

Molecular Systematics

a scientific discipline that uses nucleic acids or other molecules to infer evolutionary relationships between different species

New cards
35

Cladistics

an approach to systematics in which organisms are placed into groups called clades based primarily on common descent

New cards
36

Clades

a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants

New cards
37

Monophyletic

pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all of its descendants. a monophyletic taxon is equivalent to a clade

<p>pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all of its descendants. a monophyletic taxon is equivalent to a clade</p>
New cards
38

Paraphyletic

pertaining to a group of taza that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants

<p>pertaining to a group of taza that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants</p>
New cards
39

Polyphyletic

pertaining to a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors

<p>pertaining to a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors</p>
New cards
40

Shared Ancestral Character

a character, shared by members of a particular clade, that originated in an ancestor that is not a member of taht clade

New cards
41

Shared Derived Character

an evolutionary novelty that is unique to a particular clade

New cards
42

Outgroup

a species or group of species from an evolutionary lineage that is know to have diverged before the lineage that contains the group of species being studied. an outgroup is selected so that its members are closely to the group of species being studied, but not as closely related as any study-group members are to each other

New cards
43

Ingroup

a species or group of species whose evolutionary relationships we seek to determine

New cards
44

Maximum Parsimony

a principle that states that when considering multiple explanations for an observation, one should first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts

New cards
45

Maximum Likelihood

as applied to molecular systematics, a principle that states that when considering multiple phylogenetic hypotheses, one should take into account the hypothesis that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events, given certain rules about how DNA changes ove time

New cards
46

Orthologous Genes

homologous genes that are found in different species because of speciation

New cards
47

Paralogous Genes

homologous genes that are found in the same genome as a result of gene duplication

New cards
48

Molecular Clock

a method for estimating the time required for a given amount of evolutionary change, based on the observation that some regions of genomes evolve at a constant rate

New cards
49

Neutral Theory

the hypothesis that much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by natural selection

New cards
50

Horizontal Gene Transfer

the transfer of genes from one genome to another through mechanisms such as transposable elements, plasmid exchange, viral activity, and perhaps fusion of different organisms

New cards
51

Peptidoglycan

a network of sugar polymers cross-linked by polypeptides

New cards
52

Gram Stain

used to classify bacteria by cell wall composition

New cards
53

Gram-Positive Bacteria

simpler walls with a large amount of peptidoglycan (stains purple)

New cards
54

Gram-Negative Bacteria

have less peptidoglycan and an outer membrane that can be toxic (stains red)

New cards
55

Capsule

the cell wall of many prokaryotes is surrounded by a sticky layer of polysaccharide or proteins

New cards
56

Endospores

a way of withstanding harsh conditions, certain bacteria develop resistant cell called this

New cards
57

Fimbriae

hairlike appendages that stick to substrates

New cards
58

Pili (sex-pili)

appendages that pull two cells together prior to DNA transfer from one cell to another

New cards
59

Taxis

the ability to move toward or away from a stimulus

New cards
60

Nucleoid Region

chromosome is located here

New cards
61

Plasmids

some species of bacteria also have smaller rings of independently replicating DNA called this

New cards
62

Three factors that contribute to genetic diversity

Rapid Reproduction, Mutation, Genetic Recombination

New cards
63

Genetic Recombination

the combining of DNA from two sources, contributes to diversity

New cards
64

Transformation

a prokaryotic cell can take up and incorporate foreign DNA from the surrounding environment

New cards
65

Transduction

the movement of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria)

New cards
66

Conjugation

the process where genetic material is transferred between prokaryotic cells

New cards
67

F Factor

piece of DNA that is required for the production of pili

New cards
68

F Plasmid

cells containing this functions as DNA donors during conjugation

New cards
69

R Plasmid

carry genes for antibiotic resistance

New cards
70

Phototrophs

obtain energy from light

New cards
71

Chemotrophs

obtain energy from chemicals

New cards
72

Autotrophs

require CO2 as a carbon source

New cards
73

Heterotrophs

require an organic nutrient to make organic compounds

New cards
74

Obligate Aerobes

require O2 for cellular respiration

New cards
75

Obligate Anaerobes

are poisoned by O2 and use fermentation or anaerobic respiration

New cards
76

Facultative Anaerobes

can survive with or without O2

New cards
77

Nitrogen Fixation

some prokaryotes convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3)

New cards
78

Heterocysts

nitrogen-fixing cells

New cards
79

Extreme halophiles

live in highly saline environments

New cards
80

Extreme Thermophiles

thrive in very hot environments

New cards
81

methanogens

live in swamps and marshes and produce methane as a waste product

New cards
82

Decomposers

breaking down dead organisms and waste products

New cards
83

Symbiosis

an ecological relationship in which two species live in close contact. a large host and a smaller symbiont

New cards
84

Mutualism

both symbiotic organisms benefit

New cards
85

Commensalism

one organism benefits while neither harming nor helping the other in any significant way

New cards
86

Parasitism

an organism called a parasite harms but does not kill its host

New cards
87

Pathogens

parasites that cause disease

New cards
88

Exotozins

secreted and cause disease even if the prokaryotes that produce them are not present

New cards
89

Endotoxins

released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down

New cards
90

Algae (alga)

a photosynthetic, plantlike protist

New cards
91

Alternation of Generations

a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants

New cards
92

Alveolata

a protistan clade that includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and the ciliates. have small membrane-bounded cavities called alveoli under their cell surfaces. function is unknown

New cards
93

Amoeba

a type of protist characterized by great flexibility and the presence of pseudopodia

New cards
94

Apicomplexan

one of a group of parasitic protozoans, some of which cause human diseases

New cards
95

Blades

a leaflike structure of a seaweed that provides most of the surface area for photosynthesis

New cards
96

Brown Algea

one of a group of marine, multicellular, autotrophic protists, the most common type of seaweed. include the kelps

New cards
97

Cellular Slime Mold

a type of protist that has unicellular amoeboid cells and multicellular reproductive bodies in its life cycle

New cards
98

Ciliate

a type of protozoan that moves by means of cilia

New cards
99

Conjugation in bacteria

the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined

New cards
100

Diatom

a unicellular photosynthetic alga with a unique, glassy cell wall containing silica

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 101 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard85 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 91 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 2331 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(30)