Biology Exam Three

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143 Terms

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pre-implantation screening

Embryos generated by in vitro fertilization, at 8-cell stage, one cell from each embryo is taken for testing, only embryos that pass are implanted

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does not

pre-implantation screening _______ create a novel or different genetic make-up of offspring

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double stranded DNA

AAV has a ______ genome

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nuclues

When AAV infects a cell, its genome is transported to the _____ where viral genes are expressed

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does not integrate

The AAV genome is not replicated by the host DNA replication process and __________ into the host genome

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therapeutic

AAV gene therapy replaces the bulk of the AAV genome with ______ DNA

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Complementation

when loss of gene activity is compensated for by adding a functional copy of the gene

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complementation

AAV is a form of _______

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RNA

What type of genomes do retroviruses have in RTV

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copied, integrated

In RTV, upon infection, the RNA genome is ___ into DNA and the DNA copy is randomly ______ into the host genome

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complementation

RTV is a form of _____

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Dominant mutation

What type of genetic disease cannot be fixed by AAV, RTV gene therapy

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CRISPR

allows you to target a specific location for fixing in genome because it uses an RNA molecule that you design to base-pair with your sequence of interest

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Guide RNA, Cas9 protein, Donor DNA template

What are the three things you need for CRISPR

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Cas9 protein

Holds the guide RNA, helps it basepair to DNA, and cuts the genomic DNA during CRISPR

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fix, inactive, add

CRISPR can be used to __ a mutant gene, _____ a gene

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Somatic cell transformation

attempt to change the genetic make-up of somatic cells in an adult or child

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consent, no germline, some cells

Somatic cell therapy is an ethical

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more difficult

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germline

Any changes made to the ______ will be a permanent, heritable change

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mutations

Challenge : if you are editing the germline of the genome, CRISPR can induce _____ if the guide RNA basepairs with a related sequence elsewhere in the genome

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efficient, precise

CRISPR editing is getting more ___ (a higher percent of cells subjected to it have edits), and more ___ (changes at off-site locations happening less frequently)

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prime editing

CRISPR ______ works without cutting the DNA - removing any potential negative side effects

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constitutive, growth hormone

The aquabounty salmon uses a ____ enhancer from ocean pout and a _____ gene from chinook salmon to gain constant expression of growth hormone to drive faster growth

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1 acre

How much farmland is available to grow all the food you eat all year long

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lower

organic farming has significantly _____ yields than conventional farming

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Bt

___ is a species of bacteria that synthesizes a protein (Cry) toxic to certain classes of insects

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enhancers

Corn will express CRy2 in locations based on the ____ you chose, and the protein will go where you direct it

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photosynthetic tissues

rice normally makes beta-carotene, but only in _______, not in developing seed

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not expressed

the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes needed to make beta-carotene are present in the rice genome, but _______ in developing seed cells (the location we want them to be expressed in)

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seed enhancer

to get the phytoene synthase gene expressed in seed cells, we would need a ________

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obligate parasites

viruses are not organisms, they are ______

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obligate parasites

entirely depends upon a host for its nourishment, reproduction, habitat, and survival

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are not

viruses ____ alive

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take over

viruses enter a host cell and ______ its biosynthetic machinery

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overlapping reading frames

two proteins are encoded by a segment of DNA read in different reading frames

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protease

in viruses, multiple proteins are encoded by a single open reading frame: the long polypeptide must be cut by a ____ to release the different proteins

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lytic

viral genome enters host cell, gets transcribed + translated, viral genome is replicated, and the viruses are released, killing the host cell (infection then spreads to other cells/hosts)

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lysogenic

viral genome enters the host cell and is inserted into the host genome (when the host cell divides, the viral genome is replicated as well)

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herpes

what disease has both a lytic and lysogenic lifecycle

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epithelial

what cells in the herpes virus have a lytic lifecycle

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neuronal

what cells in the herpes virus have a lysogenic cycle

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lytic, recognized

when a virus is engaged in a __ lifecycle, the viral particles are presented on the surface of the cell, meaning they are ____ by the immune system (infected cell can then be killed preventing viral replication)

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lysogenic

what lifecycle has a cell that is metabolically indistinguishable from an uninfected cell making them nearly impossible to cure

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coronaviruses

large family of viruses that infect animals and humans

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COVID-19

refers to the human disease state in reference to SARS2

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positive, single strand RNA

What type of genome does SARS2 have

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ACE2

To gain host cell entry, the SARS2 spike protein binds to _____, once bound, the virus is endocytosed into the host cell

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furin cleavage site

without the ____, SARS2 is not infectious -- _____ is cleaved by a human protease, releasing the head group and allowing the fusion machinery to function efficiently

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positive strand

RNA strand that contains the open reading frame for proteins (like an mRNA -- has a polyA tail, 5’ cap, etc)

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translated

The SARS2 viral +RNA genome is immediately ______ upon entry into the cytoplasm, leading to viral proteins being produced

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RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)

the viral + ssRNA genome is copied into a complementary - RNA strand by ______ to allow further genomic copies to be made

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attenuated vaccine

a weakened version of the pathogen, transient infection is established upon vaccination which boosts and lengthens the immune response

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non-human host cells

one way to create a weak pathogen (attenuated) is to culture the pathogen in ________. Pathogen then adapts through mutation and loses ability to grow in a human host

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attenuated

what vaccine is not suitable for immunodeficient patients

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inactivated vaccine

a dead version of the pathogen that is readily incorporated into other vaccines, contains multiple pathogenic proteins, is easy to ship+store, and has no reversion to virulence

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denaturation (heat), cross-linking

how are pathogens killed for an inactivated vaccine

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purified protein vaccines

synthesizes all or part of a pathogenic protein in lab

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mRNA vaccine

encodes an exposed viral protein to be targeted, coated in delivery liposome that can fuse with cells, human cells take up the _____- and synthesize the protein themselves

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mRNA

what type of vaccine is the Pfizer covid

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fades very rapidly

The pfizer vaccine starts off with strong vaccine effectiveness, but _______ compared to other vaccines

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vaccine avoidance

selecting variants that are no longer recognized by the antibodies

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more, less

the omicron strain is __ transmissible, ___ deadly, and a vaccine avoidant

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Omicron

SARS2 variant with a large number of missense mutations in the RBD domain and other regions of the spike protein -- antibodies created against original spike to have reduced abiity to bind to this new spike protein

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cytosine analog

used by the viral RdRp, once incorporated into viral RNA, it switches between two forms (one read as C, the other U), which creates a very high rate of mutations in the replicating viral genomes

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gain of function research

research that would increase the ability of a virus to infect humans (by taking a human-infecting virus and increasing pathogenicity or taking a virus that infects a non-human animal and getting it to infect humans)

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humanized mouse

a mouse whose epithelia cells express human ACE2 instead of the mouse ACE2

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adapt to a human host

If you take a non-human virus and culture it in human cells or humanized mice, you risk having the virus _______

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naturally occurring compounds

many of the first antibiotics are __________ from fungi and bacteria that evolved to kill competing bacteria

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antibiotic class

a group of structurally-related compounds that all target the same bacterial protein

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beta lactams

class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial cell wall biosynthesis

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selection

_____ drives the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance when antibiotic use is common

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fitness

genotypes increase or decrease in frequency based upon their influence on an individual’s _____

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fitness

the number of surviving, fertile offspring that an individual produces

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environmental conditions

the fitness of a specific genotype depends on specific ________

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biofilms

extracellular structures that can protect the bacteria from the immune system and drugs.

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antibiotic exporters

action of a transporter that exports many antibiotics out of the bacterial cell (can lead to antibiotic resistance)

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reduced, new gene

Resistance to beta lactams occurs by wither having a mutated transpeptidase gene with ___ antibiotic binding, or they have picked up an entirely ____ that encodes a different protein that will catalyze the same reaction

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resistant, sensitive

when antibiotic use is common, the ____ bacterial genotypes are more fit than the ____- genotypes

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sensitive, resistance

in the abscene of antibiotics, the ___ version of the bacteria is more fit than the ______ version

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horizontal gene transfer

the transfer of genetic material between different species

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conjugation

DNA (usually a plasmid) from a donor cell is transferred through a pilus into the recipient cell

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transformation

DNA released into the environment by dead cells is taken up by a recipient cell

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transduction

DNA is transferred from a donor to a recipient cell by a virus

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plasmids

antibiotic resistant genes are often located on ______ and can be easily transferred from one bacterium to another

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multiple

a single plasmid can harbor _____ resistance genes

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does not

AAV _____ work for germline gene therapy

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cell signaling

the ability of cells to perceive signals from outside the cell and alter cellular activities in response

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signal, receptor, signaling intermediates, effectors, cell response

what is the outline for cell signaling?

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gene expression patterns

when regulatory transcription factors are the effectors for a pathway, the consequence of signaling is to change _____

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effectors

the response that a cell has to a signal depends on which _____ get activated in that cell

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different

the same signal can activate _____ effectors in different cell types

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proteins

In animals and plants, the most common signals used for cell differentiation are _____ encoded by genes

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lipid insoluble signal

large hydrophilic molecule that can;t cross plasma membrane on own. Accepted by cell-surface receptors

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lipid soluble signal

small, hydrophobic molecule that can cross plasma membrane to enter cell. Accepted by intracellular receptor

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lipid insoluble

what type of signal is more common

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ligands

signals when bound to receptors are also referred to as ______

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enzymes, ATP

protein kinases are ____ that use ___ as a substrate

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specific

protein kinases each have a ______ protein substrate

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terminal phosphate

the _______ of ATP is transferred to a protein substrate on residues

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