Physiology Exam 5

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What is the primary function of the digestive system?

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1

What is the primary function of the digestive system?

transferring molecules from external to internal environment

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2

What are the 4 basic digestive processes?

motility, secretion, digestion, and absorption

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3

Motility

muscular contractions of the digestive tract

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4

What are the 2 types of motility?

propulsive and mixing

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5

Propulsive motility

propel or push contents through the tract

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6

Mixing motility

mixes food with digestive juices and exposes molecules to absorbing surfaces

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7

Secretion

digestive juices are moved into the digestive tract by the exocrine glands

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8

Digestion

biochemical breakdown of foodstuffs into absorbable units (monomers)

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9

Absorption

movement of absorbable units, water, electrolytes, and vitamins from the digestive tract to the blood

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10

What are the 2 divisions of the digestive system?

accessory digestive organs and the digestive tract

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11

Accessory digestive organs

salivary glands, liver and gallbladder, exocrine pancreas

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12

Digestive tract

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus

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13

What are the 4 layers of the digestive tract?

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa

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14

Mucosa

protective surface that is specialized in some areas for secretion and absorption

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15

Submucosa

connective tissue which allows for distensibility and elasticity

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16

Submucosal plexus

regulates gut activity

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17

Muscularis

smooth muscle that produces propulsive and mixing movements

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18

Serosa

outer connective tissue that secretes fluid to prevent friction with surrounding viscera

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19

What are the 4 factors that maximize digestion and absorption?

autonomous smooth muscle function, intrinsic nerve plexus, extrinsic nerves, gastrointestinal hormones

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20

Autonomous smooth muscle function

some intestinal cells are pacemaker cells that continuously fluctuate membrane potentials

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21

Intrinsic nerve plexus

networks of nerve fibers contained within the digestive tract

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22

Extrinsic nerves

innervate digestive organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions

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23

Gastrointestinal hormones

endocrine glands are located in various portions of the digestive tract

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24

Smooth muscle cells

affects motility

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25

Exocrine gland cells

secretion of digestive juices

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26

Endocrine glands cells

secretion of hormones

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27

What are the functional parts of the digestive system?

tongue and taste buds which stimulate salivary, gastric, pancreatic, and bile secretion

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28

Secretion in the mouth

saliva begins carbohydrate digestion which facilitates swallowing

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29

What is saliva production regulated by?

conditioned salivary reflex and autonomic influence

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30

Pharynx and esophagus

uses propulsion motility move the bolus from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach

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31

What does mucus act as?

lubricant and a protective layer

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32

What are the 2 stages of swallowing?

oropharyngeal and esophageal stage

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33

Oropharyngeal stage

bolus moves from mouth through the pharynx to the esophagus through propulsive motility

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34

Esophageal stage

bolus moves through esophagus to the stomach through propulsive motility

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35

What are the 3 stomach regions?

fundus, body, and antrum

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36

Fundus of the stomach

a thin muscle layer above the esophageal opening

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37

Body of the stomach

thin muscle layer that stores food

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38

Antrum of the stomach

thick muscle layer involved in mixing food

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39

What are the 3 main functions of the stomach?

stores ingested food until emptied into small intestine, secretes hydrochloric acid and enzymes, and mixing motility pulverizes food and mixes with secretions

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40

What do parietal cells secrete?

hydrochloric acid which activates pepsinogen

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41

What do chief cells secrete?

pepsinogen

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42

What does pepsinogen do?

converts to pepsin which initiates protein digestion

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43

G cells

secrete the hormone gastrin in response to proteins in the stomach

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44

Enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL)

release histamines which acts on parietal cells to speed up HCl secretion

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45

D cells

release somatostatin which inhibits secretions by parietal cells, G cells, and ECL cells

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46

Cephalic phase

thinking about smelling, or tasting the food before food arrives

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47

Gastric phase

protein stimulates secretion of hormone gastrin which promotes secretion of HCl pepsinogen

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48

Intestinal phase

inhibitory effects from small intestine which slows gastric secretion to regulate emptying

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49

What are digested in the stomach?

carbs and protein

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50

What can be absorbed in the stomach?

ethyl alcohol and aspirin can be but not food or water

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51

What does the food mix with in the duodenum?

small intestine secretions, exocrine secretions, and liver secretions from bile ducts

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52

What does the biliary system contain?

liver, gallbladder, and associated ducts

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53

Proteolytic enzymes

digest proteins into small peptide chains and amino acids

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54

Pancreatic amylase

digests polysaccharides into disaccharides

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55

Pancreatic lipase

only secretion to digest fat

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56

Aqueous alkaline secretion

neutralizes chyme and promotes pancreatic enzyme action

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57

What are the functional parts of the small intestine?

duodenum, jejunum and ileum

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58

Duodenum

does a lot of the digestion and absorption

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59

Jejunum and ileum

finishes the process and aids in mixing

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60

Segmentation of duodenum

initiated by distension from chyme

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61

Segmentation of ileum

result of gastrin secretion from chyme goes into stomach

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62

Migrating motility complex

when segmentation stops between meals and occurs after most absorption has occurred

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63

Aqueous salt and mucus solution

provides lubrication and protection and provides H2O for hydrolysis

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64

Na+ absorption

passive in between epithelial cells and active through epithelial cells

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Vitamin absorption

mostly passive absorption

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Electrolyte absorption

iron and calcium absorption are regulated

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67

Carb and protein absorption

absorbed via secondary active transport into cells

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68

Fat absorption

passively absorbed through micelles

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69

Functional parts of the large intestine

cecum, colon, appendix, and rectum

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70

Haustral contractions

slow mixing movements which shuffle contents back and forth

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71

Mass movements

happens 3-4 times a day usually after meals where parts of the colon contract simultaneously

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72

Anabolism

synthesis of larger macromolecules from smaller monomers which requires energy input

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73

Catabolism

breakdown of macromolecules into monomers though hydrolysis and oxidation after anabolism if needed

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Energy input

comes from ingested food and is released when molecule bonds are broken

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Energy output

comes from the use of energy either through internal work or external work

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External work

energy used to produce mechanical work

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Internal work

activities necessary to sustain life

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78

Essential nutrients only in food

amino acids, fatty acids, vitamin D and vitamin C

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79

What stimulates hunger?

neuropeptide

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80

What suppresses appetite?

melanocortins

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81

Alpha cells

glucagon

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82

Beta cells

insulin

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83

What are the functional glands of the endocrine system?

pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads, thymus

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84

Where do non-polar hormones bind to?

can pass through plasma membrane and bind to the receptor within the organ

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85

Where to polar hormones bind to?

induce response through secondary messengers and bind to receptors on target organs

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86

What is hormone secretion tightly regulated by?

negative feedback control, neuroendocrine reflexes, and circadian rhythm

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87

Permissiveness

one hormone must be present in order for another hormone to be affective

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Synergism

complementary actions of several hormones boosts their effects

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89

Antagonism

one hormone reduces the effects of another

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90

Posterior pituitary

functional and anatomically an extension of the hypothalamus which doesn’t produce hormones but stores vasopressin and oxytocin

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91

Vasopressin

conserves water from nephrons and minimally controls arterial contraction

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Oxytocin

contract uterine smooth muscle and promotes ejection of milk

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93

Anterior pituitary

synthesizes hormones

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94

Growth hormone

responsible for regulating body growth and metabolic actions

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95

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

stimulates release of cortisol by the adrenal cortex

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96

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

aids in control of sex hormone release and ovulation in females

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Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

aids in regulation of gamete production and reproductive function

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98

Prolactin

enhances breast development and lactation in females

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99

Thyroid hormone

regulates metabolic rate and calorigenic effect

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100

Parathryoid glands

secrete calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

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