AP PSYCH MID TERM

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What term describes the after-image effect and how we cannot simultaneously detect opposing colors such as red and green, blue and yellow, or black and white?

1 / 391

Tags and Description

kms

392 Terms

1

What term describes the after-image effect and how we cannot simultaneously detect opposing colors such as red and green, blue and yellow, or black and white?

Opponent-process theory

New cards
2

What term describes feeling discomfort over getting close to others and using evading strategies to maintain distance?

Insecure avoidant attachment

New cards
3

What process requires ten times the brainpower devoted to hearing and uses 30% of the cortex?

Facial recognition

New cards
4

Respectively, what term describes the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body and what term describes an extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles?

Dendrite, axon

New cards
5

As the years pass, what type of memory begins to decline, especially for meaningless information, but what type of memory remains strong?

Recall, recognition

New cards
6

Approximately how many times larger is a woman's mature egg than that of one of the 200 million sperm released by a male?

85,000

New cards
7

What term describes people's ideas about their own and other's feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict?

Theory of mind

New cards
8

Long pauses, fast talking, hesitations, few examples, rise in voice, answering a question with a question, and lack of eye contact are all indicators of what?

lies

New cards
9

Most of today's psychologists view what is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed, is not environmentally influenced, and is our enduring sexual attraction toward members of our own sex, the other sex, or both sexes?

Sexual orientation

New cards
10

Jean Piaget, who revolutionized our understanding of children's minds and believed our minds develop through a series of stages, assigned what term to the idea that our mind develops by the building of concepts that organize and interpret information?

Schema

New cards
11

What we see as visible light is just a thin slice of the whole spectrum of what type of energy, ranging from short gamma waves to long radio transmission waves?

Electromagnetic

New cards
12

Respectively, what term describes an 8 month-old child's emerging ability to evaluate people as unfamiliar and possibly threatening and what term describes a 12 month-old child's powerful survival impulse that keeps them close to their caregivers?

Stranger anxiety, attachment

New cards
13

Short of abstinence, what is the surest strategy for preventing pregnancy and greatly decreasing bacterial STIs and HIV?

Condoms

New cards
14

As a child's brain develops, what grows more numerous and complex?

Neural connections

New cards
15

In what two respective stages of Piaget's stages of cognitive development do children represent things with words but lack logical reasoning, while in another stage they can think logically about concrete things?

Preoperational, concrete operational

New cards
16

What term describes the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive stimulus energies from our environment?

Sensation

New cards
17

What system comprises our peripheral nervous system?

Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

New cards
18

What term describes nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement

Feature detectors

New cards
19

Which disease progresses faster with stress and has become the world's fourth leading cause of death?

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

New cards
20

What term describes a cognitive process that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions?

Critical thinking

New cards
21

What term describes a period of life that starts at the beginning of sexual maturity and ends with the social achievement of independent adult status?

Adolsecence

New cards
22

Children tend to adopt the cultural styles, accents, slang, and attitudes from whom?

Peers

New cards
23

Respectively, what term describes a procedure where the participant as well as the research assistant collecting data does not know who is receiving treatment and what term describes the effect a participant might have on a study if they have symptom relief because they think they are receiving treatment?

Double-blind, placebo effect

New cards
24

What term is also known as the "I knew it all along phenomenon"?

Hindsight bias

New cards
25

What affects cancer growth by weakening the body's natural defenses against a few proliferating, malignant cells?

Stress

New cards
26

What do researchers aim to test by intentionally creating controlled, artificial environments in the lab?

Theoretical principles

New cards
27

For those with individual brains, when a person performs a perceptual task, activity increases in which hemisphere of the brain?

Right

New cards
28

What term describes the brain's ability to change especially during childhood by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience?

Plasticity

New cards
29

What term describes the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling recognition of meaningful events?

Perception

New cards
30

What term describes our ability to perceive an object as having a constant lightness even when the light cast upon it changes?

Brightness constancy

New cards
31

The overriding principle that "everything __________ is simultaneously biological" leads us to further explore the significance of the biological revolution.

Psychological

New cards
32

You see with what as much as you see with your eyes?

Brain

New cards
33

Of these two monocular descriptions, what term describes parallel lines that appear to converge with the distance and what term describes that nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes?

Linear perspective, light and shadow

New cards
34

What is the starting point of any science?

Description

New cards
35

The knowledge of physiological and psychological processes of what gives researchers a better understanding of the similar biological processes of humans?

Mice and dogs

New cards
36

When adolescents achieve the intellectual summit Jean Piaget called what, they apply abstract reasoning tools to the world around them and may think about what is ideally possible and compare it to their imperfect reality?

Formal operational

New cards
37

What term describes the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role?

Gender typing

New cards
38

What term describes science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base?

Basic research

New cards
39

Once we have formed a wrong perception about reality, we then have more difficulty seeing what?

Reality, truth

New cards
40

While men are attracted to women with youthful appearances, women are attracted to men who seem mature, dominant, bold, and affluent because it connotes a capacity to be a good dad and to do what?

Support and protect

New cards
41

What term describes a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm?

Refractory period

New cards
42

What term describes a person's sense of being male or female?

Gender identity

New cards
43

What term enables us to estimate an object's distance from us and also see an object in three dimensions even though the image that strikes the retina is in two dimensions?

Depth perception

New cards
44

What is a motive in the reading that reveals the interplay between a physiological "push" (nature) and a cognitive or cultural "pull" (nurture)?

All answers are correct

New cards
45

What is the most persistent issue of modern psychology?

Nature verses nurture

New cards
46

What triggers a pruning process, in which unused pathways weaken and heavily used ones strengthen?

Experiences

New cards
47

What term states that for an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage, not a constant minimum amount?

Weber's law

New cards
48

Respectively, what organ's response to hunger is to secrete insulin which opens cell doors and lets glucose (blood sugar) in where the cells then convert it into energy to use right then or store it to use later and what part of the brain performs various body maintenance functions due to blood vessels allowing it to respond to our current blood chemistry?

Pancreas, hypothalamus

New cards
49

What term describes a scientific study that aims to solve practical problems?

Applied research

New cards
50

What is one of the oldest research methods and hopes to reveal universal principles, but can mislead us with atypical people?

Case study

New cards
51

What seems mostly to have strengthened our connections with people we already know but can also decrease neighborliness and be a gigantic time- and attention-sucking diversion?

Social networking

New cards
52

What is the emotional control center shortcut that bypasses the cortex and enables our lightning quick emotional response and makes it easier for our feelings to overrule our thinking?

Amygdala

New cards
53

What type of siblings are the most behaviorally similar in their outgoingness and emotional instability?

Identical twins (monozygotic)

New cards
54

What term does not describe how you feel about who you are, but does describe the understanding of who you are and answers the question, "who am I?"

Self-concept

New cards
55

There is no major impact of maternal employment on children's development as long as what is consistent with warm relationships and based on trust?

Childcare

New cards
56

What term describes the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health?

Psychoneuroimmunology

New cards
57

What is less a set of findings than a way of asking and answering questions?

Psychology

New cards
58

Our flawed intuition and after-the-fact common sense makes things seem so obvious that we become very what?

Overconfident

New cards
59

Most people incorrectly presume that what declines in late adulthood despite evidence showing older adults have enhanced emotional control, are more attentive to positive news, have fewer problematic social relationships, and experience less anger, stress, and worry?

Happiness

New cards
60

What term describes high-level mental processes that construct perceptions by filtering information through our experience and expectations?

Top-down processing

New cards
61

The brain's wrinkled cerebral cortex and underlying cerebrum, which together encompass 85% of the brain's weight, would be roughly the size of what if flattened?

A large pizza

New cards
62

What term describes that the right and left hemisphere of the brain regulate different functions?

Lateralization

New cards
63

What pragmatic Harvard professor admitted Mary Calkins in 1890 into his class which caused all the other students to drop?

William James

New cards
64

What is the approximate size of mature egg released by a woman's ovary?

A period

New cards
65

What term describes an automatic inborn response to a sensory stimulus but is not a spontaneous response?

Reflex

New cards
66

What is the female sex hormone that directs physical development during puberty and slightly increases sexual drive during ovulation?

Estrogen

New cards
67

What type of wavelength would describe bluish colors or high-pitched sounds?

Short wavelength

New cards
68

Respectively, what is your body's way of telling you that something has gone wrong and what is an especially effective way to activate pain-inhibiting circuits and increase your tolerance of physical suffering?

Pain, distraction

New cards
69

What term describes a person who provides psychotherapy and can prescribe drugs to treat psychological disorders?

Psychiatrists

New cards
70

Psychiatrists

Aggression

New cards
71

What term describes the idea that we learn social behaviors by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished?

Social learning theory

New cards
72

What is a predictor of teens who delay the initiation of sex?

All answers are correct

New cards
73

Respectively, what transfers nutrients, oxygen, and harmful agents from the mother to the fetus and what term describes chemicals and viruses that can reach the fetus during prenatal development and cause harm?

Placenta, teratogens

New cards
74

What term describes the developing human organism from two weeks after fertilization through the 2nd month?

Embryo

New cards
75

Including the adjustment period and the time when he was comfortable in his surroundings, how long did psychologist Stratton wear optical headgear that made him the first to experience right side up retinal images?

8 days

New cards
76

What term describes a statement of exact procedures used in a research study?

Operational definitions

New cards
77

Respectively, what term describes the distance from one wave peak to the next wave peak and determines the hue (color) we experience and what term describes the number of complete wavelengths that can pass a point in a given time?

Wavelength, frequency

New cards
78

What principle describes the relationship between arousal and performance and suggested that moderate arousal leads to optimal performance?

Yerkes-Dodson law

New cards
79

Which Greek philosopher foreshadowed later thinkers who believed nurture shapes us more than nature?

Aristotle

New cards
80

Researcher Hall discerned that women generally surpass men at reading what?

Emotional cues

New cards
81

Short-lived stressors can motivate us to conquer problems and have other positive effects if they are perceived as what?

Challenge

New cards
82

Respectively, what division of the autonomic nervous system arouses us for action and is also measured by a lie detector and what division of the autonomic nervous system calms the body and conserves its energy?

Sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system

New cards
83

Name in the following order the three functions of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary movements, registers body sensations, and is involved in higher mental functions?

Motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, association areas

New cards
84

Researcher Vaillant's conclusion after longitudinally studying 238 men for over 70 years was, "the only thing that really matters in life is your ______________."

Relationships

New cards
85

Of these two monocular descriptions, what term describes that we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away and what term describes that as we move, objects that are actually stationary may appear to move?

Relative height, relative motion

New cards
86

What term would explain why fMRI scans show that teen drivers talking or texting on cell phones have a 37% decrease in brain activity in areas vital to driving?

Selective attention

New cards
87

Despite the reality that the level of arousal for optimal performance varies for different tasks, we usually perform best when we experience what level of arousal?

Moderate

New cards
88

What neuroimaging technique reveals blood flow and, therefore, brain function?

functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

New cards
89

What comprises the central nervous system?

Brain, spinal cord

New cards
90

What term describes the gap between the lowest and the highest scores?

range

New cards
91

What term describes the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously and contrasts with the step-by-step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving?

Parallel processing

New cards
92

What type of wavelength and amplitude would describe dull reddish colors or low-pitched soft sounds?

Long wavelength, small amplitude

New cards
93

Respectively, what term describes stimuli below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness and what type of an effect does subliminal sensation have on our behavior?

Subliminal, subtle

New cards
94

The retina is actually a piece of what that migrates to the eye during early fetal development?

Brain

New cards
95

In what two respective stages of Piaget's stages of cognitive development do children experience the world through the senses and experience stranger anxiety while in the other stage they can be abstract?

Sensorimotor, formal operational

New cards
96

What term describes a set of mental tendencies and assumptions that greatly affects (top-down) what we perceive and can influence what we hear, taste, feel, and see?

Perceptual set

New cards
97

What term describes our diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus?

Sensory adaptation

New cards
98

Several studies have confirmed that sensitive mothers and fathers tend to have children who display what type of attachment?

Secure attachment

New cards
99

Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) is the body's adaptive response to stress and is comprised of what three stages?

Alarm, resistance, exhaustion

New cards
100

The quote, "knowledge has modified attitudes, and through them, behavior" illustrates that psychology can transform modern what?

Culture

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 214 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 53 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard296 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 83 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)