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large, complex sensory organs in the head
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Where are sensory receptors?
smell, taste, hearing, sight
What are the 4 special senses?
What do you use to smell?
What do you use to taste?
equilibrium in ears
What do you use to hear?
What do you use for sight?
What responds to chemicals dissolved in liquids?
olfactory receptors and epithelial cells
What do olfactory organs contain?
nasal cavity, superior nasal conchae, nasal septum
What do olfactory organs cover parts of?
nerves, bulb, tracts, limbic, cortex
Once olfactory receptors are stimulated, nerve impulses travel through olfactory ______ to olfactory ______ to olfactory ______ to __________ system and olfactory _______
papille of tongue, roof of mouth, lining of cheeks, walls of pharynx
where are your taste buds located?
modified epithelial cells that function as receptors
microvilli that protrude from taste cells; the sensitive parts of taste cells
sweet, sour, salty, bitter
what are the 4 primary taste sensations?
stimulated by carbohydrates
stimulated by acids
stimulated by salts
stimulated by many organic compounds
foods that activate pain receptors
medulla oblongata, gustatory
sensory impulses from taste receptors travel along cranial nerves to _______ _______ to thalamus to ______________ cortex (for interpretation)
outer, middle, inner
what are the 3 parts of the ear?
hearing and equilibrium
What 2 things is the ear used for?
your "ear", helps focus sounds into ear
external acoustic meatus
ear canal, 1 inch long
ear drum, picks up sound waves, cone shaped, semitransparent membrane attached to malleus
what glands secrete earwax?
what is another name for earwax?
what helps keep objects out of the ear?
middle ear (tympanic cavity)
air filled space in temporal bone
malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup)
what are the 3 auditory ossicles (ear bones)?
transmit, amplify, inner
bones ______ and ________ vibrations from tympanic membrane to ______ ear
attached to inner ear at oval window, which vibrates fluid in ear stimulating receptors
following a loud sound, muscles keep the ossicles from moving which protects ear
connects middle ear with pharynx - maintains equal air pressure
change in _______ changes pressure on ear
swallowing, yawning, or chewing opens valves. ____ rushes in making a _______ noise
it's a labyrinth - system of interconnecting chambers and tubes
in temporal bone with perilymph between it and membranous labyrinth - bony canal of inner ear in temporal bonesta
what is the membranous labyrinth filled with?
between the cochlea and canals
interprets sound, in the cochlea
cochlea has a thin bony shelf that splits into ____ compartments?
upper compartment of the cochlea that leads from oval window to apex spiral
Auditory ossicle attached to tympanic membrane
muscle attached to stapes
contacts hairs of hearing receptors
muscle attached to malleus
lower compartment of cochlea, leads from apex to round window
what are the 2 compartments of the cochlea filled with?
in the cochlea between scala vestibulae and scala tympani - filled with endolymph
between cochlear duct and scala vestibulae
between cochlear duct and scala tympani
stiff, elastic fibers
what does the basilar membrane contain thousands of?
Where do vibrations enter at?
scala vestibulae, vestibular
after entering, vibrations travel through the ______ _________ and pass through the ___________ membrane
cochlear duct, basilar membrane
after passing through the vestibular membrane, vibrations enter the _______ ______ where they move the __________ _____________
scala tympani, round
after vibrations move the basilar membrane, they enter the _______ __________ and dissipate at the _______ window
organ of ________ contains _______ hearing receptors on basilar membrane
vibrations in the fluid
what causes the hairs to touch the tectorial membrane?
20 to 20,000
what is the normal vibrations per second in the ear of a young person?
cells send impulse to brain on ______________ nerves and interprets sound
static and dynamic
what are the 2 kinds of equilibrium?
when head and body are still
utricle and saccule
What are the 2 chambers in the vestibule?
what are the hair cells in the vestibule chambers called?
what is macula surrounded by?
gravity causes the gel to move thus telling the brain what _________ the head is in
when head and body move, maintains balance
each semicircular canal is in a _________ plane
What communicates with the utricle at the end of the canal?
What is a sense organ that each ampulla houses?
rapidly, inertia, bends
When head turns _, fluid in the ear wants to stay still due to _. This __ hair cells of crista ampullaris, which sends nerve impulse to the brain.
thin skin, orbicularis oculi closes it, levator palpebrae superioris opens it
mucus membrane that lines back of eye lid and front of eye ball
above eye, secrete tears
collect fluid and passes into nasal cavity
tears contain ________ - prevents eye infections
rotates eye up and toward midline
rotates eye downward and toward midline
rotates eye toward midline
rotates eye away from midline
downward and away from midline
upward and away from midline