A&P Senses

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large, complex sensory organs in the head

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1

large, complex sensory organs in the head

Where are sensory receptors?

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2

smell, taste, hearing, sight

What are the 4 special senses?

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3

olfactory organs

What do you use to smell?

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4

taste buds

What do you use to taste?

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5

equilibrium in ears

What do you use to hear?

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6

eyes

What do you use for sight?

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7

chemoreceptors

What responds to chemicals dissolved in liquids?

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8

olfactory receptors and epithelial cells

What do olfactory organs contain?

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9

nasal cavity, superior nasal conchae, nasal septum

What do olfactory organs cover parts of?

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10

nerves, bulb, tracts, limbic, cortex

Once olfactory receptors are stimulated, nerve impulses travel through olfactory ______ to olfactory ______ to olfactory ______ to __________ system and olfactory _______

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11

papille of tongue, roof of mouth, lining of cheeks, walls of pharynx

where are your taste buds located?

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12

taste cells

modified epithelial cells that function as receptors

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13

taste hairs

microvilli that protrude from taste cells; the sensitive parts of taste cells

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14

sweet, sour, salty, bitter

what are the 4 primary taste sensations?

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15

sweet

stimulated by carbohydrates

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16

sour

stimulated by acids

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17

salty

stimulated by salts

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18

bitter

stimulated by many organic compounds

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19

spicy

foods that activate pain receptors

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20

medulla oblongata, gustatory

sensory impulses from taste receptors travel along cranial nerves to _______ _______ to thalamus to ______________ cortex (for interpretation)

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21

outer, middle, inner

what are the 3 parts of the ear?

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22

hearing and equilibrium

What 2 things is the ear used for?

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23

auricle

your "ear", helps focus sounds into ear

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24

external acoustic meatus

ear canal, 1 inch long

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25

tympanic membrane

ear drum, picks up sound waves, cone shaped, semitransparent membrane attached to malleus

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26

ceruminous

what glands secrete earwax?

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27

cerumen

what is another name for earwax?

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28

hair

what helps keep objects out of the ear?

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29

middle ear (tympanic cavity)

air filled space in temporal bone

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30

malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup)

what are the 3 auditory ossicles (ear bones)?

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31

transmit, amplify, inner

bones ______ and ________ vibrations from tympanic membrane to ______ ear

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32

stapes

attached to inner ear at oval window, which vibrates fluid in ear stimulating receptors

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33

tympanic reflex

following a loud sound, muscles keep the ossicles from moving which protects ear

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34

auditory tube

connects middle ear with pharynx - maintains equal air pressure

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35

altitude

change in _______ changes pressure on ear

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36

air, popping

swallowing, yawning, or chewing opens valves. ____ rushes in making a _______ noise

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37

inner ear

it's a labyrinth - system of interconnecting chambers and tubes

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38

osseous labyrinth

in temporal bone with perilymph between it and membranous labyrinth - bony canal of inner ear in temporal bonesta

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39

endolymph

what is the membranous labyrinth filled with?

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40

semicircular canals

senses equilibrium

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41

vestibule

between the cochlea and canals

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42

snail shell

interprets sound, in the cochlea

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43

2

cochlea has a thin bony shelf that splits into ____ compartments?

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44

scala vestibuli

upper compartment of the cochlea that leads from oval window to apex spiral

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45

malleus

Auditory ossicle attached to tympanic membrane

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46

stapedius

muscle attached to stapes

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47

tectorial membrane

contacts hairs of hearing receptors

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48

tensor tympani

muscle attached to malleus

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49

scala tympani

lower compartment of cochlea, leads from apex to round window

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50

perilymph

what are the 2 compartments of the cochlea filled with?

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51

cochlear duct

in the cochlea between scala vestibulae and scala tympani - filled with endolymph

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52

vestibular membrane

between cochlear duct and scala vestibulae

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53

basilar membrane

between cochlear duct and scala tympani

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54

stiff, elastic fibers

what does the basilar membrane contain thousands of?

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55

oval window

Where do vibrations enter at?

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56

scala vestibulae, vestibular

after entering, vibrations travel through the ______ _________ and pass through the ___________ membrane

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57

cochlear duct, basilar membrane

after passing through the vestibular membrane, vibrations enter the _______ ______ where they move the __________ _____________

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58

scala tympani, round

after vibrations move the basilar membrane, they enter the _______ __________ and dissipate at the _______ window

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59

Corti, 16000

organ of ________ contains _______ hearing receptors on basilar membrane

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60

vibrations in the fluid

what causes the hairs to touch the tectorial membrane?

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61

20 to 20,000

what is the normal vibrations per second in the ear of a young person?

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62

vestibulocochlear

cells send impulse to brain on ______________ nerves and interprets sound

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63

static and dynamic

what are the 2 kinds of equilibrium?

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64

static equilibrium

when head and body are still

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65

utricle and saccule

What are the 2 chambers in the vestibule?

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66

macula

what are the hair cells in the vestibule chambers called?

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67

gelatinous fluid

what is macula surrounded by?

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68

position

gravity causes the gel to move thus telling the brain what _________ the head is in

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69

dynamic equilibrium

when head and body move, maintains balance

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70

different

each semicircular canal is in a _________ plane

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71

ampulla

What communicates with the utricle at the end of the canal?

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72

crista ampullaris

What is a sense organ that each ampulla houses?

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73

rapidly, inertia, bends

When head turns _, fluid in the ear wants to stay still due to _. This __ hair cells of crista ampullaris, which sends nerve impulse to the brain.

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74

eye lids

thin skin, orbicularis oculi closes it, levator palpebrae superioris opens it

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75

conjunctiva

mucus membrane that lines back of eye lid and front of eye ball

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76

lacrimal glands

above eye, secrete tears

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77

lacrimal ducts

collect fluid and passes into nasal cavity

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78

lysozyme

tears contain ________ - prevents eye infections

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79

superior rectus

rotates eye up and toward midline

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80

inferior rectus

rotates eye downward and toward midline

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81

medial rectus

rotates eye toward midline

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82

lateral rectus

rotates eye away from midline

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83

superior oblique

downward and away from midline

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84

inferior oblique

upward and away from midline

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85

cornea, sclera

what 2 things are in the outer tunic?

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86

cornea

window of eye, focus light rays, front 1/6th of outer tunic

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87

sclera

continuous with cornea and is a white covering of eyeball, posterior 5/6 th

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88

choroid coat, ciliary body, lens, iris

what 4 things are in the middle tunic?

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89

choroid coat

between sclera and retina - rich blood supply, pigments that absorbs excess light

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90

ciliary body

many fibers that holds lens in place

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91

lens

clear elastic capsule

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92

ciliary muscles

pull lens tight to see far, relax so lens gets thick to see close

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93

iris

thin diaphragm between lens and cornea

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94

anterior cavity

iris separates _______ ________ into anterior chamber and posterior chamber

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95

aqueous humor

fills the chambers in the iris

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96

pupil

opening in iris

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97

dilates, constricts

pupil _____ in low light, _______ in bright light

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98

retina, vitreous humor

what 2 things does the inner tunic contain?

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99

retina

inside of eye, contains visual receptors

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100

macula lutea

1 sq mm yellowish spot

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