Ap psychology terms

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Attribution Theory

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413 Terms

1

Attribution Theory

the tendency to give explanations for someone's behavior, often by crediting the situation or person's disposition

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2

Fundamental Attribution Theory

tendency to overestimate the impact of person's disposition and underestimate impact of situation

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3

Foot-in-the-Door Phem

tendency to apply w/ larger requests after responding to a smaller request

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4

Zimbardo

Stanford Prison Experiment/Lucifer Effect - Role Playing: People take on the role of what they feel are proper for the situation

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5

Cognitive Dissonance

people change their behavior to avoid looking bad, ie person is against gay rights then becomes gay, he will change attitude to gay rights activist

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6

conformity

tendency to go along with the views and actions of others, even if you know they are wrong - line test

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7

obedience

people tend to obey authority figures; 60% of participants thought they delivered the max possible level of shock

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8

Social Facilitation

improved performance in presence of others; easy tasks get easier as hard tasks get harder

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9

Social Loafing

in the presence of others, people tend to do less, partly because they believe others will do it

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10

Deindividualization

loss of self-awareness and self-restraint, typically in a sense of anomie (mob situation)

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11

Group Polarization

if a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens prevailing options and attitudes

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12

Groupthink

a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionmaking group overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives

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13

Just-World Phenomenon

tendency of people to believe that the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get

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14

Social Traps

situation in which the confliction parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interests, become caught in mutually destructive beh.

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15

In-group

people with whom one shares a common identity with

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16

Out-group

those perceived as different from themselves

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17

Hindsight Bias

tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have predicted it beforehand and may contribute to blaming the victim and forming prejudices against him/her

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18

Prejudice

unjustifiable attitude towards a group and its members

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19

Mere exposure effect

the mere exposure to a stimulus will increase the liking of it

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20

Altruism

unselfish regard for the welfare to others

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21

Bystander effect

tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

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22

Reciprocity Norms

the expectation that we should return help, not harm to those who have helped us

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23

Biological

explore the links between brain and mind

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24

Cognitive

study how we perceive, thinks, and solve problems

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25

Humanistic

study that says that humans are basically good and possess a free-will

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26

Behavioral

study that says all beh is observable and measurable

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27

Psychoanalytic

study of the unconscious, includes childhood and aggression issues

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28

Sociocultural

study of how cultural and political experiences affect our life

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29

Evolutionary

study of the evolutionary of humans over time (from apes)

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30

Developmental

study of our changing abilities from womb to tomb

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31

William Wundt

father of psychology

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32

Introspection

looking inward at one's own mental processes

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33

Structuralism

analyze sensations, images, and feelings into their most basic elements

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34

William James

the brain and mind are constantly changing

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35

Functionalism

underlying causes and practical consequences of certain behaviors and mental strategies - "steam of consciousness"

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36

John Locke

Tabula Rosa - mind is a blank slate written on by experiences

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37

Sigmund Freud

founder of psychoanalysis

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38

Psychoanalytic Theory

all behavior is meaningful and driven by unconscious forces

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39

Applied Research

aims to solve practical problems

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40

Basic Research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

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41

Hypothesis

is a testable prediction, often induced by a thy, to enable us to accept, reject, or revise the thy (educational guess)

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42

IV

a factor, manipulated by the experimenter, and whose effect is studies

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43

DV

a factor that may change in response to the IV

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44

Theory

is an explanation that integrates principles, organizes, and predicts behavior or event

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45

Operational definition

a clear statement of what one is looking for in an experiment

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46

Validity

it measure what you want it to be measured

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47

Reliability

it is replicable and is consistent

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48

Sampling

process by which participants are selected

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49

Population

the amount of participants that can be selected for the sample

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50

Representative sample

take the results from a smaller group and apply that to a larger group of people

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51

Random sample

everyone has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment because the participants are chosen at random

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52

Control

group that does not take part in the critical part of the experimentation process, used as a comparison group

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53

Experimenter bias

the experimenter, either unconsciously or consciously, affects the outcome of the experiment

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54

Single-blind procedure

the subjects do not know to what group they belong

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55

Double-blind procedure

neither the experimenter nor the subject knows to what group the subjects are in

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56

Hawthorne effect

if you know you're being studied, you will act differently than you normally/typically would

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57

Placebo

sugar pill - something administered that has no real affect on the person other than what they think mentally

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58

Positive correlation

as one goes up, the other goes up

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59

Negative correlation

as one goes up, the other goes down

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60

Survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions, or behavior of people in a questionnaire, or similar way of ascertaining information

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61

Naturalistic observation

observing and recording beh in the wild/natural environment

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62

Case study

get a full, detailed picture of one participant or a small group of participants

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63

Mean

average of the scores - add them up and divide by total number of scores

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64

Median

middle score - when all scores are put numerically in order, the middle score

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65

Mode

the most frequently occurring score in the distribution

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66

Range

the lowest score subtracted from the higher score

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67

Standard Deviation

the average distance of scores around the mean

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68

z-score

a type of standard score that tells us how many standard deviation units a given score is above or below the mean for that group

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69

Myelin Sheath

a fatty covering around the axon of some neurons that speeds the neural impulse

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70

Axon

wire-like structure ending in the terminal that extends from the cell body

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71

Neurons

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

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72

Sensory Neurons (afferent)

neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors (nose, ears, hands) to the central nervous system

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Interneuron

central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and the motor outputs

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Motor Neurons (efferent)

neurons that carry incoming information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands

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75

Neurotransmitters

chemical contained in terminal buttons that enable neurons to communicate; they fit into the receptor site of neurons like a key fits into a lock

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Agonist

excite, by causing neurotransmitters to hit site multiple times

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77

Antagonists

inhibits, by blocking neurotransmitters

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78

CNS

the brain and spinal cord

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79

PNS

sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

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80

Somatic NS

the division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles

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Autonomic NS

the part of the PNS that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs, like the heart

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82

Sympathetic NS

arouses the body

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83

Parasympathetic NS

calms the body

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84

Pituitary gland

the endocrine system's most influential gland, under the influence of the hypothalamus, this regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

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85

EEG

an amplified recording of waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface, these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the skull

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86

PET

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a certain task

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87

MRI

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce a computer generated image that distinguishes between the types of soft tissue in the brain

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88

Medulla

connected to the base of the brain stem, controls our blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing

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89

Reticular Formation

screens incoming info, and filters out irrelevant info, controls arousal and attention

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90

Thalamus

the brains sensory switchboard

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91

Pons

above the medulla, makes chemicals involved w/ sleep & facial expressions

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92

Cerebellum

the little brain attached to the rear of the brain stem, controls coordination, fire muscles movements and balance

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93

Limbic System

associated with emotions like aggression and fear and drives such as hunger and thirst and sex (Hippocampus, Hypothalamus, and Amygdala)

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94

Amygdala

part of the limbic system that is involved in emotions, aggression, and fear

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95

Hypothalamus

controls the metabolic functions of body temp, sex arousal, hunger, thirst, motivation/emotions, and the endocrine system the 4 f's

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96

Hippocampus

part of the limbic system involved in learning and memory

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97

Temporal Lobe

at side of brain above ears involved in memory, perception, hearing

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98

Occipital Lobe

lower back part of brain involved with processing visual info vision

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99

Peripheral Lobe

top of brain, discriminates between textures and shapes

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Frontal Lobe

located under forehead, involved with complex cognitive functions

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