Medical Terms Ch.9

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146 Terms

1

aden/o

gland

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2

all/o

other

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3

anis/o

unequal

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4

calc/o

lime, calcium

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5

coagul/o

clots, to clot

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6

cyt/o

cell

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7

erythr/o

red

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8

fibr/o

fiber, fibrous tissue

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9

fibrin/o

fiber

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10

fus/o

to pour

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11

globul/o

globe

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12

glyc/o

sweet, sugar

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13

granul/o

little grain, granular

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14

hem/o

blood

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15

hemat/o

blood

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16

immun/o

immunity

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17

leuk/o

white

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18

lipid/o

fat

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19

lymph/o

lymph

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20

macr/o

large

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21

phag/o

eat, engulf

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22

plasm/o

plasma

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23

reticul/o

net

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24

septic/o

putrefying

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25

sider/o

iron

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26

splen/o

spleen

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27

thromb/o

clot

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28

thym/o

thymus

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29

tonsill/o

tonsil

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30

vas/o

vessel

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31

vascul/o

small vessel

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32

agglutinat

clumping

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33

creatin

creatine

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34

log

study

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35

nucle

kernel, nucleus

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36

plast

developing

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37

poiet

formation

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38

thalass

sea

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39

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

A disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood components, and perinatally from mother to newborn.

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40

agglutination

Process of clumping together, as of blood cells that are incompatible.

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41

albumin

One of a group of simple proteins found in blood plasma and serum.

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42

allergy

An individual hypersensitivity to a substance that is usually harmless.

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43

anaphylaxis

Unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to foreign proteins or other substances. It can occur suddenly, be life-threatening, and affect the whole body.

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44

anemia

Condition in which there is a reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells (hematocrit).

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45

anisocytosis

Condition in which the erythrocytes are unequal in size and shape.

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46

antibody

Protein substance produced in the body in response to an invading foreign substance (antigen).

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47

anticoagulant

A substance that works against the formation of blood clots; a class of medication used in certain patients to prevent blood from clotting.

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48

antigen

Invading foreign substance that induces the formation of antibodies.

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49

autoimmune disease

Condition in which the body’s immune system becomes defective and produces antibodies against itself.

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50

autotransfusion

Process of infusing a patient’s own blood.

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51

coagulable

Capable of forming a clot.

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52

corpuscle

Blood cell.

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53

creatinemia

Excess of creatine (nitrogenous compound produced by metabolic processes) in the blood.

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54

embolus

Particle or mass (most likely a blood clot) that travels through the bloodstream. It can lodge in a blood vessel, producing blockage and causing organ damage.

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55

erythroblast

Immature red blood cell that is found only in bone marrow and still contains a nucleus.

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56

erythrocyte

Mature red blood cell, which does not contain a nucleus.

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57

erythrocytosis

Abnormal condition in which there is an increase in production of red blood cells.

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58

erythropoiesis

Formation of red blood cells.

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59

erythropoietin

Hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells.

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60

extravasation

Process by which fluids and/or intravenous (IV) medications can escape from the blood vessel into surrounding tissue.

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61

fibrin

Insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process.

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62

fibrinogen

Blood protein converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process.

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63

globulin

Plasma protein found in body fluids and cells.

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64

granulocyte

Granular leukocyte (white blood cell containing granules); a polymorphonuclear white blood cell (includes neutrophils, eosinophils, or basophils).

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65

hematologist

Literally means one who specializes in the study of the blood.

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66

hematology

Literally means study of the blood.

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67

hematoma

Collection of blood that has escaped from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues; results from trauma or incomplete hemostasis after surgery.

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68

hemochromatosis

Genetic condition in which iron is not metabolized properly and accumulates in body tissues.

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69

hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb, HGB)

A protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and organs in the body and carries carbon dioxide back to the lungs.

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hemolysis

Destruction of red blood cells.

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71

hemophilia

Hereditary blood condition characterized by prolonged coagulation and tendency to bleed.

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72

hemorrhage

Literally means bursting forth of blood; bleeding.

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73

hemostasis

Control or stopping of bleeding.

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74

heparin

A natural substance found in the liver, lungs, and other body tissues that inhibits blood clotting (anticoagulant).

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75

hypercalcemia

A pathological condition of excessive amounts of calcium in the blood.

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76

hyperglycemia

Pathological condition of excessive amounts of sugar in the blood.

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77

hyperlipidemia

Pathological condition of excessive amounts of lipids (fat) in the blood.

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78

hypoglycemia

Condition of deficient amounts of sugar in the blood; low blood sugar.

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79

hypoxia

Deficient amount of oxygen in the blood, cells, and tissues.

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80

immunoglobulin (Ig)

Blood protein capable of acting as an antibody.

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81

Kaposi sarcoma (KS)

Malignant neoplasm that causes violaceous (violet-colored) vascular lesions and general lymphadenopathy (diseased lymph nodes).

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82

leukapheresis

Separation of white blood cells from the blood, which is then transfused back into the patient.

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83

leukemia

Cancer of the white blood cells. The bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells and these cells crowd out healthy blood cells, making it difficult for blood to do its work.

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84

leukocytopenia

Abnormal decrease of white blood cells, literally means lack of white blood cells.

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85

lymphadenitis

Inflammation of the lymph glands.

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86

lymphedema

Abnormal accumulation of lymph in the interstitial spaces.

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87

lymphoma

Lymphoid neoplasm, usually malignant. Identified as Hodgkin disease or non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

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88

lymphostasis

Control or stopping of the flow of lymph.

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89

macrocytosis

Condition in which erythrocytes are larger than normal.

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90

mononucleosis

Infectious disease, often called mono or kissing disease, that occurs most often in teens and young adults; caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and spread through saliva.

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91

opportunistic infection

An infection that occurs more frequently or is more severe in people with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV or people receiving chemotherapy, than in people with healthy immune systems.

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92

pancytopenia

Literally means lack of the cellular elements of the blood.

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93

phagocytosis

Engulfing and eating of particulate substances such as bacteria, protozoa, cells and cell debris, dust particles, and colloids by phagocytes (leukocytes or macrophages).

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94

plasmapheresis

Removal of blood from the body and centrifuging it to separate the plasma from the blood and infusing the cellular elements back into the patient.

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95

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP)

Pneumonia resulting from infection with Pneumocystis jiroveci.

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96

polycythemia

Increased number of red blood cells.

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97

prothrombin

Chemical substance that interacts with calcium salts to produce thrombin.

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98

reticulocyte

Red blood cell containing a network of granules, the last immature stage of a red blood cell.

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99

retrovirus

Virus that contains a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase that allows it to replicate within new host cells.

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100

septicemia

Pathological condition in which bacteria are present in the blood; also known as sepsis.

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