PSYCH 105 Modules 7&8

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Accommodation

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1

Accommodation

According to Piaget, the creation of new cognitive structures to house new information.

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Adolescent Egocentrism

Adolescent's perception that others are focussed on them, their feelings, and their actions.

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3

Alzheimer's Disease

A disease marked by the gradual onset of impairment in cognitive functions of memory, reasoning, and judgement.

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4

Animism

Preschooler beliefs that stuffed toys and other inanimate objects have feelings.

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5

Anxious-Preoccupied Attachments

In attachment theory, an attachment style of adults which maps onto the insecure-resistant attachment style of infants and is characterised by a constant need for intimacy, closeness, and reassurance in intimate relationships.

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6

Assent

In research ethics, the ability of children to indicate their willingness to participate in research.

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7

Assimilation

According to Piaget, the incorporation of new information into existing cognitive structures.

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8

Attachment

The patterned behaviour and emotional bond one forms with primary caregivers in infancy, which is associated with later behaviour in adult romantic relationships.

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9

Blastocyst

During prenatal development, the hollowed out ball of cells that implants onto the uterine wall ultimately to become the developing organism and its support system.

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10

Cephalocaudal Principle of Development

The principle indicating that development occurs from the head to the tail, or from the top down, during prenatal development.

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11

Cognitive Reserve

A protective factor against brain deterioration built up by increased neuronal connections through life experiences and in the ability to compensate for neurological decline by recruiting other parts of the brain.

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12

Concrete Operational Period

The third stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from ages 7 to 11, marked by increased cognitive ability in reasoning about concrete events.

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13

Conventional Morality

In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the second stage of morality in which a child places value on social conventions, social order, and being viewed as "good" or "bad."

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14

Dementia

Deterioration of brain function affecting cognitive processes such as memory, language, and judgement and includes a range of diseases including Alzheimer's, Lewy body, and Parkinson's disease.

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15

Development

Growth and change over time, including changes that are progressive (e.g. learning to walk or talk) and regressive (e.g. declines in cognitive functioning with age).

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16

Disequilibration

According to Piaget, states in which cognitive structures do not agree with external realities.

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Dismissive-Avoidant Attachments

In attachment theory, an attachment style of adults which maps onto the avoidant attachment style of infants and is characterised by a strong need for independence and disinterest in close emotional relationships.

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18

Disorganised Attachment

In attachment theory, an attachment style of infants characterised by fear and dissociation in wanting to both approach and avoid an attachment figure; may be born out of parent abuse.

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19

Dizygotic Twins

Also known as "fraternal twins," in a relatively rare cases a woman's ovaries will release more than one egg at a time and both will be fertilised.

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20

Ectopic Pregnancy

A pregnancy that results from the implantation of the blastocyte into one of the fallopian tubes instead of the uterine wall.

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21

Egocentrism

Difficulty in children in adopting the perspective of another individual, as seen in children aged 2-7 in Piaget's developmental model.

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22

Emerging Adulthood

A period of development ranging from the late teens to the mid-20s marked by identity exploration, instability, self-focus, and exploring possibilities for one's life.

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Equilibration

According to Piaget, states in which cognitive structures agree with external realities.

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Fearful-Avoidant Attachment

In attachment theory, an attachment style of adults which maps onto the avoidant style of infants and is characterised by a desire for intimacy contradicted by hyperawareness of potential pain associated with close relationships.

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Formal Operational Period

The fourth stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, starting at approximately age 12 (although some individuals never reach this level of functioning). This stage is marked by the ability to think abstractly and consider hypothetical situations.

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Heinz Dilemma

In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a vignette (story) presenting a moral dilemma to assess moral reasoning.

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Insecure-Avoidant Attachment

In attachment theory, and attachment style of infants characterised by avoidance of a primary caregiver upon reunion after separation; may be born out of parental disengagement with the infant.

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Insecure-Resistant Attachment

In attachment theory, and attachment style of infants characterised by being clingy after the parent returns; may be born out of inconsistent parental responsiveness.

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29

Mental Representation

In Piaget's final substage of sensorimotor development (from 18-24 months), infants remember and re-enact situations and events that happened previously without and y ongoing perceptual supports.

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30

Monozygotic Twins

Also known as "identical twins," one egg is fertilised and then splits into separate cells with identical DNA.

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31

Novelty Preference

The preference of infants in looking longer at new information in the environment compared to old information.

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32

Object Permanence

An understanding that objects and individuals continue to exist even if they can not be seen, a development that occurs around 9 months of age.

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33

Period of the Embryo

During prenatal development, the time from when the blastocyst implants into the uterine lining to approximately 8 weeks after conception; the timing during which teratogens are most impactful.

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Period of the Fetus

From 9 weeks after conception to birth, classified as a period of growth and minor refinements.

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35

Period of the Zygote

During prenatal development, the time from conception until approximately 2 weeks later when the blastocyst implants into the uterine lining; a period of development mostly driven by genetics.

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36

Post-Conventional Morality

In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the final stage of morality in which some bases moral decisions on abstract principles instead of societal expectations or the judgement of others.

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37

Pre-Conventional Morality

In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the first stage of morality in which children think of morality in terms of punishment and reward.

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38

Pre-Operational Period

The second stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from ages 2-7. This stage is marked by a child's increasing ability to use symbols and engage in logical thinking.

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39

Primary Circular Reactions

In Piaget's second substage of sensorimotor development (1-4 months), infants learn about the world by repeatedly engaging in actions on their own bodies.

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40

Proximodistal Principle of Development

During gestation, development proceeds from the internal organs outward towards the extremities.

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41

Recall Memory

The ability to recount specific episodes or events from the past.

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42

Scaffold

Cognitive support offered by a teacher to a learner to assist the learner to acquire new skills or knowledge. Such support is withdrawn when the learner can perform the skill on their own.

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Secondary Circular Reactions

In Piaget's third substage of sensorimotor development (4-8 months) where infants learn about the world by repeatedly engaging in actions outside their own bodies.

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44

Securely Attached

In attachment theory, an attachment style of infants and adults characterised by emotional closeness and a healthy level of independence and exploration.

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45

Sensorimotor Period

The first stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from birth to age 2. This stage is marked by learning that occurs through a child's sensory and motor interactions with the physical environment.

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46

Social Clock

Cultural norms and societal expectations about the timing of key life events such as marriage, having children, and retiring.

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47

Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST)

A theory on ageing which specifies that one's perception of time impacts selection and pursuit of goals, with younger adults favouring information-related goals and older adults favouring emotion-related goals tied to well being and relationships.

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48

Symbolic Thinking

The ability to use symbols (e.g. language) to stand for other things (e.g. feelings).

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49

Teratogens

Environmental substances or agents that negatively impact the developing organism during gestation, particularly during the period of the embryo.

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50

Tertiary Circular Reactions

In Piaget's fifth substage of sensorimotor development (12-18 months), infants learn about the world through their activities as "little scientists."

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51

Theory of Mind

An ability that emerges around age 4 which allows people to understand that others have feelings, thoughts, and desires that differ from one's own.

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52

Zone of Proximal Development

In Vygotsky's theory of learning, the distance between what a child can accomplish on their own and what they can accomplish with assistance.

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53

Absolute Risk

The probability or chance of experiencing a specific outcome.

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54

Acute Stressors

Short-term external circumstances or stimuli, lasting minutes to hours, with the potential to disturb an individual's balanced state.

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55

Amygdala

A brain area that responds rapidly to potential stressors.

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56

Appraisal Support

Help evaluating the demands of a situation and the resources available conscious awareness.

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Autonomic Nervous System

One of the central stress response systems involved in regulating epinephrine and norepinephrine responses to stressors and eliciting cortisol responses.

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58

Biological Ageing

The tendency for our cells to become unable to divide or function properly as we become older.

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59

Causal

When a factor contributes to the development of something else.

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60

Challenge and Threat Theory

Distinguishes between stressors based on the balance of demands of a stressor and the resources available to deal with it.

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61

Challenges

Situations in which resources exceed the demands of the situation.

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62

Childhood Stressors

Stressors occurring before the age of 18 years.

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63

Chronic Inflammation

Increased levels of inflammation proteins in the body which are present even at rest and over long periods of time.

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64

Chronic Stressors

Enduring external circumstances or stimuli, lasting weeks or years, with the potential to disturb an individual's balances state.

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65

Content Validity

The extent to which a test captures all aspects of what it is trying to measure.

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66

Danger Events

Circumstances involving the potential for future loss including the possibility of traumatic events.

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Diathesis-Stress Model

Theory that mental and physical disorders develop from a genetic or biological predisposition for that illness (diathesis) combined with stressful conditions that play a precipitating or facilitating role.

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Disease of Ageing

Chronic disease that tend to occur later in life.

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69

Distress

Bad stress which includes external circumstances, internal emotional experiences, and bodily responses that can be harmful, reduce motivation, and impair functioning.

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70

Emotional Support

Expressions of empathy, love, and care when someone is experiencing stressors or high levels of perceived stress.

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71

Entrapment Situations

Markedly difficult circumstances of at least six months duration that are likely to persist or worsen.

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72

Episodic Course

A kind of disorder that involves periods of sickness followed by periods of wellness such that sickness recurs at intervals.

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73

Eustress

Good stress, which includes external circumstances, internal emotional experiences, and bodily responses that can be beneficial and motivating.

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74

Feedback Loop

A system in which the output from one system influences the output of another system by either increasing (positive feedback) or inhibiting (negative feedback).

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75

Fight-or-Flight Response

The bodily response that allows humans and other animals to run from perceived threats.

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76

Freeze Response

The bodily response that causes humans and other animals to become immobile in the face of perceived stress.

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77

Humiliation Events

Stressors involving devaluation of self in relation to others or the sense of self, including events involved in rejection or failure.

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Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) Axis

One of the central stress response systems involved in regulating cortisol responses to stressors.

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79

Inflammatory Response

An immune system response to injury, infection, and to psychological stressors that allows for the killing of any foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria as well as healing of the bodily tissues.

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80

Informational Support

Advice and information that people can give us to change the impact of a stressor.

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81

Instrumental Support

Tangible help that involves something physical that is provided to or done for an individual.

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Latent Virus

A virus that stays dormant in the cells and then reactivates at intervals.

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83

Loss Events

Stressors involving loss of people, material possessions, employment, health, or cherished ideas about the self or close others.

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84

Maximal Adaptivity Model

A model of stress and performance which emphasizes that humans and other organisms are actually highly adaptive to stressors and can maintain high levels of performance even when experiencing underload or overload in terms of the demands of the environment.

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85

Meta-Analysis

Allows the statistics from multiple studies to be combined in order to come up with a summary conclusion about a particular research question.

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86

Mindfullness

A kind of meditation practice characterised by a focus on the present moment and a nonjudgemental and accepting approach to one's thoughts and feelings.

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87

Parasympathetic Nervous System

One of the branches of the autonomic nervous system that plays a key role in regulating the stress response and release of epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to stressors.

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88

Perceived Stress Scale

A questionnaire measure of perceived stress that aims to assess the extent to which people perceive their lives as unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded.

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89

Plasticity Factor

The extent to which people are sensitive to their environment and are likely to benefit from a positive environment and suffer in a negative environment.

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90

Prefrontal Cortex

A brain area involved in higher-level processing of stimuli in our environment. It allows us to increase or decrease out amygdala response to potential stressors based on perceptions of other factors that make the stressor more or less threatening.

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91

Primary Appraisals

Perceptions of stressor characteristics and of how much demand on your resources it represents as well as its relevance for you.

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Secondary Appraisals

Perceptions of resources available for coping for a specific stressor.

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Social Rejection

Circumstances that involve exclusion from a relationship or interaction with other people.

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Stress and Coping Theory

A theory of stress that emphasizes the importance of appraisals of both the demands of a stressor and the resources available to deal with it in determining the outcome of stressor exposure.

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Sympathetic Nervous System

One of the branches of the autonomic nervous system that plays a key role in switching on the stress response and promoting the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.

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Social Brain Hypothesis

The theory that humans and other primates evolved relatively large and metabolically expensive brains in order to navigate the complex social networks in which they operate.

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Threats

Situations in which demands exceed the resources available for coping.

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Traumatic Stressors

Stressors involving a threat to one's own or another's life or physical integrity.

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Trier Social Stress Test

A laboratory acute stressor task that typically involves delivering a speech and performing difficult mental arithmetic in front of an audience.

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100

Vulnerability Factor

The extent to which people are likely to suffer negative consequences if they are exposed to a negative environment.

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